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English File(Good)

Posted on 2006-02-12 09:24  店小2£  阅读(4038)  评论(1编辑  收藏

虚拟语气在动词advise,suggest,propose,direct,insist,ask,request,demand,require,order,recommend,command,urge,desire,determine,decide,intend,move,vote等表示“建议,要求,命令…”等动词后的that-从句中用“(should)+动词原形”(should可以省略)。另外“It is + 动词过去分式 + that”结构中,动词仍是以上这些动词,在that-从句中用“(should)+动词原形”(should可以省略)。
1) It is politely requested by the hotel management that radios           after 11:00 p.m.
A) were not played       B) not to play      C) not be played      D) did not play
2) He suggested          to tomorrow’s exhibition together.
A) us to go              B) we went          C) we shall go        D) we go
虚拟语气在表示“建议,要求,命令,主张,目的,愿望”,如:suggestion, proposal, demand, recommendation, request, advice, decision, motion, preference, word, order, desire, necessity, decree, instruction, resolution等这类名词后的表语从句或同位语从句中,用“(should) + 动词原形”。
1) We are all for your proposal that the decision           .
A) be put off           B) was put off     C) should put off     D) is to put off
虚拟语气在It is + adj. + that 结构中的that-从句中用“(should) + 动词原形”,这类形容词有:important, vital, crucial, necessary, appropriate, better, desirable, imperative, insistent, natural, preferable, strange, urgent, fitting, impossible, obligatory, proper等。
1) I don’t think it advisable that Tim         to the job since he has no experience.
A) is assigned      B) will be assigned    C) be assigned    D) has been assigned
2) It is essential these application forms          back as early as possible.
A) must be sent     B) will be sent       C) are sent       D) be sent
虚拟语气在连接词lest引导的从句中,lest作“害怕,以免”解,其引导的谓语从句应用“(should) + 动词原形”。有类似从用法的连词还有:for fear that, in case。如:
He took his raincoat with him in case it should rain.他带上了雨衣以防下雨。
She put a blanket over the baby for fear that he should catch cold.
1) The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he          himself.
A) injure           B) had injured         C) injured       D) would injure
2) He was punished              he should make the same mistake again.
A) unless           B) provided            C) if            D) lest
虚拟语气在would  rather(had rather, would just as soon)表示“希望,宁愿”时,其后的从句中,用一般过去时表示现在或将来的愿望。如:
I’d rather you posted the letter right away.我倒希望你把这封信立即寄出。
I would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday.我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。
但如果句子主语不是对他人而是对自己的行为表示某种愿望或感叹,其谓语形式有两种情况:1、表示现在情况用would rather + do;2、表示过去情况用would rather + have done.如:
I would rather buy a house with a garden.我真希望买一座带花园的房子。
She would rather not have gone to the party.她觉得真是不该去参加那个晚会。
另外还有would sooner,从句用过去时表示尚未发生的动作;用过去完成时表示对已发生的动作的某种愿望。
1) You don’t have to be in such a hurry, I would rather you     on business first.
A) would to       B) will go              C) went           D) have gone
wish作“希望”解,其后的宾语从句中,(1)同时。表示与现在情况相反的愿望,谓语动词用动词过去式(包括进行体),即that主语 + V-ed(be动词用were);(2)先时。表示与过去情况相反的愿望时,用had + 过去分词(有时根据意思要用could have + 动词过去分词);(3)后时。表示与将来情况可能相反的愿望,用would + 动词原形。如:
I wish I were as young as you.(同时)
I wish that he had not made so much fuss about it.(先时)
It was wished that they would make greater progress.(后时)
1) Sometimes I wish I       in a different time and a different place.
A) be living      B) were living         C) would live     D) would have lived
2) I wish I         longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.
A) could have slept    B) slept         C) might have slept      D) have slept
3) Jack wishes that he        business instead of history when he was in university.
A) had studied    B) study               C) studied        D) had been studying
if only作“要是……就好了”解,相当于“How I wish + 宾语从句”,它引导的感叹句中,(1)表示与现在事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用过去式;(2)表示将来不大可能实现的愿望用would/could +动词原形;(3)与过去事实相反用过去完成式。
1) Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I        your advice.
A) follow         B) had followed         C) would follow    D) have followed
2) If only the committee      the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible.
A) approve        B) will approve         C) can approve     D) would approve
It is (high/about) time (that)…作“(早)该是…的时候了”解,后跟句子中的谓语动词用过去式。
It is (has been) … since…后跟句子中的谓语动词用过去式。
This is the first (second) time that …后跟句子中的谓语动词用现在完成时 (have done)。
1) “You are very selfish. It is high time you         that you are not the most important person in the world.” Edgar said to his boss angrily.
A) realized       B) have realized        C) realize         D) should realize
2) It is already 5:00 p.m. now. Don’t you think it’s about time         ?
A) we are going home    B) we go home     C) we went home    D) we can go home
 If条件句 主句   
与现在事实相反 动词过去式(be动词一般都用were) should, would, could, might + 动词原形   
与过去事实相反 had + 动词过去分词 should, would, could, might + have + 动词过去分词   
与将来时间相反 were to + 动词原形
should + 动词原形 should, would, could, might + 动词原形 
当if从句中有were, had, should这样的助动词或情态动词时,可以省略if, 用主语倒装形式。
1) Had he worked harder, he       the exams.
A) must have got through              B) would have got through
C) would get through                  D) could get through
2) The millions of calculations involved, had they been done by hand,      all practical value by the time they were finished.
A) had lost      B) would lose        C) would have lost     D) should have lost
3) If the whole operation        beforehand, a great deal of time and money would have been lost.
A) was not planned                   B) has not been planned
C) were not planned                  D) had not been planned
有时假设的情况不是以条件从句的形式表示出来的,而是通过介词或介词短语,如:with, without, but for, but that(假使不…,要不是…), save that, except for等,或由连词but, or,副词otherwise, only等或通过上下文以及其他形式表现出来。
1) We didn’t know his telephone number, otherwise we         him.
A) would have telephoned             B) must have telephoned
C) would telephone                   D) had telephoned
If it (be) nor for是常见的虚拟条件句,意思是“要不是…”,相当于but for 和without。如:
If it were not for the leadership of the Party, we could not be living a happy life today.
If it had not been for your help, we would not have achieved so much in our work.
Without electricity, there would be no modern industry.
But for your cooperation, we could not have succeeded in our experiment.
But that she was afraid, she would have said no.要不是害怕的话,她就会拒绝了。
It is + 形容词或过去分词 + 主语从句。这类形容词或分词有:essential(必要的), urgent(紧迫的), necessary(必要的), important(重要的), advisable(合理的), asked(要求), desired(希望的), natural(自然的), desirable(理想的), demanded(要求的), preferable(更好的), imperative(迫切的), ordered(命令的), required(要求的), suggested(建议的)。如:
It was required that the crops should be harvested at once.
They required that the crops should be harvested at once.
as if/as though,其用法与wish完全相同。如:
She loves the children in the kindergarten as if the were her own.(同时)
Alan talked about Rome as if he had been there.
She looks as if she would cry.她看起来好像要哭了。

The number of errors was surprising.            (语法一致)
The committee are unable to reach a decision.   (意义一致)
Either my sisters or my father is coming.       (毗邻一致)
There be 句型中,如果主语为并列结构,谓语通常与并列结构中的第一个成分相一致,即取决于靠近动词的那个名词。如:
There is still plenty of wine in the bottle.瓶里还有不少酒。
There are plenty of books on the shelf.书架上有多书。
be动词还可以与情态动词或其他动词连用,there may be, there can be, there must be, there seems to be, there appears to be, there happened to be。有时该结构不是用的动词be, 而是用了表示状态的其他动词,如there exit, there stand, there remain等。
1) There is a sausage, two oranges and a piece of these on the table.
2) There is food and drink enough for everyone.
3) The owner and editor of the newspaper         the conference.
A) were attending     B) were to attend     C) is to attend       D) are to attend
1)      of the two books holds the opinion that the danger of unclear war is increasing.
A) None               B) Either             C) Both               D) Neither
解析:none只能用于三者或三者以上的否定,而either 应与or连用,both可用于二者的肯定情况,但其后的谓语应用复数。
2) Neither of the young men who had applied for a position in the university      .
A) has been accepted  B) have been accepted   C) was accepted    D) were accepted
l 集合名l 词作主语,l 如表示整体概念则用单数谓语形式,l 如表示成员则用复l 数谓语形式。这类名l 词有:army, audience, class, club, committee, company, crowd, couple, family, group, government, jury, party, personnel, staff, team, union, public等。如:
    The football team consists of 20 players.这个足球队由20名成员组成。
The football team are having a bath now. 足球队员们正在洗澡。
有些集合名词如:cattle, folk, militia, people, police, poultry, youth等,总是跟复数动词形式。如:
The police have caught the murderer. 警察抓住了凶手。
单复数形式的名词作主语,要根据意义来决定谓语的形式。常见的名词有:aircraft, deer, fish, means, sheep, species, series, works, crossroads, headquarters等。如:
The species of fish are numerous.鱼的种类繁多。
This species of rose is very rare.这种玫瑰花很稀罕。
The United States was founded in 1776. 美国成立于1776年。
“the + 形容词”作主语,如表示一类可数的人或事物时,用复数谓语,如表示一类不可数的事物时,用单数。如:
The old are well looked after by the government.政府对老年人照顾得很好。
The agreeable is not always the useful.好看的不一定实用。
表示成双成对的东西的名词,若被a pair of修饰,要求接单数谓语形式;否则,用复数谓语形式。如:
These trousers are made in Shanghai.这些裤子是上海生产的。
This pair of trousers is made in Shanghai.这条裤是上海生产的。
l 用“and”连接的两个名l 词作主语,l 如果指同l 一个人或物时,l 用单数形式,l 如果指l 不同l 的或物,l 则用复l 数形式。如:
The secretary and manager was present at the meeting.
The secretary and the manager were present at the meeting.
Both the secretary and manager have agreed to be present.
如果主语是and连接的两个单数名词,前面如有each, every, many a, no等修饰时,谓语用单数形式。如:
During the holidays, every train and steamboat was crowded.
No teacher and no student is admitted.
Many a boy and many a girl has seen this painting.
单数名词 + with, along, with, together, with, combined with, as well as, rather than等所跟的名词作主语时,谓语仍用单数形式。如:
Tome as well as two of his classmates was invited to the party.
Dr. Smith, together with his wife and two sons, is to arrive on the evening flight.
由or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also等连接的名词或代词作主语时,谓语要与邻近的主语一致。如:
Neither I nor he is to blame.我和他俩都不该受责备。
One or two friends are coming this evening.今天晚上有一两个朋友要来。
all, half, most, none, some以及the remainder (of), the rest (of), plenty (of)等代词作主语时,其主谓语单、复数形式要根据它们所代替的词的含义来确定。如:
Most of his spare time was spent in reading.他的大部分业余时间都花在读书上。
Most of the houses in this town are new.这个镇上的大多数房屋是新的。
Half of the oranges are bad.一半的桔子烂了。
Half of the food is unfit to eat.一半的食物不能吃了。
both ,(a) few, many, several等限定词修饰的主语,要用复数谓语形式。如:
Both (of) these films are boring.这两部电影都令人厌烦。
由合成代词some(any, no every) + thing (body, one)作主语,由代词each, every one, no one, either, neither, another, the other 作主语,以及由限定词either, neither, each, every, many a, more than one等 + 名词作主语时,跟单数谓语形式。如:
Nothing but trees was to be seen.所见到的只有树。
No one except my parents knows anything about it.
在one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句,谓语用复数形式。如:
This is one of the best novels that have appeared this year.
但在the only one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句,谓语用单数形式。如:
He was the only one of the boys who was given a prize.
在 “代词 + 定语从句”结构中,谓语形式要与所修饰的代词保持一致。如:
    I, who        your fried, will try my best to help you.
A) be          B) am           C) being             D) is
Each one of us who       now living is destined to witness remarkable scientific discoveries.
A) is          B) has been     C) are               D) have been
What you said is quite to the point.你所说的非常中肯。
What we need are qualified teachers.我们需要的是合格的教师。
(6) 数词、量词等作主语与谓语的一致。
l 用作运算的数词作主语时,l 其谓语常用单数形式。如:
Ten plus ten makes(或equals, gives is) twenty. 十加十等于二十。
Three multiplied by four is twelve.三乘四等于十二。
Eight minus three is equal to five.八减三等于五。
Twenty years in prison was the penalty he had to pay.二十年的监禁是他应受的惩罚。
Ten thousand dollars is quite a large sum.一万美金是相当大的一笔款子。
About one third of the books are worth reading.
A large percentage of the wheat crop was ruined by the flood.
由kind (form, type, sort, species, portion, series, quantity) of修饰的主语,其谓语形式取决于这些词的单、复数,而不是后面所跟的名词。如:
A new type of bus is now on show.现在正展出一种新型的公共汽车。
All kinds of difficulties have to be overcome.必须克服各种各样的困难。
a number of (许多),a variety of(各种各样)和a group of (一群,一组)修饰名词作主语,谓语要求用复数形式。但the number of(数目)和the variety of(种类)修饰名词作主语,谓语用单数形式。如:
A number of students are from the south.不少学生来自南方 。
The number of students from the north is small.来自北方的学生人数很少。
倒  装
1) 句首为here, there, now, then; in, out, away, off, up, down等词或是拟声词(如crack, bang等),2) 谓语动词为 come, go, fly等表示位置转移的动作动词而3) 主语又较长时。
4) 当句首状语为表示地点的介词词组时。
5) 句首为only + 副词(only then, only today/yesterday)、only + 介词词组、only + 状语从句时,6) 常用部分倒装。副词only 后接非状语时则不7) 用倒装。如:
Only in this way can you solve this problem.
1) Only by shouting at the top of his voice            .
A) was he able to make himself hear             B) he was able to make himself hear
C) he was able to make himself heard            D) was he able to make himself heard
8) 句首状语为否定词或带有否定意义的词语或词组(如hardly, scarcely, never, seldom, rarely, little, not until等),9) 表示强调时,10) 一般要求部分倒装。hardly/scarcely放在句首的句子要倒装,11) 且有一固定句型hardly/scarcely had … when … did …。类似结构还有:no sooner… than…, not only (… but… as well)。 not only … but also(不12) 仅…而13) 且)连接两个对等的从句时,14) not only后的句子应用部分倒装,15) 但but also后的句子不16) 倒装,17) also应置于句中或省略,而18) 在句尾加as well。 
1) Hardly       the helicopter        when the waiting crowd ran toward it.
A) had…landed         B) has…landed         C) did…land       D) was…landing
19) 含not的副词短语位于句首时,20) 其引出的句子应该采用倒装结构。如:not  until, not/never for a moment, not for an instant, not in the least, not the least bit, not in the slightest degree, not until。还有含no的词组,21) 如:by no means, in no time, under no circumstances等。如:
In no case will he give up the experiment.无论如何他都不会放弃那个试验。
Never shall I forget this lesson.我决不会忘记这个教训。
1) Not until the game had begun         at the sports ground.
A) had he arrived                             B) would he have arrived
C) did he arrive                              D) should he have arrived
22) 句首状语为否定词或带有否定意义的词语或词组,23) 表示强调时,24) 要求倒装。如:few, much/even/still less, no longer, no more, seldom, rarely, never, little, nowhere, hardly, scarcely等。
1)         does he know that the police are about to arrest him.
A) Few                B) Only                 C) Seldom         D) Little
25) 当前面的分句含有否定意义而26) 且后面的分句也含有否定意义时,27) 即用含有否定意义的nor(或neither)连接,28) 用部分倒装。结构为:否定句 + nor/neither + 倒装结构。当前面的分句含有肯定意义而29) 且后面的分句也含有肯定意义时,30) 后面的分句通常采用含有肯定意义的so连接,31) 并采用倒装句。句型:肯定句 + so + 倒装结构。
1) She never laughed,         lose her temper.
A) or she ever did    B) nor did she ever    C) or did she ever    D) nor she ever did
32) 结构so … that; such … that 意为“极为……以至于”,33) 当so 或 such 位于句首表示强调时,34) 前半句要用倒装语序,35) that从句用正常语序。如:
Such was the force of the explosion that all the windows were broken.
So angry was he that he couldn’t speak.
1) So confused       that he didn’t know how to start his lecture.
A) since he became   B) would be become      C) that the became   D) did he become
36) as和be引导的让步状语从句,37) 表示“虽然,38) 尽管”,39) 从句部分常采用特殊的倒装形式,40) “a./ad./n. + as + 主语+ 谓语”结构。如:
Tired as he was, he continued to work.虽然他累了,但他仍然继续工作。
Everybody must obey the law, be he a common citizen or a high ranking official.
1)        , he does get annoyed with her sometimes.
A) Although much he likes her               B) Much although he likes her
C) As he likes much                         D) Much as he likes her
41) 虚拟条件句的倒装式。如果if引导的虚拟条件句中含有助动词were, had, should, if可省略,而42) were, had, should则放在句首,43) 构成倒装句。
1)           for my illness I would have lent him a helping.
A) Not being        B) Had it not been      C) Without being      D) Not having been
44) 在in, out, away, up down, off等副词开头的句子常常使用倒装。如
Up went the rocket into the air.嗖的一声,火箭冲上了天。

省  略
在感官动词feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, perceive, see, sense, watch等,及三个使役动词have, let, make的后面作宾语补足语时
在一些词组:would rather/ sooner… than (宁愿…也不), rather/sooner than … (不愿),had better/best… (最好), can’t help but… (不得不),nobody can help/choose but…(不得不), would as soon… as (宁愿……也不),had rather…(宁愿), cannot but … (不得不,必然), may/might as well…(不妨), let alone(更不用说)等后面时
1) They are going to have the serviceman           an electric fan in the office tomorrow.
A) install         B) to install            C) to be installed    D) installed

强 调 句
强调句型:It is/was… that /who…,其中强调人时用who,强调其他成分都用that。

 主动语态 被动语态   
一般式 to write to be written   
进行式 to be writing --   
完成式 to have written to have been written 
有些词只能后续不定式作宾语,不能接v.-ing。如:afford(担负得起), agree(同意), aim, apply, arrange(安排), ask(要求), bother, care(介意), choose(愿意), claim(声称), consent(同意), dare(敢), decide(决定), decline(谢绝), demand, desire(希望), determine(决心), expect(期望), fail(未能), help, hesitate, hope(希望), intend(企图), learn(学会), long(渴望), mange(设法), mean(意欲), need(需要), offer(提出), plan(计划), prepare(准备), pretend(假装), promise(许诺), refuse(拒绝), resolve, seek(寻求), threaten(威胁), undertake(承担), volunteer(志愿), want(想要), wish(希望)等。(如:ask to do sth.否定式为:ask not to do sth.)
1) He asked       since he had been chairman for seven years.
A) not to be re-elected                     B) to be not re-elected
C) not to have been re-elected              D) to have not been re-elected
有些动词后要接带疑问词的不定式“wh- + to do sth.”。如:ask(询问), consider(考虑), discover(发现), decide(决定), discuss(讨论), explain(解释), find out(查明), guess, know(知道), inquire(打听), observe, learn(学会), remember(记得),see, settle, show(演示), tell(说出), teach, think(考虑), understand(懂得), wonder(想知道)。
1) There is more land in Australia than the government knows         .
A) what to do with         B) how to do     C) to do with it        D) to do it
有些名词、不定代词后可接不定式作定语,如:ability, ambition, anxiety, attempt, campaign, chance, courage, decision, determination, drive, effort, force, inclination, intention, method, motive, movement, need, opportunity, pressure, reason, right, struggle, tendency, wish。如:
His attempt to solve the problem failed again.
the first, second, last, only(thing), best(thing), anything, anyone, everything, everyone, nothing, no one ,something等后面常跟不定式作定语。如:
He is always the first to come and the last to leave.
1) The pressure        causes Americans to be energetic, but it also puts them under a constant emotional strain.
A) to compete             B) competing      C) to be competed      D) having competed
介词 + 关系代词/关系副词 + 不定式也可作定语,如for + 名词(或代词宾格)+ 不定式。如:
I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.我发现他一个人干活是不可能的。
I think it wrong of him not to accept our invitation.
It was wise of him to do that.他那样做是明智的。
1) You will want two trees about ten feet apart, from       to suspend your tent.
A) there                  B) them           C) which              D) where
一些固定搭配,如:be supposed to (应该,被认为,被期望),be reported to (据报道),be said to do(据说)等。
跟不带to的不定式作宾补的动词:see, hear, look at, listen to, feel, observe, watch, notice等感官动词,以及let, make, have等其他动词后面,作宾补的不定式均省去to。如:
The teacher makes us write a composition every week.
在had better, would rather…(than), would…rather than, would sooner…(than), can not but…, can’t help but…, may(might) as well…等习惯用法中,使用不带to的不定式。如:
Rather than beg in the street, he would prefer to die of hunger.
在do nothing/anything/ everything but (except)结构中使用不带to的不定式。如:
Last night I did nothing but watch TV. 昨天晚上,我除了看电视别的什么也没有干。
但如果谓语动词不是do nothing/anything/ everything,那么but (except)所跟的不定式则仍须带to,如:
There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.
1) be said (reported, known等) + 不2) 定式。如:
Shanxi Province is known to have rich coal reserves.
据了解山西省有丰富的煤炭资源。(=It is known that Shanxi has rich coal reserves.)
3) seem (happen, appear, prove, tend等) + 不4) 定式。如:
I happened to be out when she called. 她来访时,我碰巧出去了。
5) be likely(certain, sure, willing, anxious, ready, bound, eager, reluctant等) + 不6) 定式。如:
She is always ready to help others.她总是乐于帮助他人。
不定式还常与in order to, so as to连用,作目的状语;与so(或such)…as to连用,作目的状语和结果状语。与enough和too…to连用,作程度状语。如:
In order to catch the train, he hurried through his work.
He is too young to travel alone.他太年轻了,不能一人独自旅行。
某些动词如:wish, hope, intend, mean, plan以及be等动词的过去式后面跟有一定不定式的完成式,可以表示事实上并未实现的行为。即:过去式 + to have done。如:
I was to have returned you the book, but I was too busy that day.
1) Mrs. Brown is supposed         for Italy last week.
A) to have left          B) to be leaving     C) to leave       D) to have been left
(6) 连接词 + 不定式
1) Everyone had an application form in his hand, but no one knew which office room      .
A) to send it to      B) to send it         C) to be sent to     D) to have it send
动 名 词
 主动语态 被动语态   
一般式 doing being dong   
完成式 having done having been done 
只能接动词v.-ing形式而不能接不定式作宾语的有:acknowledge, admit(承认), anticipate, appreciate, avoid(避免), cannot help, cannot resist, cannot stand, consider(考虑), delay(耽搁), deny(否认), dislike, don’t mind, ensure(忍耐), enjoy(喜欢), escape(逃避), excuse(原谅), evade, facilitate, fancy(想象), favor, finish(完成), forgive, imagine(想象), include, keep (on), mind(介意), miss(错过), postpone(推迟), practice(练习), prevent, quit, recall, recollect, resent, risk(冒…危险), stop(停止), suggest(建议), understand等。(delay doing sth. 拖延做某事;mind sb. doing sth. 介意做某事)
1) People appreciate        with him because he has good sense of humor.
A) to work          B) to have worked       C) working         D) having worked
有些动词只接v.-ing或名词作宾语。如:admit, advise, allow, consider, encourage, forbid, intend, permit, recommend。(permit sb. to do sth. 表示允许某人做某事)
1) The teacher doesn’t permit       in class.
A) smoke            B) to smoke             C) smoking         D) to have a smoke
有些动词词组或短语动词后只能跟动词v.-ing。如:approve(disapprove) of, be accustomed to, be used to, feel like, give up, insist on, look forward to, object to, persist in, put off, take to等。
1) Although punctual himself, she professor was quite used         late for his lecture.
A) to have students                      B) for students’ being
C) for students to be                    D) to students’ being
动名词常用于it is no good/ no use后面作主语,或在There is to need /no point in, how/what about, what’s the point of, what’s the use of等词组后面作介词宾语。在There is no + V-ing结构中,常用动名词作主语。如:
It is no use quarreling with her. 和她争吵没有用。
There is no denying that women are playing an important role in the world today.
1) It’s no use        me not to worry.
A) you tell       B) your telling        C) for you to have told        D) having told
固定搭配:approach to + v.-ing, answer to + v.-ing, solution to + v.-ing,表示“处理…的办法”; be busy doing,表示“忙于…”; have trouble/difficulty (in) doing sth. 表示“做…有困难”。
1) mean to do sth.           意欲,2) 打算做某事
mean doing sth.           意思是……
3) try to do                 设法干(表示未来动作)
try doing                 试着干……(表示动作本身的进行)
4) stop to do                停下来开始干……
stop doing                停止干……
5) go on to do               继而6) 干某事,7) 但内容已更换
go on doing               继续干同一事情
8) remember to do sth.       记着做某事(还没做)
remember doing sth.       记得做了某事(做过了)

分  词
 及物动词write 不及物动词主动语态    
 主动语态 被动语态     
现在分词  一般式 writing being written going   
  完成式 having writing having been written having gone   
过去分词  written gone 
catch sb. doing sth. 表示当动作正在进行时被抓住。适合此结构的动词还有表示感觉的:see(看见), hear(听见), feel(感觉到), smell, watch, catch(偶然发觉), find(发现), notice(注意到), observe(观察), look at, listen to ,perceive等。
1) When I caught him       me I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop.
A) cheat         B) cheating               C) to cheat            D) to be cheating
keep sb. done这类表示“致使”意义的动词还有have, start, keep, get, set, stop, send, leave等,以及表示爱僧、意愿的动词,如dislike, hate, love, like等。
1) The president promised to keep all the board members       of how the negotiations were going on.
A) informed      B) inform                C) be informed         D) informing
过去分词作宾补,表示被动的动作,want sth. done,意为“让别人做这件事”。have sth. done “表示某件事是由别人去做的,而不是自己亲自去做的”have sb. do sth. 表示“让某人干某事”。
1) If you want          you have to get the fund somewhere.
A) that the job is done                   B) the job done
C) to have done the job                   D) the job that is done
没有比较等级变化的形容词或副词:anterior(前面的), posterior(以后的), superior(较优的), inferior(较劣的), junior(年少的), senior(年长的), prior(顺序在先的)。这类词本身就含有比较的意思在内,所以没有比较级和最高级,也无需在前面再加上more,但要在后面加上介词to。
1) Beethoven is my favorite musician, I regard him as        other musicians.
A) superior to    B) more superior than     C) more superior to      D) superior than
2) Germans used to believe that all other races were inferior        them.
A) than           B) for                    C) to                    D) from
同级比较:as + 形容词或副词原级 + as(和……一样地);否定形式:not as (so) + 形容词或副词原级 + as(不及……)
1) Most doctors recognize that medicine is         .
A) an art as much it is a science           B) as much an art as it is a science
C) as an art as much it is science          D) much an art as it is a science
两者之间的比较:more… than结构:形容词或副词的比较级 + than;否定形式:less… than/原句中形容词或副词的反义词的比较级 + than。
形容词和副词的比较级前面可用much, rather, still, even, (by) far, yet, hardly, no, a bit, a little, a good/great deal, a lot/lots, three times等程度副词来修饰。(注意:many不能用来修饰比较级)。more than 前面可用 no, scarcely, nothing, little, hardly, almost, nearly等副词来修饰。(hardly more than不够,不超过; almost more than, nearly more than 几乎超过;as much as 表示程度多达……;more than或more … than 表示“与其说…不如说…”,“宁愿…也不愿”)
1) The little man was        meter fifty high.
A) almost more than     B) hardly more than     C) nearly more than     D) as much as
2) Certain programs work better for some         for others.
A) and                  B) than                 C) as                   D) but
3) He likes doing some reading at home        to the cinema.
A) than to go           B) than going        C) more than going     D) rather than to go
4) Indeed, almost every scientist now finds it impossible to read all the works relevant to his own subject,         extensively outside of it.
A) much less to read   B) much more to read   C) much less reading   D) still more reading
三者以上的比较:the + 最高级 + in /of/among或 one + of + the + 形容词最高级 + 名词复数。最高级前面可以有副词修饰,如:much, by far, easily, nearly, almost, by no means, not really, next, the second/third, but one。如:
Light travel (the) fastest of all forms of matter.在所有物质中,光运动得最快。
1) 倍2) 数 + as + a./ad. + as
3) x times + 形容词/副词的比较级 + than
4) x times + the size (length, width, breadth, depth, value, level, velocity(速度,5) 速率) of /that …)
6) double/treble(三倍7) 的)/quadruple(四倍8) 的) + 名9) 词
10) increase/expend (be, go up, speed up, raise, rise) + by + 倍11) 数/数字百分比, by后表示的是净增加数。Decrease, reduce, drop, go down表示相反意义。
Increase/expend (be, go up, speed up, raise, rise) + to + 数字(一定的量)。
1) The boy students in this school are nearly       as the girl students to say they intend to get a college degree in business.
A) as likely twice     B) likely as twice    C) as twice likely     D) twice as likely
2) She didn’t regret paying 200 dollars for the bookcase. As a matter of fact, she would gladly have paid         for it.
A) as much twice       B) much as twice      C) as twice much       D) twice as much
3) Last year Mike earned       his brother, though his brother has a better position.
A) twice as much as    B) twice as many as   C) twice than          D) twice as more as
4) Between 1974 and 1997, the number of overseas visitors expanded        27%.
A) by                  B) for                C) to                  D) in
the + 比较级 (+ 主语 + 谓语), the + 比较级 (+ 主语 + 谓语),表示“越……越……”。More of a 意为“胜过,超过”;as much of a 意为“称得上”;less of a 意为“算不上”
1) She is         a musician than her brother.
A) much of            B) much as            C) more of              D) more as
not more than意思为“不超过,不及”;no more than为“只不过,仅仅”。
many more opportunities(或far more opportunities)
much more money (或far more money)

altogether/all together
altogether为“完全”(=entirely)或“总的来说”(=on the whole)。如:
He was not altogether satisfied.他不完全满意。
All together意思为“一起”或“总共”。如:
All together fifty people have registered.总共有五十个人登记了。
1) anyhow / somehow / somewhat
anyhow为“无论如何”,“以任何方式”,相当于anyway, at any rate。
Somehow为“以某种方式”(in some way or other), 或“由于某种原因”。
Somewhat为“从某种意义讲”,“有几分”,相当于in a way, rather。
It may rain, but I shall go out anyhow.天可能会下雨,但是我无论如何要出门。
We must find money for the rent somehow.我们必须设法搞到钱交房租。
I’m somewhat tired of this book. 我有些厌倦这本书了。
2) early / soon
都表示“早”,early着重绝对时间的早晚,如:early in the morning(在清晨)。soon 指相对于某特定时间以后的“早,不久”,强调与该特定时间相隔之短。如:soon after midnight(午夜以后不久)。
You should start as early as possible so that you can catch the first train to London.
You should start as soon as possible so as not to keep them waiting.
3) either / neither
either…or, neither…nor。Either用于否定句中或否定词后,表示“也(不)”;neither则用于句首表示“也不”,语序倒装。如:
She didn’t go and I didn’t go either.
She didn’t do and neither did I.
4) entirely / utterly
I entirely agree with you.我完全同意你的意见。
She is utterly dissatisfied.她一点儿都不满意。
5) ever / once
once意为“曾经”“昔日”“有一次(回)”,相当于一个表示过去时间的状语(at one time in the past),因此多用于谓语是过去时的句子中。
Neither of them has ever read this book.(否定句,加强语气)
There once lived a man who had two daughters. (昔日,有一个时候)
6) late /lately
late为“晚,迟”;lately为“近来,最近”与 recently同义,指过去一点时间或一段时间。如:
He is often(或often comes) late to class.他上课常迟到。
They moved into a new house lately(或recently).他们最近搬进了新居。
7) later / latter
later为“后来,以后,过后”;latter为“后者的,后一半的”,常和former一起构成名词性替代词,如:the former…, the latter…。
Later (on), Cary came to join us, too.后来,卡里也参加到我们中间来了。
He spent the latter half of his life in Oxford.他的后半生是在牛津度过的。
8) most / mostly / almost
This is the most interesting novel I have ever read.
She is mostly out on Sundays.她星期日通常外出。
It was almost dark when they reached there.他们到那儿的时候,天差不多黑了。
9) not / no
They would not help us.他们不愿意帮助我们。
We got no help from them.我们从他们那儿未得到帮助。
10) rather / fairly
We know his fairly / rather well. 我们相当了解他。
Tome is fairly clever, but Peter is rather stupid.汤姆相当聪明,但是彼得相当蠢。
This soup is fairly hot.这汤热乎乎的。
This soup is rather hot.这汤太烫了一点。
11) still / yet / already
The guests are already here. But the meat is not ready yet. It still has to be cooked for another five minutes.客人已经到了,但是肉还没有做好,还需要烧五分钟。
12) so / too
It is so(too) hot today.今天天气真(太)热了。
13) so / such
        a(n) + 形 + 名      such a hot day
such    + 形+ 名(复数)      such hot days
           + 形 + 名(不可数)   such hot water
   如用so表示,可以说so hot a day,但不能说so hot days, so hot water。
14) very / much / very much
   I am very happy (pleased) to hear of your success.听说你成功了,我很高兴。
   The journey takes much longer time when the roads are crowded.
   very much 修饰肯定句中的动词。
   I liked/enjoyed that music very much. 我非常喜欢那曲子。
15) very / quite
How are you?你身体好吗?
I am very well.很好。
I am quite well.还算好。

状语从句 连 接 词   
时间 when(当…时), while(当…时), as (当…时),as soon as (一…就), before(在…以前), after(在…以后), since(自…以来), till(直到…), until(直到…), the moment(一…就), directly(一…就), once(一…就), immediately(一…就)   
地点 where(在…地方), wherever(在任何地方), everywhere(每一…地方)   
原因 because, as, since, now (that)(既然), seeing (that)(看到), in that(因此), considering (that)(考虑到), for the reason that(因为), on the ground(s) that(所持理由是)   
条件 if(如果), unless(除非), as/so long as(只要), on condition that(条件是), provided/providing that(假如), suppose/supposing that(假如), in case(如果…)   
让步 though(虽然), although(虽然), even if(即使), even though(即使), as(尽管), while(尽管), whether…or(不论…还是),no matter what(无论什么), no matter when(无论什么时候), no matter who(无论谁), no matter how(无论怎样), whatever(无论什么), whenever(无论什么时候), whoever(无论谁), however(无论怎样)   
方式 as(如同,就像), as if(好像,仿佛), as though(好像,仿佛), the way   
比较 than, (not) as…as, not so … as, the … the …   
目的 that, so that(为了,以便), in order that(为了,以便), lest(以防,以免), in case(以防,以免), for fear that(以防,以免)   
结果 so that, so…that, such…that 
(1) 时间状语从句:
引导时间状语的连词:when, as, while, till, until, not until, before, after以及带有强烈色彩的whenever, ever since等;还有些名词词组:each time, every time, the first time, the time, the instant, the moment, the day,ever since;还有某些副词:directly, instantly, immediately。还有no sooner…than…, hardly(scarcely)… when…。
when / while / as
when可表示从句动作与主句动作同时发生,或先于主句动作。while仅表示从句的动作与主句同时发生,并且有延续的含义。as表示从句动作与主句动作相并发生,所以常常译为“边…边…”。when和as可指一段时间,也可指一点时间。while仅可指一段时间。while也可以用作并列连词,相当于whereas, 接一个表示对比的并列分句。while连接的此类句子放在句首,仍表示并列关系。如:
You like sports while I’d like to read. 你喜欢体育而我喜欢读书。
When they heard the news, they were much alarmed.
While the child was playing with his toys, his parents were reading book.
They shouted slogans as they passed the square.
before / after
Lenin had never heard English spoken before he went to London.
After they had finished their work, they went home.
as soon as / directly / immediately / once
都表示从句动作一发生,主句动作随即就发生,译为“一…就”。另hardly(scarcely)…when和no sooner…than也表示“一…就”。如:
As soon as we got home, it began to rain.
Directly I had done it, I knew I had made a mistake.
Once a beginning is made, the work is half done.
till / until
I waited till (until) he arrived. 我一直等到他来。
the moment/ each time/ the minute/ the instant/ the year等
一些表示时间的名词词组如:the moment, each time, every time, next time, by the time, the first time, the minute, the instant, the year等常用于引导时间状语从句,这时它们起着连接词的功能。如:
Every time he came, he would bring us a lot of flowers. 
1) I had just started back for the house to change my clothes       I heard voices.
as                    B) when                C) after                 D) while
解析:when在这里相当于just at that time,用作并列连词。when作连词的用法常常出现在以下结构中:be doing something when…
        be about to do something when…
        had hardly/almost done something when…
2) A man escaped from the prison last night. It was a long time       the guards discovered what had happened.
A) before                B) until               C) since                 D) when
解析:本句用了It is/was … (time) before …句型。
3) No sooner had we reached the top of the hill       we all sate down to rest.
A) when                  B) then                C) than                  D) until
引出地点状语从句的连词有:where, everywhere, anywhere, wherever。如:
Where there is oppression, there is opposition.哪里有压迫,哪儿就有反抗。
Sit wherever you like.你喜欢坐在哪里就坐在哪里。
Everywhere they went, they were warmly received.他们所到之处都受到热烈的欢迎。
1) I have kept that portrait        I can see it every day, as it always reminds me of my university days in London.
A) which                 B) where               C) whether                 D) when
由下列的连词引导:because, as, since。now that 既然;in that因为;seeing (that) 看到;considering (that)考虑到;for the reason that因为; on the ground(s) that所持理由是……。not that…, but that… 不是因为……,而是因为……。Because表示原因的语气最强,通常用于以疑问词“why”引导的疑问句。所以由because引导的从句一般置于主句的后面,表示主句谓语动词的直接原因;由as引导的从句可放在句首或句末;由since引导的从句通常放在句首,常表示已为人们所知的原因或理由。在it引导的强调句中,如强调的是原因状语,一般要用“It is because(不用as和since) that”。如:
Now (that) you are ready, we’ll start working at once.
Seeing that this problem was settled, they proceeded to the next one.
Criticism and self-criticism is necessary in that it helps to correct our mistakes.
They did the job quite well considering (that) they had no experience.
1)       that my head had cleared, my brain was also beginning to work much better.
A)For                    B) Now                 C) Since               D)Despite
2) Not that John doesn’t want to help you,       it’s beyond his power.
A) but that              B) for that            C) and that            D) in that
3) These two areas are similar       they both have a  high rainfall during this season.
A) to that               B) besides that        C) in that             D) except that
目的状语从句以下连词引导:that, so that, in order that(以便),lest(免得), in case(以免)。
so that/ in order that
两者均表示“为了,以便”。在现在时的从句中,谓语动词常为may, can或will;在过去时的从句中,一般用could或should;might含义比较正式;有时也可用would。引出目的状语从句时,so that最常见,in order that常用于正式文体。另外,in order that引起的从句可位于主句前面或后面,so that引起的从句只可位主句之后。如:
Work hard so that you can (may) succeed.好好干以便你能获得成功。
He cam in quietly in order that he shouldn’t wake up his wife. (=In order that he shouldn’t wake up his wife, he came in quietly.) 他轻轻地进了屋,以便不吵醒他妻子。
in case/ lest/ for fear that
表示“以防”、“以免”。可用虚拟语气,形式为should + V原。如不用虚拟语气,要用一般现在时或一般过去时。如:
Batteries must be kept in dry places in case (=lest, for fear that) electricity should leak(或leaks) away.
1) I was advised to arrange for insurance      I needed medical treatment.
A) nevertheless           B) although            C) in case            D) so that
2) The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he        himself.
A) injure                 B) had injured         C) injured            D) would injure
结果状语从句由so… that或such…that引导。
1) so… that / such…that
The professor speaks so fast that we find it difficult to follow him.
He gave me such good advice that I finished the task easily.
The film was such that everyone was deeply moved.
2) so that / that / so
so that比较常用;so和that多见于口语。
so that引起的从句是表示结果还是表示目的的,除了根据上下文以外,还可从形式上来加以判断。so that引起结果状语时,该从句前面常常有逗号。so that引起目的状语时,该从句中常用may (might), can (could), should和would等情态动词。如:
He went early, so that he got a good seat.
He went early so that he could get a good seat.
由下列关联词引导:if, unless(除非),assuming (that)(假定),on condition (that)(条件是),providing/provided(that)(假若), so/as long as(只要), as/so far(至于), suppose/supposing that(假使) ,granted/granted that(假定)
3) if / unless
You will make progress if you study hard.如果你努力学习,你就会取得进步。
You will never make progress unless you study hard.
4) as (so) long as / on condition (that) / providing (that) / in case
in case 引导的条件从句往往置于句首,目的从句多放在句子后面。也可使用should + V原的虚拟语气。
on condition (that)引出的条件句语气较重。
in the event (that)表示“如果”,基本上与if同义,但一般只用于真实条件句。
as (so) long as 和if only表达的语气比if要重,常译作“只要”。如:
As (So) long as you try, you will succeed.只要你尝试,你就会成功。
I will lend you this book on condition that (=only if) you return it to me before Friday.
Motors will run well provided/providing (that) (=only if) they are maintained regularly.
I case he arrives before I get back, please ask him to wait.
Suppose/Supposing (that) it rains tomorrow,  will you still come?
5) only if 和if only的区别:
only if(只要…)是if的强调形式,引导使用陈述语气的真实条件句,用倒装语序。
if only(有时作if…only…)大多用于虚拟语气,引导虚拟条件句和虚拟感叹句。如:
Only if you study hard, will you pass the test.
If only we had arrived in time, we would not have missed the train.
as (so) long as和as (so ) far as的区别:
You may borrow the book so (as) long as you kept it clean.
As (So) far as I know, he hasn’t much money.就我所知,他没有多少钱。
1) I’m sure he is up to the job        he would give his mind to it.
A) if only                B) in case             C) until             D) unless
2)          he works hard, I don’t mind when he finished the experiment.
A) As soon as             B) As well as          C) So far as         D) So long as
3) We’ll visit Europe next year        we have enough money.
A) lest                   B) until               C) unless            D) provided
关联词为:although, though, whereas(鉴于), considering (that) (就…而论), much as(虽然很…);带有强调语气的:even though, even if(即便),以及带ever的疑问词和no matter+ 疑问词等,as和though还经常采用倒装方式引出让步状语,no matter+疑问词引出的让步状语从句等于带ever的疑问词引出的从句。
6) though / although / even if/ even though
都作“尽管”、“虽然”解。但even if 和even though所表示的让步语气最强,although次之,though最弱。如:
He is unhappy though (=although) he has a lot of money.
Atoms can be weighed even though (even if) we can not seen them.
7) whatever (whenever…) / no matter what (when…)
Whatever (= No matter what) may happen (或happens), we will not change our plan.
No matter where you go (或may go), I will be with you.
1) I’ve already told you that I’m going to buy, it         .
A) however much it costs                 B) however does it costs much
C) how much does it cost                 D) no matter how it costs
可由连词as引导,从句一般置于句后,当方式状语由(in) the way (that), the way in which, (in) the same way, (in) the same way as, according as(视…情况而定), rather than等词语引导时,可表示比较,方式状语从句在be, act, appear, behave, feel, look, seem, smell, sound, taste等连系动词后由连词as if或as though引导时,从句表示的意思可以是真实的,也可以是不真实的,如果表示不真实,则用过去时表示现在不真实,用过去完成时表示过去不真实。
8) as如同,9) 就像
as引导的状语从句时,意思是“in the same manner that…”,可修饰动词或状态。如:
Study as Lenin studied.像列宁那样学习。
Air is to man as water is to fish.空气对如人,犹如水对鱼一样。
10) as if / as though
都是为“好像”,“仿佛”。它们引出的状语从句中,谓语动词常用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反。as if比as though更常用。如:
He speaks English as if (=as though) he were an Englishman.
The patient looks as though she had recovered.这个病人看起来好像已经痊愈了。
由下列连词引导:as…as(像…一样),than(比), not so (so)…as(不像…一样),the…the…(愈…愈), as…so…(正如…那样)。如:
He worked as fast as a skilled worker.(上册P511)
The project was completed earlier than we had expected.(上册P511)
1) Melted iron is poured into the mixer much      tea is poured into a cup from a teapot.
A) in the same way like                   B) in the same way which
C) in the same way                        D) in the same way as

定语从句,又称关系从句,在句子中起定语作用,修饰一个名词或代词,有时也可修饰一个句子。定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导。关系代词主要有:who, whom, which, that, whose, as, but和than等;关系副词有:when, where, why和as等。
关系代词  who 代替人;作从句的主语;可引导限制性或非限制性定语从句   
  whom 代替人;作从句的宾语;可引导限制性或非限制性定语从句   
  which 代替物;作从句的主语、宾语;可引导限制性或非限制性定语从句   
  that 代替人或物;作从句的主语、宾语或表语;可引导限制性定语从句   
  whose 代替人或物;先行词的所有格形式,作定语;可引导限制性定语从句   
  as 代替物;常与same, such等连用,引导限制性定语从句;单独使用,引导非限制性定语从句;作主语,宾语或宾补   
  but 代替人或物;作主语从句;表示否定意义   
  than 有比较意义;修饰带有形容词比较级的名词   
关系副词  when 先行词是表示时间的词;作时间状语   
  where 先行词是表示地点的词;作地点状语   
  why 先行词是reason;作原因状语   
  as 先行词是作状语的词组;作方式状语 

在从句中的作用 代替人 代替物 代替人或物   
主语 who which That   
宾语 whom which That   
定语 whose(=of which) whose(=of which)  

介词 + 关系代词其实是介词 + which/whom/whose这三种形式的概括。which的先行词为表示事物的名词,whom的先行词指人,whose在从句中作定语,限制其后的名词。细分为:
1) 介词 + which/whom
2) 介词 + which/whom/whose + 名3) 词
4) 名5) 词/代词/形容词的比较级或最高级/数词 + 介词 + which/whom
1) It is useful to be able to predict the extent        which a price change will affect supply and demand.
A) form                 B) with             C) to                 D) for
2) The residents,      had been damaged by the fire, were given help by the Red Cross.
A) all of their homes   B) all their home   C) whose all home     D) all of whose homes
3) The goals          he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him.
A) after which          B) for which        C) with which         D) at which
4) Language is a city, to the building of       every human being brought a stone.
A) which               B) that              C) it                 D) this
as 引导的定语从句有“如……那样”的含义,它可以限制性的,多与such, so, as, the same等词连用构成such…as;the same …as可代替先行词是人或物的名词。在the same… as中,as也可以用that来代替。如:
Let’s discuss only such questions as concern us!
This is the same watch as (或that) I have lost.
He is an Englishman, as (=which) I know from his accent.
As was usual with him, he went out for a walk after dinner.
1) It wasn’t such a good dinner        she had promised us.
A) that                B) which             C) as                 D) what
          might be expected, the response to the question was very mixed.
A) As                  B) That              C) It                 D) What
The British are not so familiar with different cultures and other ways of doing things,
         is often the case in other countries.
A) as                  B) what              C) so                 D) that
先行词that 的用法:
6) 先行词是all, everything, something, nothing, anything, little, much, a few, one, none等不7) 定代词;如:
I am interested in all that you have told me.你告诉我的一切我都感兴趣。
8) 先行词形容词最高级修饰;如:
He asked for the best book that there was on the subject. 
9) 先行词被序数词及first, last, no, every, only, few, much, some, any, the only, the very, what little(“一点点”)等词修饰;
This is the first (second, third…) time that…句型中,that从句中要求用完成时态。如:
This was the first time that I had seen the film. 这是我第一次看那部电影。
10) 并列的先行词分别表示人和物;如:
We were deeply impressed by the teachers and schools that we had visited there.
11) 主句以who或which开头的特殊疑问句;如:
Who is the boy that(或whom) you were talking with a moment ago?
12) 关系代词在从句中作表语;如:
This is not an easy question that you think it to be.
13) 定语从句为there be句型,14) 此时that常可省略。
1) These people once had fame and fortune; now       is left to them is utter poverty.
A) all that            B) all what          C) all which          D) that all
2) All         is a continuous supply of the basic necessities of life.
A) what is needed      B) for our needs     C) the thing needed   D) that is needed

即从句在复合句中做主语。引导词通常有that, 选择连词whether… or  (not), 疑问副词why, when, where和疑问代词who, what, which等。
[注:]whether (or not) 可引导所有名词从句;if仅可引导宾语从句,而且不可跟or not。
     What he want is a book.(对)
          It is a book what he wants.(错)
     Has it been settled who will be sent to carry out the task?
It is + 名词词组 + 从句
It is a fact that…         事实是…
It is good new that…        …是好消息
It is a question that…       …是个问题
It is common knowledge that…    …是常识
It is + 形容词 + 从句
It is necessary that…        有必要…
It is clear that…          很清楚…
It is (un)likely that…        很(不太)清楚…
It is important that…        重要的是…
It is + 过去分词 + 从句
It is said that…          据说…
It is reported that…        据报道…
It has been proved that…      已证明…
It must be pointed out that…    必须指出…
It + 不及物动词 + 从句
It seems that…           好像是…
It happened that…          碰巧…
It follows that…           由此可见…
It has turned out that…       结果是…
1)          men have learned much from the behaviour of animals is hardly new.
A) That                B) Those             C) What              D) Whether
2) In some countries,         is called “equality” does not really mean equal rights for all people.
A) which               B) what              C) that              D) one
从句在复合句中充当宾语成分。引导词通常有that, what, whatever, whoever, whichever等。
admit(承认)  agree(同意)  answer(回答) believe(相信) command(命令)
complain(抱怨)confess(供认) decide(决定) declare(宣布)  demand(要求)
deny(否认)  doubt(怀疑)  dream(梦想)  expect(期望)  explain(解释)
feel(认为)  hear(听说)   hope(希望)  imagine(想象)  intend(打算)
insist(坚持) know(知道)   mean(意指)  notice(注意到)  prefer(宁愿)
order(命令) propose(提议)  reply(回答) report(报告)   request(请求)
require(要求) say(说)    see(看到)  suggest(建议)  suppose(假如)
think(认为)  urge(激励)   wish(希望) understand(明白)
常跟疑问代词和疑问副词以及whether (if)引导的宾语从句的动词有:
advise(忠告)  ask(询问)   discover(发现) discuss(讨论) doubt(怀疑)
find out(查明) imagine(想象) inquire(询问)  know(知道) question(询问)
show(展示)   tell(告诉)  understand(明白) wonder(想知道)
that引导的宾语从句,除可和介词in, except, but, besides等构成固定用法外,不能用作其他介词的宾语。but that(若不是…), in that(在于,因为), except that(除了…), besides that(除…以外)。如:
Men differ from brutes in that they can speak and think.
The meal was very good except that the fish was a bit too salty.
I would have helped you but that I was so busy then.
1)By success I don’t mean         usually thought of when that word is used.
A) what is            B) that we            C) as you            D) all is
解析:经分析可看出主句中动词mean缺少宾语,则空格处应填入词语来引导一个宾语从句。从句中的动词thought of 缺少主语,只有what一词既能引导从句又能在句中充当主语。
同位语从句一般由that引导。常以that从句作同位语的名词有:fact(事实), evidence(证据), signs, idea(想法), plan, news(消息), belief, decision, opinion, truth, wish, possibility, conclusion(结论), order(命令), problem(问题), suggestion(建议), certainty(确实的事), hope(希望)等。
1)The mere fact        that most people believe unclear war would be madness does not mean that is will not occur.
A) what               B) which               C) that            D) why
2)         evidence that language-acquiring ability must be stimulated.
A) It is              B) There be            C) It being        D) There being
3) Evidence came up          specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old.
A) what               B) which               C) that            D) whose

体 现在 过去 将来 过去将来   

一般 write(s) wrote shall
will should

进行 am
is    writing
are  was
were shall
be writing
will should
      be writing

完成 have
has had written shall
have written
will should
have written

完成进行 have
been writing
has    had been
writing shall
have been writing
will should
have been writing

一般过去时表示过去的确定时间里存在的状态或发生的动作,也可以表示过去经常发生或习惯性的动作,常与表示运去的时间状语连用,如:then, at that time, just now, yesterday, last week, three years ago, three days ago, in 1987等。如:
She often came to help me at that time.那时他常来帮助我。
过去完成时的时间概念是“过去之过去”,即表示过去的某一动作或状态在过去某一时间之前已经完成或存在,或者表示过去某个时间开始一直延续到过去另一个时间的动作。谓语形式:由had + 过去分词构成。表示在过去某一时刻以前已经完成的动作,常用一个由by, before等介词或连词引导的、表示到过去某一时间为止的时间状语。这一时态,常用于宾语或定语从句中。如:
When I came to her room, she had already left.
By the end of last years, I had worked in this college for ten years.
John had learned some Chinese before he came to China.
过去完成时也常用在“no sooner… than”,和“hardly… when (before)”等句型中的主句中,从句中常用一般过去时。“no sooner”“hardly (scarcely)”移至句首表示强调时,要求用倒装语序。
如:He had hardly entered the office when (before) the phone rang.
Hardly had he entered the office when (before) the phone rang.
1) Before the first non-stop flight made in 1949, it        necessary for all planes to land for refueling.
A) would be         B) has been               C) had been          D) would have been.
2) Until then, his family          from him for six months.
A) didn’t hear     B) hasn’t been hearing   C) hasn’t heard     D) hadn’t heard
3) The last half of the nineteenth century         the steady improvement in the means of travel.
A) has witnessed    B) was witnessed          C) witnessed         D) is witnessed
4) That tree looked as if it           for a long time.
A) hasn’t watered  B) didn’t water       C) hadn’t been watered D) wasn’t watered
解析:as if/ as though引导的从句,如果表述的并非实际情况就用虚拟语气;当表述的内容接近实际情况时则用陈术语气,在这种情况下主句的谓语动词是look/sound/taste/smell/seem等。
1. 表示习惯性或反复2. 发生的动作,3. 常与它连用的时间状语有:now, at present, always, usually, often, seldom, these days,4. sometimes, every day, once a week等。如:He takes a walk after supper every day. (他每天晚饭后散步。)
5. 表示客观事实或普遍真理。如:The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. (日出东方,6. 日落西方。)
7. 在时间或条件状语从句中表示将来的动作,8. 代替一般将来时。如:If it is fine tomorrows, we will go on a picnic. (如果明天是晴天,9. 我们将去野餐。)
10. 与某些具有“出发,11. 到达”等含义的动词连用,12. 表示按计划将要发生的动作。如:The delegation arrives in Beijing this afternoon.(表团将于今天下午到达。)
13. 表示主语的特征、性格、能力等。如:Mr. Smith hates fish and never eats any. (史密斯先生讨厌鱼,而14. 且从不15. 吃鱼。)
现在进行时常表现正在进行或现阶段正在发生的动作,或表示一个按计划即将发生的动作。但仅适用少数动词而且常跟有一个时间状语。常见的这类动词有:go, come, leave, arrive等。
如:He is coming here next week and is staying here until August. 他将在下星期到这儿来,并且一直待到八月。
有些表示感觉、情感、心理状态、所有关系以及特征等状态动词不用于(或在某个词义上)不用于进行时,如agree(同意), belong(属于), have(有), love(爱), remember(记得), want(想要), appear(好像), see(看见), hear(听见), notice(注意), seem(好像), be(是), feel(感觉), know(知道), mind(介意), think(认为), believe(相信), forget(忘记),like(喜欢), realize(认识到), wise(希望)look, sound(听起来), remain, hate等。当这些词转为其他意思使用时,有的就可以用于进行时态了。
现在完成时强调的是某个刚刚完成的动作,或某个动作对现在的影响或产生的结果。常连用的时间状语:so far, up to now, already, just, recently, for three years, since last year, in the past three years, yet, never, before, ever, once等。
1)It is (has been)… since 这一结构也常用于现在完成时。如:
It is (=has been) a long time since they last met each other.
2)This is the first (second) time that… 句型中,从句中常用完成时态。如:
This is the second time that I have broken a cup this year.这是我今年第二次打坏茶杯了。
Is this the first time that you have visited Hong Kong?这是你第一次参观香港吗?
3)在when和where引导的疑问中,一般不用现在完成时(“Where have you been?”
如:----When did you see him? 你什么时间看到他的?
----I saw him an hour ago.我是一小时以前看到他的。
----Where did you buy the book?你在哪儿买的这本书?
----I bought the book at our school book store.在学校书店买的。
      4)含有界限意义的动词,如:begin end, die, lose, find, fall, go,come, join等,以及含有瞬间意义的动词,如:knock, jump, strike, hit等,不能用于完成时的第二种用法。
    如:不可说:He has joined the army for ten years.
应该说:He has been an armyman for ten years.
或者说:It is (has been) ten years since he joined the army.
或者说:He joined the army ten years ago.他参军已经有十年了。
现在完成进行时则强调动作的延续性和延续的时间。表示过从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在的动作,这个动作可能刚刚结束,或者可能要继续进行下去。通常与表示一段时间的状语连用,如:for hours, since this morning…。如:
They have been watching television for two hours. 他们已经看了两个小时的电视了。
1) If she doesn’t tell him the truth now, he’ll simply keep on asking her until she       .
A) does             B) has done            C) will              D) would do
一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态,多与表示将来的时间状语连用,如:tomorrow, next month, next week, in two weeks, soon等。
除shall, will+动词原形构成一般将来时,还有以下表示将来时间的其他形式:
1) be going to do 表示最近打算要做的事情
如:We are going to visit the Museum of Chinese History tomorrow. 
2) be to do 表示按计划要发生的事情
如:There is to be a sports meet on Saturday.星期六要举行运动会。
3) be about to do 表示“即将(正要)做某事”
如:We are about to leave, so there is no time to visit her now.
将来完成时表示某一动作在将来某一时间之前已完成,也多与一些表示将来的时间状语连用,特别是由by所组成的短语,表示截止到将来某一时间,如:by the end of this years, by then, by the time…等。但一般将来时不和这类状语连用。
如:I’ll have done all the work by the time you are back this evening. 
1) By the end of this month, we surely         a satisfactory solution to the problem.
A) have found         B) will be finding      C) will have found       D) are finding
2) Turn on the television or open a magazine and you        advertisements showing happy, balanced families.
A) are often seeing   B) often see           C) will often see        D) have often seen
解析:用“祈使句 + and + 单句”的结构中,祈使句部分相当于由“if”引导的时态为一般现在时从句,根据时态呼应的原则,此时从句中的一般现在时表示的是将来时,因而主句中的谓语动词应该相应的使用一般将来时。 (注意:祈使句后面的由and或or连接的并列句常用一般将来时。)
3)  The conference        a full week by the time it ends. 
A) must have lasted   B) will have lasted     C) would last         D) has lasted
--“May I speak to your manager Mr. Williams at five o’clock tonight?”
--“I’m sorry. Mr. Williams        to a conference long before then.”
A) will have gone     B) had gone             C) would have gone    D) has gone
体 现在 过去 将来 过去将来   

一般 am
is    written
are was
were shall
be written
will should
       be written

进行 am
is  being written
are was
    being  written


完成 have
     been written
has had been written 

  In that case no water would be brought to the river.这种情况下没有水会流入这条河。
Television ads are usually repeated over and over again.
  Her plan has not been approved by the management. 她的计划尚未得到管理部门的批准。
4、含情态动词的被动语态结构,形式为:情态动词(can, may, must) + be + 及物动词的过去分词,如:
   In this sense, bad things can be turned into good things.
  The meeting will be put off till Friday.会议要推迟到星期五。
6、含有“be going to”,“be to”等结构的谓语,变成被动语态时,分别用be going + to be +过去分词和be + to be + 过去分词。如:
   The problem is going to be discussed at the meeting.那个问题将在会上讨论。
   The manager made his secretary work overtime.(主动)
   The secretary was made to work overtime. (被动)
8、有些动词虽然是及物的,但是由于表示的是状态或关系,通常不用于被动语态。如:cost(花费), fit(适合), have(有), hold(容纳), lack(缺乏), last(持续), own(占有), possess(拥有), resemble(像), suit(适合)。如:
   The boy resembles his father.这男孩像他的爸爸。
不可以说成:His father is resembled by the boy.
9、有少数短语动词如:be taken in (受骗,上当), be supposed to do something(应该,被期望), be intended for something(somebody)/to do something(旨在,用于),通常只用被动语态。如:
   If you trust him, you will certainly be taken in.
1、表示时间的介词at, on, in, after, for, since, by, till, until等:
at 4:30 (noon, dawn, midnight…)在四点半(中午,黎明,午夜…)
on Sunday(Oct.1…)在星期日(十月一日…)
on Sunday afternoon(an autumn evening…)在星期日下午(一个秋天的傍晚…)
in the afternoon on Sunday
at (on) the weekend(在周末—特指)
at (on) the weekends(在周末—泛指)
over the weekend(在整个周末)
during the weekend(在周末期间)
A、 时段,B、 时期,C、 在多数情况下可与during互换,D、 前者强调对比,E、 后者强调持续。如:
in (during) 1987 在1987年
During my military service (the trip…)
F、 以说话时间为基点的“(若干时间)以后”,G、 常用作谓语是将来时态的时间状语。如这时要表示“(若干时间)内”,H、 常用within。如:
The meeting will end in 30 minutes.(三十分钟后)会议三十分钟以后结束。
Can you finish it within 30 minutes? (三十分钟内)
after supper(5 o’clock, the war, 1970…)
He will be back in two hours.他将在两个小时以后回来。
He will be back after two o’clock.他将在两点以后回来。
for表示“(动作延续)若干时间”。有时可省略,常用how long提问。如:
I stayed in London (for) two days on my way to New York.
since 1950 (then…)自从1950年(那时…)以来。
He has worked here since 1965.(指一段时间)
He began to work here after 1965.(指一点时间)
by表示“到…的时候”。动作动词常用完成时态;状态动词(如be)常用一般时态。如:By noon, everybody has (will have) arrived there.
By noon, everybody were (will be) there.
He waited till (until) 5 o’clock. 他一直等到五点。
They stayed until (till) after the meeting.他们一直待到会议结束。
Until now I knew nothing about it.直到现在我才知道这一件事。
2、表示地点的介词at, in, round, around, beyond, on, beneath, over, under, above, below, up, down, before, behind between, among, amid(st)等:
The car pulled up at the gate.车停在大门口。
in表示“在…内”。通常指一个(有长、宽、高的)立体的地方,有空间较大的意味。如:They have arrived in Peking.他们到达北京了。
There aren’t any shops around here.(周围,附近)这里附近没有商店。
He is making a trip round the world.他正在进行环球旅行。
They sat (a)round the table.他们围着桌子坐着。
There is village beyond the hill.在山的那一边,有一个村庄。
There is a color TV set on the desk.桌子上有一台彩电。
The submarine can run very fast beneath the sea.潜艇在水下能开得很快。
There is a lamp over the table.桌子的上方有盏灯。
The peasants are having a rest under the tree.农民们正在树下休息。
The plane is flying above the clouds.飞机正在云层的上方飞行。
The sun sank below the horizon.太阳沉到地平线以下了。
Don’t put the cart before the horse.不要把大车放在马前面。
The object should be placed after the verb.宾语应该放在谓语的后面。
若表示具体的事物的地点(即静态位置)一般要用in front of (偶尔也用before)和behind。如:
The car was parked in front of the building.那辆车傍在了大楼的前面。
between表示“在…(两者)之前”。among表示“在(两者以上)之间”。amid (st)表示“在…间”(含有被不同之物包围之意),可接复数名词或不可数名词。如:
Is there any difference between the two words?这两个词之间有什么区别吗?
They visited the temple among the hills.他们参观了那个群山环抱的庙宇。
The speaker mounted the rostrum amid warm applause.
It was a treaty between three nation.这是一个三个国家之间的条约。
There was a race between the five ships.这五艘船之间进行了一场比赛。
3、表示空间运动的介词,along, across, through, over, up, down, from, to, into, out of:
They are taking a walk along the street.他们在沿着那条街道散步。
Dare you swim across the river? 你敢游过河去吗?
They drove through the city(tunnel).他们驱车穿过了那个城市(隧道)。
The plane flew over the city.那架飞机飞过了城市。
He ran up the stairs.他跑上了楼梯。
The ship is sailing down the river.那条船正向下游开去。
He received a letter from abroad.他收到一封来自国外的信。
She stood up and walked to the window.他站起来,走到窗前。
Will you tell us the story from beginning to end?
into进入;out of出自。如:
He jumped into the river.他跳进了河里。
We walked out of the shop.我们走出了商店。
4、表示方向、方位的介词,to, in, for, at等
Shanghai lies in the east of China.上海在中国的东部。
Japan lies to the east of China.日本位于中国的东面。
Vietnam lies on the south of China.越南位于中国的南面。
to表示“去向”(常与表示运动或移动的名、动词连用);for表示“目的地”(常与leave, start, depart, set out, sail, be bound, make等表示离开,出发等动词连用。)如:
He will go to shanghai tomorrow.明天他将去上海。
He will leave for Shanghai tomorrow.明天他将出发去上海。
但是在direction 前,常用in…。如:
She went in the opposite direction.她往相反的方面走去。
The waiter threw a towel to the guest.服务员朝客人扔去了一条毛巾。
The child threw a stone at the dog.那个小孩对准狗掷了一块石头。
5、表示工具、方法和手段的介词,with, by, in ,through, on等
Wood is often cut with a saw.(工具)人们常用锯子切割木头。
We should fact the situation with great courage.(抽象方式)
The road is paved with stone.(材料)这条路是用石头铺成的。
Babies learn to speak by imitation.(途径)小孩通过摹仿学说话。
We can get energy by burning fuel.(手段)我们可以通过燃烧燃料来获得能量。
by不用冠词,而in, on则要用冠词。如:
We will go there by ship.我们将乘船到那儿。
We will go there on a steam ship.我人将乘轮船到那儿去。
He arrived there in an old taxi.他是乘一辆旧出租汽车到的。
He arrived there by taxi.他是乘出租汽车到的。
Can you do the experiment in another way?
He became rich through hard work.他通过辛勤劳动而致富。
Knowledge may be acquired through(=by) traveling, conversation and reading.
He cut his finger on finger on a knife.他手指被刀划破了。
They heard the news on the radio.他们从收音机里听到这消息。
6、表示原因的介词,because of, owing to, due to, on account of, at, for, from, with, of:
because of, owing to, on account of一般表示任何直接原因或理由,其中以because of较为口语化,如:
Because of(owing to, on account of) his carelessness he didn’t do well in the examination.由于粗心,他在那次考试中做得不好。
due to也可表示原因,但是一般不用于句首,通常用作表语中或后置定语。如:
This is an accident due to careless driving.这是一起由于驾驶疏忽造成的事故。
at常与happy, surprised, angry, delighted, rejoice, marvel等表示情感的形容词或动词连用,表示原因。如:
The shipwrecked sailors were very excited at the arrival of the rescue ship.
注意:以上用法与“介词 + to+ 表示感情色彩的名词”用法的区别。如:
To our surprise(disappointment), he failed again.
To our joy(delight), our team has won the game.使我们高兴的是我们队赢得了比赛。
for常与ache, famous, known, noted, praise, punish, suffer等表示著名、奖罚或经受痛苦等意义的形容词或动主词连用,表示原因。如:
My head aches for want of sleep.由于缺少睡眠,我的头有点疼。
from常与die, suffer, collapse等动词连用,表示原因,有时也与necessity, a sense of duty等词连用表示出于某种动机。如:
They are suffering from starvation and disease.他们正在由于饥荒和疾病遭受苦难。
de from和die of的区别:如
The solider died from a bad wound.那个战士由于身受重伤而死亡。
That man died of lung cancer.那人死于肺癌。
She was red with shame.她羞愧得脸红了。
He was sick of being told what do to.他被人指使感到厌烦的。
7、表示“除了……以外”的介词besides, except, except for, but, apart from等
1) besides表示“除…以外,(还,也)”,相当于in addition to。如:
  Besides English, they also study math, physics and chemistry.
2) except表示“除…外,(其余都)…”,常与“all, every, no, none, nothing”等含有整体肯定或否定意义的词连用。如:
  He answered all the questions except the last one.
比较:We all went except him.除了他(没去)以外,我们都去了。
     Three others also went besides him.除了他(去了)以外,还去了三个人。
3) except for表示“除…以外”,但是和except不同的是,与except连用的整体词和except所跟的词常常是一类的,是指整体除去一部分,而except for连用的整体词与except for所跟的词往往不是同类的,是指整体中除去一个细节。如:
   Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes.
   Except for an old lady, the bus was empty.
4) but表示“除…外,(其余都或都不)”,和except的用法基本相同并常互换。两者都可以接动词不定式作宾语,当谓语动词是do时,常省略不定式符号to;否则要保留to。如:
There is no one here but (except) me. 这儿除了我外,什么人也没有。
He said he would spend his holiday, anywhere but in London.
Last night, I did nothing but watch TV.(省去to)
The enemy had no choice but to surrender.(to) 敌人没有别的选择,只好投降。
5) but for 和except for。but for不表示“除了…以外”的意思,而是表示“要不是因为,倘若没有”的意思,一般用于虚拟语气中表示含蓄条件。如:
6) apart from表示“除…之外”。根据上、下文的不同,它既可用作besides,也可用作except和except for。如:
  Apart from them, I had no one to talk to.(=except)
  Apart from other consideration, time is also a factor.(=besides)
  (It is) Good work apart from a few slight faults.(=except for)
7) 表示让步的介词:in spite of, despite(正式), after all, for all, with all等。如:
   In spite of their differences, they remained good friends.
   The children continued to play in the garden despite the rain.
   After all his labors, he failed. 他虽然努力,但还是失败了。
   For all his faults, we still like him.虽然他有缺点,我们仍喜欢他。
   With all his achievements, he remains modest and prudent.
(1) agree with同意(观点或意见)(后接人或事物名词)
agree to赞同,答案(后接事物名词)
agree on就…达成一致意见(后接事物名词)
(2) compare… with将…与…比较
(3) consist of由…组成
consist in在于
consist with与…一致
(4) differ with与(某人)观点不同
differ from一事物与另一事物不同
differ in在…方面不同
(5) be made from由…制成(有状态转变的意思)
be made of由…制成(有性质未变的含义)
be made out of可代替(from of)
be made with用原料制成
(6) result in导致
result from由…引起
(7) wait for等候
wait on服侍
(8) (be) angry with对(某人)生气
    (be) angry at about因(某事)生气
(9) (be) familiar with对…熟悉
    (be) familiar to为…所熟悉
(10)(be) good at善于…
    (be) good for对…有益
    (be) good to对…友好
(11)(be) known for由于…而闻名
    (be) known to为…所知
(12)(be)pleased with(对某人或因某事)感到高兴
    (be)pleased at about(因某事)感到高兴(可接动名词)
(13)relate…to…         relation to…     与…有关
depend on…          dependence on     对…依赖
insist on…          insistence on     对…坚持
arrive at(in)…      arrival at(in)     到达…
capable of…         capability of…    的能力
superior to…        superiority to     优越于…
patient with…       patience with     对…耐心
loyal to…           loyalty to       忠于…
excited about…      excitement about    对…激动
(14)protect sth from     保护某人(物)免受
    preserve sth from  保护某物免受
        shelter sth from   保护某物(人)免受
        prevent sth from     阻止某物(人)免受
        stop sth from        阻止某(物)(人)做(某事)
        keep sth from        阻止某(物)人做(某事)
        discourage sb from   阻止某人做(某事)
(15)inform sb of         通知某人某事
    remind sb of         提醒某人某事
    warn sb of           警告某人某事
    rob sth of           抢劫某人某事
    accuse sth of        指挥某人某事
    relieve sb of        使某人摆脱某事
    cure sb of           治愈某人某疾病
    deprive sb of        剥夺某人某物
(16)(be) far from    远不及
(be)fond of          喜欢
(be)satisfied with   与…感到满意
(be)suitable for     对…合适
(be)similar to       与…相似
(be)strict with      对…严格
(17)an expert on (in/at) 一位…(方面)的专家
    the reason for       …的理由
    struggle against     与…的斗争
    opposition to        反对…
    interest in          在…(方面)的兴趣

everyone和every one
every one in the village   (村子里所有的人)      (泛指)
every one of the children   (这些孩子中的每一个)  (特指)
every one of the books        (这些书中的每一本)    (特指)
in onself / by onself / for onself
in onself为“亲自(做…),相当于personally, in person。
by onself为“独自(做…),相当于alone。
For onself为“独立(做…),相当于without being helped。
3)between ourselves / among ourselves
between ourselves为“咱俩私下说”。among ourselves为“在我们之间”。
  一个八岁的女孩:   an eight-year-old girl
   一份两千字的报告   a two-thousand-world report
   一个为期五周假    a five-week holiday
   一个十五英亩的农场  a fifteen-acre farm
both / either
both 接复数动词,either接单数动词。如:
Truth may lie on both sides, on either side, or on neither (side).
6)neither / none
   表示两者“都不…”,用neither, 表示两者以上“都不…”,用none (of)。Neither接单数可数名词,none of接复数名词。如:
   Neither book is satisfactory.   这两本书都不令人满意。
   None of the books on the shelves belong to me.   书架上的书,一本都不是我的。
7)all / whole
   He ate all the vegetables.他把所有的蔬菜都吃完了。
   He ate the whole pie.他把整个饼都吃了。
8)another / other
   another由an + other构成,只和单数可数名词连用。other可用于名种名词前。anther + 单数名词表示不定的“另一个”,the other + 单数可数名词表示特指的“另一个”。other + 复数名词表示不定的“其余的”人或物。the other + 复数名词表示特定的“其余的”人或物。
9) a number of / the number of
   a number of为“许多…”,后接复数名词,谓语用复数。the number of指“…的总数”,也接复数名词,但谓语用单数。如:
   A number of comrades were sbsent from the meeting.许多同志没有到会。
   The number of comrades absent from the meeting was surprising.没有到会的人数很惊人。
10) a lot of / plenty of
   a lot of指绝对数量的多,而plenty of只是指数量相对之多,含有“足够”(enough)、“可满足需要”的意味。如:
   He spends a lof ot time on reading very day. 每天他把很多时间花在读书上。
   Don’t hurry. There is plenty of time to catch the train.
11) few /a few / the few
    a few为“有几个,少数几个”,数量虽算大,但是表示肯定。quite a few, not a few也表示肯定,意为“相当多”。only a few意义相当于few,表示否定。
the few表示特指和否定。
They expected many guests would come to their party, but few people truned up.
I have still got (quite) a few things to pack.我还有(好)几样东西要打包。
Only a few (of the) villagers there could read and write.
John was among the few students who eally understood it.
12) little / a little / the little
    a little为“有一些,少量”,表示肯定。quite a little, not a little也表示肯定,意为“相当多”。only a little意义相当于little,表示否定。
the little表示特指和否定。
Jack was reading and had little spare time.杰克在刻苦攻读,几乎没有什么空闲时间。
He has a little money and can live quite comfortably on it.
That has caused me not a little anxiety.那件事给我引起不小的焦虑。
Let’s not waste the little time we have left.咱们别浪费所剩不多的时间了。
13) many / much
many用于复数名词前,much用于不可数名词前。均多用于非肯定句中,在肯定句中常用a lot of代替many,用a lost of或a great deal of 代替much。
many a + 单数名词与many + 复数名词的意思相同,但是较后者设计所或更具强调的含义,并且要求接单数语动词。如:
She has been to Beijing many a time.(或many times)她去过北京多次。
14)each / every
Every dog has a name.所有的狗都有名字。(强调无一例外)
Each dog has a name.每条狗都有各自的名字。(强调各不相同)
15) adopt/adapt
We shall adopt your methods of teaching in our school.
Novels are often adadpted for the stage and for radio.
The incident affected the relations between the two countries.
The decision effected some improvement in their work.这个决定使他们工作得到了改进。
I asked him five questions but he did not reply to a single one.
He replied that he had no idea about the matter.他回答说他对此事一无所知。
They arrived at the airport too late to catch the flight.
They got to the airport too late to catch the flight.
They reached the airport too late to catch the flight.
   doubt 怀疑,为怀疑某事是不可能或不真实的。肯定句中常跟whether或if引出宾语从句,否定句和疑问中常跟that引出的宾语从句。
suspect 怀疑,为怀疑或认为某事是可能或真的。常跟that引起的宾语从句。
   feel(vt.&vi.)感觉、摸、触。feel, felt, felt
   fall(vi.)落下。fall, fell, fallen.
   fell(vt.)打倒,砍伐。fall, fell, fallen
    原形     过去式     过去分词     现在分词
    lie            lay              lain             lying
        lay            laid             laid             laying
   look(vi.看):强调动作,表示看什么,后面要求接at + 名词。
   listen(vi.听):强调动作,表示听什么,后面要求接 to + 名词
32)occur/happen/take place/break out
   persuade说服,着重情感上的“敦促,劝告”。  convince说服,着重理智方面的“辩证,证明”。
   to persuade (convince) sb that…       to persuade (convince) sb of sth
   to persuade sb (not) to do sth        to persuade sb into (out of) doing sth
   persuade和convince都表示结果,即说服了,若表示说服或劝说的动作,常用try to persuade(convice),也可用advise表示。
   sit(vi.坐).sit, sat, sat   seat(vt.使…坐/供以座位)   set(vt.放,置)set, set, set.
   speak不及物动词,“说话”,若表说及某事须用speak about或of,若表对谁说,须用speak to。
   say 是及物动词,意思是“说…”,着重在所说的话。


using System;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Collections;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.Data;
using System.Windows;
using System.Data.SqlClient;
namespace WindowsApplicationHelloWorld
 /// <summary>
 /// Form1 的摘要描述。
 /// </summary>
 public class Form1 : System.Windows.Forms.Form
  private System.Windows.Forms.Label label1;
  private System.Windows.Forms.DataGrid DataGrid1;
  private System.Windows.Forms.Button button1;
  private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox textBox1;
  private System.Windows.Forms.Button button2;
  private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox textBox2;
  private DataSet dsc =new DataSet();
  private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox textBox3;
  /// <summary>
  /// 設計工具所需的變數。
  /// </summary>
  private System.ComponentModel.Container components = null;

  public Form1()
   // Windows Form 設計工具支援的必要項

   // TODO: 在 InitializeComponent 呼叫之後加入任何建構函式程式碼

   this.label1.Text = "Hello World!!";

  /// <summary>
  /// 清除任何使用中的資源。
  /// </summary>
  protected override void Dispose( bool disposing )
   if( disposing )
    if (components != null)
   base.Dispose( disposing );

  protected override void OnKeyDown(KeyEventArgs e)
  #region Windows Form 設計工具產生的程式碼
  /// <summary>
  /// 此為設計工具支援所必須的方法 - 請勿使用程式碼編輯器修改
  /// 這個方法的內容。
  /// </summary>
  private void InitializeComponent()
   this.label1 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
   this.DataGrid1 = new System.Windows.Forms.DataGrid();
   this.button1 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
   this.textBox1 = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
   this.button2 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
   this.textBox2 = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
   this.textBox3 = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
   // label1
   this.label1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(0, 8);
   this.label1.Name = "label1";
   this.label1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(72, 16);
   this.label1.TabIndex = 0;
   this.label1.Text = "label1";
   // DataGrid1
   this.DataGrid1.CaptionText = "MyDataGrid";
   this.DataGrid1.CausesValidation = false;
   this.DataGrid1.DataMember = "";
   this.DataGrid1.HeaderForeColor = System.Drawing.SystemColors.ControlText;
   this.DataGrid1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(0, 72);
   this.DataGrid1.Name = "DataGrid1";
   this.DataGrid1.RowHeadersVisible = false;
   this.DataGrid1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(624, 400);
   this.DataGrid1.TabIndex = 1;
   this.DataGrid1.KeyDown += new System.Windows.Forms.KeyEventHandler(this.DataGrid1_KeyDown);
   this.DataGrid1.MouseDown += new System.Windows.Forms.MouseEventHandler(this.DataGrid1_MouseDown);
   this.DataGrid1.MouseUp += new System.Windows.Forms.MouseEventHandler(this.DataGrid1_MouseUp);
   // button1
   this.button1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(88, 0);
   this.button1.Name = "button1";
   this.button1.TabIndex = 2;
   this.button1.Text = "button1";
   this.button1.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button1_Click);
   // textBox1
   this.textBox1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(8, 32);
   this.textBox1.Name = "textBox1";
   this.textBox1.TabIndex = 3;
   this.textBox1.Text = "";
   // button2
   this.button2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(136, 32);
   this.button2.Name = "button2";
   this.button2.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(48, 23);
   this.button2.TabIndex = 4;
   this.button2.Text = "Qurey";
   this.button2.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button2_Click);
   // textBox2
   this.textBox2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(216, 32);
   this.textBox2.Name = "textBox2";
   this.textBox2.TabIndex = 5;
   this.textBox2.Text = "";
   // textBox3
   this.textBox3.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(328, 32);
   this.textBox3.Name = "textBox3";
   this.textBox3.TabIndex = 6;
   this.textBox3.Text = "";
   // Form1
   this.AutoScaleBaseSize = new System.Drawing.Size(5, 15);
   this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(632, 478);
   this.Name = "Form1";
   this.Text = "Hello World";


  /// <summary>
  /// 應用程式的主進入點。
  /// </summary>
  static void Main()
   Application.Run(new Form1());
  public void DataBind()
   SqlConnection myConn = new SqlConnection("server=localhost;database=MIS_Benny;uid=sa;pwd=sa");
   DataTable dt = new DataTable();
   string cmdstr = "select * from InsertTable";
   SqlDataAdapter da = new SqlDataAdapter(cmdstr,myConn);
   DataSet ds = new DataSet();
   DataGrid1.DataSource = ds.Tables["No1"];

   DataGridTableStyle ts=new DataGridTableStyle();
   ts.GridColumnStyles["name"].ReadOnly = true;
   ts.GridColumnStyles["num"].ReadOnly = true;


  public void MakeMenu()
   //Add Menu
   MainMenu menu = new MainMenu();
   MenuItem item = menu.MenuItems.Add("&File");
   item.MenuItems.Add("&New",new EventHandler(OnFileNew));
   item.MenuItems.Add("&Open...",new EventHandler(OnFileOpen));
   item.MenuItems.Add("&Save",new EventHandler(OnFileSave));
   item.MenuItems.Add("&Save As...",new EventHandler(OnFileSaveAs));
   item.MenuItems.Add("&Exit",new EventHandler(OnFileExit));

   item = menu.MenuItems.Add("&Edit");
   item.MenuItems.Add("&Cut", new EventHandler(OnEditCut));
   item.MenuItems.Add("&Copy", new EventHandler(OnEditCopy));
   item.MenuItems.Add("&Paste",new EventHandler(OnEditPaste));

   Menu = menu;
  //Add Event
  void OnFileNew(object sender,EventArgs e)
  void OnFileOpen(object sender,EventArgs e)
  void OnFileSave(object sender,EventArgs e)
  void OnFileSaveAs(object sender,EventArgs e)
  void OnFileExit(object sender,EventArgs e)
  void OnEditCut(object sender,EventArgs e)
  void OnEditCopy(object sender,EventArgs e)
  void OnEditPaste(object sender,EventArgs e)

  //Transfer To Other Form
  private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
   Form2 frm=new Form2();   

  //If you press A in the DataGrid area, this Event will show you a MessageBox with "You Press A"
  private void DataGrid1_KeyDown(object sender, System.Windows.Forms.KeyEventArgs e)
    MessageBox.Show("You Press A");

  //This Event make you can Query and then ReBind The DataGrid
  private void button2_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
   SqlConnection myConn = new SqlConnection("server=localhost;database=MIS_Benny;uid=sa;pwd=sa");
   DataTable dt = new DataTable();
   string cmdstr = "select * from InsertTable where name like '%"+this.textBox1.Text+"%' ";
   SqlDataAdapter da = new SqlDataAdapter(cmdstr,myConn);
   DataSet ds = new DataSet();
   DataGrid1.DataSource = ds.Tables["No1"];

   DataGridTableStyle ts=new DataGridTableStyle();
   ts.GridColumnStyles["name"].ReadOnly = true;
   ts.GridColumnStyles["num"].ReadOnly = true;

  private void DataGrid1_MouseDown(object sender, System.Windows.Forms.MouseEventArgs e)
   //this.textBox1.Text = ds.Tables[0].Rows[dataGrid1.CurrentCell.RowNumber][2].ToString();

  //This Event Can make you get the value in DataGrid
  private void DataGrid1_MouseUp(object sender, System.Windows.Forms.MouseEventArgs e)
   this.textBox2.Text = dsc.Tables["No1"].Rows[DataGrid1.CurrentCell.RowNumber]["name"].ToString();
   this.textBox3.Text = dsc.Tables["No1"].Rows[DataGrid1.CurrentCell.RowNumber]["num"].ToString();