点击我的GIT

Netty源码分析之服务启动

本节主要分析server的启动过程。

Netty是基于Nio实现的,所以也离不开selector、serverSocketChannel、socketChannel和selectKey等,只不过Netty把这些实现都封装在了底层。

从示例可以看出,一切从ServerBootstrap开始。

ServerBootstrap实例中需要两个NioEventLoopGroup实例,分别为boss和work,有不同的分工:
1、 boss负责请求的accept操作。
2、 work负责请求的read、write和处理操作。

NioEventLoopGroup

NioEventLoopGroup主要负责管理eventLoop的生命周期,eventLoop数量默认为处理器个数的两倍。


NioEventLoopGroup

继承关系如下:


NioEventLoopGroup


NioEventLoopGroup构造方法:

public NioEventLoopGroup() {  
    this(0);  
}  

public NioEventLoopGroup(int nThreads) {  
    this(nThreads, null); 
}  

public NioEventLoopGroup(int nThreads, ThreadFactory threadFactory) {  
    this(nThreads, threadFactory, SelectorProvider.provider());  
}  

public NioEventLoopGroup(  
            int nThreads, ThreadFactory threadFactory, final SelectorProvider selectorProvider) {  
    super(nThreads, threadFactory, selectorProvider);  
}

MultithreadEventLoopGroup构造方法:

protected MultithreadEventLoopGroup(int nThreads, ThreadFactory threadFactory, Object... args) {  
    super(nThreads == 0? DEFAULT_EVENT_LOOP_THREADS : nThreads, threadFactory, args);  
}
其中 DEFAULT_EVENT_LOOP_THREADS 为处理器数量的两倍。

MultithreadEventExecutorGroup是核心,管理eventLoop的生命周期,先看看其中几个变量。
1、children:EventExecutor数组,保存eventLoop。
2、chooser:从children中选取一个eventLoop的策略。

构造方法:

protected MultithreadEventExecutorGroup(int nThreads, ThreadFactory threadFactory, Object... args) {
    if (nThreads <= 0) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException(String.format("nThreads: %d (expected: > 0)", nThreads));
    }

    if (threadFactory == null) {
        threadFactory = newDefaultThreadFactory();
    }

    children = new SingleThreadEventExecutor[nThreads];
    if (isPowerOfTwo(children.length)) {
        chooser = new PowerOfTwoEventExecutorChooser();
    } else {
        chooser = new GenericEventExecutorChooser();
    }

    for (int i = 0; i < nThreads; i ++) {
        boolean success = false;
        try {
            children[i] = newChild(threadFactory, args);
            success = true;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            // TODO: Think about if this is a good exception type
            throw new IllegalStateException("failed to create a child event loop", e);
        } finally {
            if (!success) {
                for (int j = 0; j < i; j ++) {
                    children[j].shutdownGracefully();
                }

                for (int j = 0; j < i; j ++) {
                    EventExecutor e = children[j];
                    try {
                        while (!e.isTerminated()) {
                            e.awaitTermination(Integer.MAX_VALUE, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
                        }
                    } catch (InterruptedException interrupted) {
                        Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
                        break;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

    final FutureListener<Object> terminationListener = new FutureListener<Object>() {
        @Override
        public void operationComplete(Future<Object> future) throws Exception {
            if (terminatedChildren.incrementAndGet() == children.length) {
                terminationFuture.setSuccess(null);
            }
        }
    };

    for (EventExecutor e: children) {
        e.terminationFuture().addListener(terminationListener);
    }
}

 protected EventExecutor newChild(  
            ThreadFactory threadFactory, Object... args) throws Exception {  
      return new NioEventLoop(this, threadFactory, (SelectorProvider) args[0]);  
}

1、 根据数组的大小,采用不同策略初始化chooser。
如果大小为2的幂次方,则采用PowerOfTwoEventExecutorChooser;否则使用GenericEventExecutorChooser。
判断一个数是否是2的幂次方的方法,觉得很赞。

private static boolean isPowerOfTwo(int val) {
      return (val & -val) == val;
}

2、newChild方法重载,初始化EventExecutor时,实际执行的是NioEventLoopGroup中的newChild方法,所以,children元素的实际类型为NioEventLoop。


接下去看看NioEventLoop类。

NioEventLoop

每个eventLoop会维护一个selector和taskQueue,负责处理客户端请求和内部任务,如ServerSocketChannel注册和ServerSocket绑定等。


NioEventLoop

继承关系如下:


NioEventLoop

构造方法:

NioEventLoop(NioEventLoopGroup parent, ThreadFactory threadFactory, SelectorProvider selectorProvider) {  
      super(parent, threadFactory, false);  
      if (selectorProvider == null) {  
          throw new NullPointerException("selectorProvider");  
      }  
      provider = selectorProvider;  
      selector = openSelector();  
}

当看到 selector = openSelector() 时,有没有觉得亲切了许多,这里先不管 selector,看看SingleThreadEventLoop类。

SingleThreadEventLoop 构造方法:

protected SingleThreadEventLoop(EventLoopGroup parent, ThreadFactory threadFactory, boolean addTaskWakesUp) {
    super(parent, threadFactory, addTaskWakesUp);
}

啥事都没做...


SingleThreadEventExecutor
从命名上可以看出,这是一个只有一个线程的线程池, 先看看其中的几个变量:
1、state:线程池当前的状态
2、taskQueue:存放任务的队列
3、thread:线程池维护的唯一线程
4、scheduledTaskQueue:定义在其父类AbstractScheduledEventExecutor中,用以保存延迟执行的任务。
...
构造方法:

protected SingleThreadEventExecutor(EventExecutorGroup parent, ThreadFactory threadFactory, boolean addTaskWakesUp) {
    if (threadFactory == null) {
        throw new NullPointerException("threadFactory");
    }
    this.parent = parent;
    this.addTaskWakesUp = addTaskWakesUp;

    thread = threadFactory.newThread(new Runnable() {
        @Override
        public void run() {
            boolean success = false;
            updateLastExecutionTime();
            try {
                SingleThreadEventExecutor.this.run();
                success = true;
            } catch (Throwable t) {
                logger.warn("Unexpected exception from an event executor: ", t);
            } finally {
                for (;;) {
                    int oldState = STATE_UPDATER.get(SingleThreadEventExecutor.this);
                    if (oldState >= ST_SHUTTING_DOWN || STATE_UPDATER.compareAndSet(
                            SingleThreadEventExecutor.this, oldState, ST_SHUTTING_DOWN)) {
                        break;
                    }
                }
                // Check if confirmShutdown() was called at the end of the loop.
                if (success && gracefulShutdownStartTime == 0) {
                    logger.error(
                            "Buggy " + EventExecutor.class.getSimpleName() + " implementation; " +
                            SingleThreadEventExecutor.class.getSimpleName() + ".confirmShutdown() must be called " +
                            "before run() implementation terminates.");
                }

                try {
                    // Run all remaining tasks and shutdown hooks.
                    for (;;) {
                        if (confirmShutdown()) {
                            break;
                        }
                    }
                } finally {
                    try {
                        cleanup();
                    } finally {
                        STATE_UPDATER.set(SingleThreadEventExecutor.this, ST_TERMINATED);
                        threadLock.release();
                        if (!taskQueue.isEmpty()) {
                            logger.warn(
                                    "An event executor terminated with " +
                                    "non-empty task queue (" + taskQueue.size() + ')');
                        }

                        terminationFuture.setSuccess(null);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    });
    threadProperties = new DefaultThreadProperties(thread);
    taskQueue = newTaskQueue();
}

代码很长,内容很简单:
1、初始化一个线程,并在线程内部执行NioEventLoop类的run方法,当然这个线程不会立刻执行。
2、使用LinkedBlockingQueue类初始化taskQueue。

ServerBootstrap

通过serverBootstrap.bind(port)启动服务,过程如下:


bind过程

doBind实现如下

private ChannelFuture doBind(final SocketAddress localAddress) {
    final ChannelFuture regFuture = initAndRegister();
    final Channel channel = regFuture.channel();
    if (regFuture.cause() != null) {
        return regFuture;
    }

    if (regFuture.isDone()) {
        // At this point we know that the registration was complete and successful.
        ChannelPromise promise = channel.newPromise();
        doBind0(regFuture, channel, localAddress, promise);
        return promise;
    } else {
        // Registration future is almost always fulfilled already, but just in case it's not.
        final PendingRegistrationPromise promise = new PendingRegistrationPromise(channel);
        regFuture.addListener(new ChannelFutureListener() {
            @Override
            public void operationComplete(ChannelFuture future) throws Exception {
                Throwable cause = future.cause();
                if (cause != null) {
                    // Registration on the EventLoop failed so fail the ChannelPromise directly to not cause an
                    // IllegalStateException once we try to access the EventLoop of the Channel.
                    promise.setFailure(cause);
                } else {
                    // Registration was successful, so set the correct executor to use.
                    // See https://github.com/netty/netty/issues/2586
                    promise.executor = channel.eventLoop();
                }
                doBind0(regFuture, channel, localAddress, promise);
            }
        });
        return promise;
    }
}

1、方法initAndRegister返回一个ChannelFuture实例regFuture,通过regFuture可以判断initAndRegister执行结果。
2、如果regFuture.isDone()为true,说明initAndRegister已经执行完,则直接执行doBind0进行socket绑定。
3、否则regFuture添加一个ChannelFutureListener监听,当initAndRegister执行完成时,调用operationComplete方法并执行doBind0进行socket绑定。

所以只有当initAndRegister操作结束之后才能进行bind操作。

initAndRegister

final ChannelFuture initAndRegister() {
    final Channel channel = channelFactory().newChannel();
    try {
        init(channel);
    } catch (Throwable t) {
        channel.unsafe().closeForcibly();
        // as the Channel is not registered yet we need to force the usage of the GlobalEventExecutor
        return new DefaultChannelPromise(channel, GlobalEventExecutor.INSTANCE).setFailure(t);
    }

    ChannelFuture regFuture = group().register(channel);
    if (regFuture.cause() != null) {
        if (channel.isRegistered()) {
            channel.close();
        } else {
            channel.unsafe().closeForcibly();
        }
    }
    return regFuture;
}

 

1、主要负责创建服务端channel,在本例子中,创建了NioServerSocketChannel。
2、为NioServerSocketChannel的pipeline添加handler。
3、注册NioServerSocketChannel到selector。

NioServerSocketChannel

对Nio的ServerSocketChannel和SelectionKey进行了封装。

继承关系:


NioServerSocketChannel继承关系

构造方法:

public NioServerSocketChannel() {
    this(newSocket(DEFAULT_SELECTOR_PROVIDER));
}

private static ServerSocketChannel newSocket(SelectorProvider provider) {
    try {
        return provider.openServerSocketChannel();
    } catch (IOException e) {
        throw new ChannelException(
                "Failed to open a server socket.", e);
    }
}
public NioServerSocketChannel(ServerSocketChannel channel) {
    super(null, channel, SelectionKey.OP_ACCEPT);
    config = new NioServerSocketChannelConfig(this, javaChannel().socket());
}

1、方法newSocket利用 provider.openServerSocketChannel() 生成Nio中的ServerSocketChannel对象。
2、设置SelectionKey.OP_ACCEPT事件。

AbstractNioMessageChannel构造方法

protected  AbstractNioMessageChannel(Channel parent, SelectableChannel ch, int readInterestOp) {
    super(parent, ch, readInterestOp);
}

啥也没做...

AbstractNioChannel构造方法

protected AbstractNioChannel(Channel parent, SelectableChannel ch, int readInterestOp) {
    super(parent);
    this.ch = ch;
    this.readInterestOp = readInterestOp;
    try {
        ch.configureBlocking(false);
    } catch (IOException e) {
        try {
            ch.close();
        } catch (IOException e2) {
            if (logger.isWarnEnabled()) {
                logger.warn(
                        "Failed to close a partially initialized socket.", e2);
            }
        }

        throw new ChannelException("Failed to enter non-blocking mode.", e);
    }
}

设置当前ServerSocketChannel为非阻塞通道。

AbstractChannel构造方法

protected AbstractChannel(Channel parent) {
    this.parent = parent;
    unsafe = newUnsafe();
    pipeline = new DefaultChannelPipeline(this);
}

1、初始化unsafe。
这里的Unsafe并非是jdk中底层Unsafe类,用来负责底层的connect、register、read和write等操作。

2、初始化pipeline。
每个Channel都有自己的pipeline,当有请求事件发生时,pipeline负责调用相应的hander进行处理。

unsafe和pipeline的具体实现原理会在后续进行分析。


回到ServerBootstrap的init(Channel channel)方法,添加handler到channel的pipeline中。

void init(Channel channel) throws Exception {
    final Map<ChannelOption<?>, Object> options = options();
    synchronized (options) {
        channel.config().setOptions(options);
    }

    final Map<AttributeKey<?>, Object> attrs = attrs();
    synchronized (attrs) {
        for (Entry<AttributeKey<?>, Object> e: attrs.entrySet()) {
            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
            AttributeKey<Object> key = (AttributeKey<Object>) e.getKey();
            channel.attr(key).set(e.getValue());
        }
    }

    ChannelPipeline p = channel.pipeline();

    final EventLoopGroup currentChildGroup = childGroup;
    final ChannelHandler currentChildHandler = childHandler;
    final Entry<ChannelOption<?>, Object>[] currentChildOptions;
    final Entry<AttributeKey<?>, Object>[] currentChildAttrs;
    synchronized (childOptions) {
        currentChildOptions = childOptions.entrySet().toArray(newOptionArray(childOptions.size()));
    }
    synchronized (childAttrs) {
        currentChildAttrs = childAttrs.entrySet().toArray(newAttrArray(childAttrs.size()));
    }

    p.addLast(new ChannelInitializer<Channel>() {
        @Override
        public void initChannel(Channel ch) throws Exception {
            ChannelPipeline pipeline = ch.pipeline();
            ChannelHandler handler = handler();
            if (handler != null) {
                pipeline.addLast(handler);
            }
            pipeline.addLast(new ServerBootstrapAcceptor(
                    currentChildGroup, currentChildHandler, currentChildOptions, currentChildAttrs));
        }
    });
}

 

1、设置channel的options和attrs。
2、在pipeline中添加一个ChannelInitializer对象。


init执行完,需要把当前channel注册到EventLoopGroup。
其实最终目的是为了实现Nio中把ServerSocket注册到selector上,这样就可以实现client请求的监听了。
看看Netty中是如何实现的:

public ChannelFuture register(Channel channel, ChannelPromise promise) {
    return next().register(channel, promise);
}

public EventLoop next() {
    return (EventLoop) super.next();
}

public EventExecutor next() {
    return children[Math.abs(childIndex.getAndIncrement() % children.length)];
}

因为EventLoopGroup中维护了多个eventLoop,next方法会调用chooser策略找到下一个eventLoop,并执行eventLoop的register方法进行注册。

public ChannelFuture register(final Channel channel, final ChannelPromise promise) {
    ...
    channel.unsafe().register(this, promise);
    return promise;
}

channel.unsafe()是什么?
NioServerSocketChannel初始化时,会创建一个NioMessageUnsafe实例,用于实现底层的register、read、write等操作。

eventLoop.execute(new Runnable() {
   @Override
   public void run() {
      register0(promise);
   }
});

private void register0(ChannelPromise promise) {
    try {
        if (!ensureOpen(promise)) {
            return;
        }
        Runnable postRegisterTask = doRegister();
        registered = true;
        promise.setSuccess();
        pipeline.fireChannelRegistered();
        if (postRegisterTask != null) {
            postRegisterTask.run();
        }
        if (isActive()) {
            pipeline.fireChannelActive();
        }
    } catch (Throwable t) {
        // Close the channel directly to avoid FD leak.
        closeForcibly();
        if (!promise.tryFailure(t)) {

        }
        closeFuture.setClosed();
    }
}

public void execute(Runnable task) {
    if (task == null) {
        throw new NullPointerException("task");
    }

    boolean inEventLoop = inEventLoop();
    if (inEventLoop) {
        addTask(task);
    } else {
        startThread();
        addTask(task);
        if (isShutdown() && removeTask(task)) {
            reject();
        }
    }

    if (!addTaskWakesUp) {
        wakeup(inEventLoop);
    }
}

1、register0方法提交到eventLoop线程池中执行,这个时候会启动eventLoop中的线程。
2、方法doRegister()才是最终Nio中的注册方法,方法javaChannel()获取ServerSocketChannel。

protected Runnable doRegister() throws Exception {
    boolean selected = false;
    for (;;) {
        try {
            selectionKey = javaChannel().register(eventLoop().selector, 0, this);
            return null;
        } catch (CancelledKeyException e) {
            if (!selected) {
                // Force the Selector to select now  as the "canceled" SelectionKey may still be
                // cached and not removed because no Select.select(..) operation was called yet.
                eventLoop().selectNow();
                selected = true;
            } else {
                // We forced a select operation on the selector before but the SelectionKey is still cached
                // for whatever reason. JDK bug ?
                throw e;
            }
        }
    }
}

ServerSocketChannel注册完之后,通知pipeline执行fireChannelRegistered方法,pipeline中维护了handler链表,通过遍历链表,执行InBound类型handler的channelRegistered方法,最终执行init中添加的ChannelInitializer handler。

public final void channelRegistered(ChannelHandlerContext ctx)
        throws Exception {
    boolean removed = false;
    boolean success = false;
    try {
        initChannel((C) ctx.channel());
        ctx.pipeline().remove(this);
        removed = true;
        ctx.fireChannelRegistered();
        success = true;
    } catch (Throwable t) {
        logger.warn("Failed to initialize a channel. Closing: " + ctx.channel(), t);
    } finally {
        if (!removed) {
            ctx.pipeline().remove(this);
        }
        if (!success) {
            ctx.close();
        }
    }
}

1、initChannel方法最终把ServerBootstrapAcceptor添加到ServerSocketChannel的pipeline,负责accept客户端请求。
2、在pipeline中删除对应的handler。
3、触发fireChannelRegistered方法,可以自定义handler的channelRegistered方法。

到目前为止,ServerSocketChannel完成了初始化并注册到seletor上,启动线程执行selector.select()方法准备接受客户端请求。

细心的同学已经发现,ServerSocketChannel的socket还未绑定到指定端口,那么这一块Netty是如何实现的?
Netty把注册操作放到eventLoop中执行。

private static void doBind0(
        final ChannelFuture regFuture, 
        final Channel channel,
        final SocketAddress localAddress, 
        final ChannelPromise promise) {
    channel.eventLoop().execute(new Runnable() {
        @Override
        public void run() {
            if (regFuture.isSuccess()) {
                channel.bind(localAddress, promise)
.addListener(ChannelFutureListener.CLOSE_ON_FAILURE);
            } else {
                promise.setFailure(regFuture.cause());
            }
        }
    });
}

public ChannelFuture bind(SocketAddress localAddress, ChannelPromise promise) {
    return pipeline.bind(localAddress, promise);
}

@Override
public ChannelFuture bind(SocketAddress localAddress, ChannelPromise promise) {
    return tail.bind(localAddress, promise);
}


@Override
public ChannelFuture bind(SocketAddress localAddress, ChannelPromise promise) {
    if (localAddress == null) {
        throw new NullPointerException("localAddress");
    }
    validatePromise(promise, false);
    return findContextOutbound().invokeBind(localAddress, promise);
}

private ChannelFuture invokeBind(final SocketAddress localAddress, final ChannelPromise promise) {
    EventExecutor executor = executor();
    if (executor.inEventLoop()) {
        invokeBind0(localAddress, promise);
    } else {
        executor.execute(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                invokeBind0(localAddress, promise);
            }
        });
    }
    return promise;
}

private void invokeBind0(SocketAddress localAddress, ChannelPromise promise) {
    try {
        ((ChannelOutboundHandler) handler()).bind(this, localAddress, promise);
    } catch (Throwable t) {
        notifyOutboundHandlerException(t, promise);
    }
}

@Override
public void bind(
        ChannelHandlerContext ctx, SocketAddress localAddress, ChannelPromise promise)
        throws Exception {
    unsafe.bind(localAddress, promise);
}

最终由unsafe实现端口的bind操作。

public final void bind(final SocketAddress localAddress, final ChannelPromise promise) {
        if (!ensureOpen(promise)) {
            return;
        }

        try {
            boolean wasActive = isActive();
            ...        
            doBind(localAddress);
            promise.setSuccess();
            if (!wasActive && isActive()) {
                pipeline.fireChannelActive();
            }
        } catch (Throwable t) {
            promise.setFailure(t);
            closeIfClosed();
        }
    }

protected void doBind(SocketAddress localAddress) throws Exception {
    javaChannel().socket().bind(localAddress, config.getBacklog());
}

bind完成后,且ServerSocketChannel也已经注册完成,则触发pipeline的fireChannelActive方法,所以在这里可以自定义fireChannelActive方法,默认执行tail的fireChannelActive。

 @Override
public ChannelPipeline fireChannelActive() {
    head.fireChannelActive();

    if (channel.config().isAutoRead()) {
        channel.read();
    }

    return this;
}

channel.read()方法会触发pipeline的行为:

  @Override
public Channel read() {
    pipeline.read();
    return this;
}

@Override
public ChannelPipeline read() {
    tail.read();
    return this;
}

@Override
public ChannelHandlerContext read() {
    findContextOutbound().invokeRead();
    return this;
}

private void invokeRead() {
    EventExecutor executor = executor();
    if (executor.inEventLoop()) {
        invokeRead0();
    } else {
        Runnable task = invokeRead0Task;
        if (task == null) {
            invokeRead0Task = task = new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    invokeRead0();
                }
            };
        }
        executor.execute(task);
    }
}

private void invokeRead0() {
    try {
        ((ChannelOutboundHandler) handler()).read(this);
    } catch (Throwable t) {
        notifyHandlerException(t);
    }
}

最终会在pipeline中找到handler执行read方法,默认是head。

至此为止,server已经启动完成。

posted @ 2017-05-03 15:31  _1900  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏