使用请求头认证来测试需要授权的 API 接口

使用请求头认证来测试需要授权的 API 接口

Intro

有一些需要认证授权的接口在写测试用例的时候一般会先获取一个 token,然后再去调用接口,其实这样做的话很不灵活,一方面是存在着一定的安全性问题,获取 token 可能会有一些用户名密码之类的测试数据,还有就是获取 token 的话如果全局使用同一个 token 会很不灵活,如果我要测试没有用户信息的话还比较简单,我可以不传递 token,如果token里有两个角色,我要测试另外一个角色的时候,只能给这个测试用户新增一个角色然后再获取token,这样就很不灵活,于是我就尝试把之前写的自定义请求头认证的代码,整理了一下,集成到了一个 nuget 包里以方便其他项目使用,nuget 包是 WeihanLi.Web.Extensions,源代码在这里 https://github.com/WeihanLi/WeihanLi.Web.Extensions 有想自己改的可以直接拿去用,目前提供了基于请求头的认证和基于 QueryString 的认证两种认证方式。

实现效果

基于请求头动态配置用户的信息,需要什么样的信息就在请求头中添加什么信息,示例如下:

再来看个单元测试的示例:

[Fact]
public async Task MakeReservationWithUserInfo()
{
    using var request = new HttpRequestMessage(HttpMethod.Post, "/api/reservations");

    request.Headers.TryAddWithoutValidation("UserId", GuidIdGenerator.Instance.NewId()); // 用户Id
    request.Headers.TryAddWithoutValidation("UserName", Environment.UserName); // 用户名
    request.Headers.TryAddWithoutValidation("UserRoles", "User,ReservationManager"); //用户角色

    request.Content = new StringContent($@"{{""reservationUnit"":""nnnnn"",""reservationActivityContent"":""13211112222"",""reservationPersonName"":""谢谢谢"",""reservationPersonPhone"":""13211112222"",""reservationPlaceId"":""f9833d13-a57f-4bc0-9197-232113667ece"",""reservationPlaceName"":""第一多功能厅"",""reservationForDate"":""2020-06-13"",""reservationForTime"":""10:00~12:00"",""reservationForTimeIds"":""1""}}", Encoding.UTF8, "application/json");

    using var response = await Client.SendAsync(request);
    Assert.Equal(HttpStatusCode.OK, response.StatusCode);
}

实现原理解析

实现原理其实挺简单的,就是实现了一种基于 header 的自定义认证模式,从 header 中获取用户信息并进行认证,核心代码如下:

protected override async Task<AuthenticateResult> HandleAuthenticateAsync()
{
    if (await Options.AuthenticationValidator(Context))
    {
        var claims = new List<Claim>();
        if (Request.Headers.TryGetValue(Options.UserIdHeaderName, out var userIdValues))
        {
            claims.Add(new Claim(ClaimTypes.NameIdentifier, userIdValues.ToString()));
        }
        if (Request.Headers.TryGetValue(Options.UserNameHeaderName, out var userNameValues))
        {
            claims.Add(new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name, userNameValues.ToString()));
        }
        if (Request.Headers.TryGetValue(Options.UserRolesHeaderName, out var userRolesValues))
        {
            var userRoles = userRolesValues.ToString()
                .Split(new[] { Options.Delimiter }, StringSplitOptions.RemoveEmptyEntries);
            claims.AddRange(userRoles.Select(r => new Claim(ClaimTypes.Role, r)));
        }

        if (Options.AdditionalHeaderToClaims.Count > 0)
        {
            foreach (var headerToClaim in Options.AdditionalHeaderToClaims)
            {
                if (Request.Headers.TryGetValue(headerToClaim.Key, out var headerValues))
                {
                    foreach (var val in headerValues.ToString().Split(new[] { Options.Delimiter }, StringSplitOptions.RemoveEmptyEntries))
                    {
                        claims.Add(new Claim(headerToClaim.Value, val));
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        // claims identity 's authentication type can not be null https://stackoverflow.com/questions/45261732/user-identity-isauthenticated-always-false-in-net-core-custom-authentication
        var principal = new ClaimsPrincipal(new ClaimsIdentity(claims, Scheme.Name));
        var ticket = new AuthenticationTicket(
            principal,
            Scheme.Name
        );
        return AuthenticateResult.Success(ticket);
    }

    return AuthenticateResult.NoResult();
}

其实就是将请求头的信息读取到 Claims,然后返回一个 ClaimsPrincipalAuthenticationTicket,在读取 header 之前有一个 AuthenticationValidator 是用来验证请求是不是满足使用 Header 认证,是一个基于 HttpContext 的断言委托(Func<HttpContext, Task<bool>>),默认实现是验证是否有 UserId 对应的 Header,如果要修改可以通过 Startup 来配置

使用示例

Startup 配置,和其它的认证方式一样,Header 认证和 Query 认证也提供了基于 AuthenticationBuilder 的扩展,只需要在 services.AddAuthentication() 后增加 Header 认证的模式即可,示例如下:


services.AddAuthentication(HeaderAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationSchema)
    .AddQuery(options =>
    {
        options.UserIdQueryKey = "uid";
    })
    .AddHeader(options =>
    {
        options.UserIdHeaderName = "X-UserId";
        options.UserNameHeaderName = "X-UserName";
        options.UserRolesHeaderName = "X-UserRoles";
    });

默认的 Header 是 UserId/UserName/UserRoles,你也可以自定义为符合自己需要的配置,如果只是想新增一个转换可以配置 AdditionalHeaderToClaims 增加自己需要的请求头 => Claims 转换,AuthenticationValidator 也可以自定义,就是上面提到的会首先会验证是不是需要读取 Header,验证通过之后才会读取 Header 信息并认证

测试示例

有一个接口我需要登录之后才能访问,需要用户信息,类似下面这样

[HttpPost]
[Authorize]
public async Task<IActionResult> MakeReservation(
    [FromBody] ReservationViewModel model
    )
{
    // ...
}

在测试代码里我配置使用了 Header 认证,在请求的时候直接通过 Header 来控制用户的信息

Startup 配置:

services
    .AddAuthentication(HeaderAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationSchema)
    .AddHeader()
    // 使用 Query 认证
    //.AddAuthentication(QueryAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationSchema)
    //.AddQuery()
    ;

测试代码:

[Fact]
public async Task MakeReservationWithUserInfo()
{
    using var request = new HttpRequestMessage(HttpMethod.Post, "/api/reservations");
    request.Headers.TryAddWithoutValidation("UserId", GuidIdGenerator.Instance.NewId());
    request.Headers.TryAddWithoutValidation("UserName", Environment.UserName);
    request.Headers.TryAddWithoutValidation("UserRoles", "User,ReservationManager");

    request.Content = new StringContent($@"{{""reservationUnit"":""nnnnn"",""reservationActivityContent"":""13211112222"",""reservationPersonName"":""谢谢谢"",""reservationPersonPhone"":""13211112222"",""reservationPlaceId"":""f9833d13-a57f-4bc0-9197-232113667ece"",""reservationPlaceName"":""第一多功能厅"",""reservationForDate"":""2020-06-13"",""reservationForTime"":""10:00~12:00"",""reservationForTimeIds"":""1""}}", Encoding.UTF8, "application/json");

    using var response = await Client.SendAsync(request);
    Assert.Equal(HttpStatusCode.OK, response.StatusCode);
}

[Fact]
public async Task MakeReservationWithInvalidUserInfo()
{
    using var request = new HttpRequestMessage(HttpMethod.Post, "/api/reservations");

    request.Headers.TryAddWithoutValidation("UserName", Environment.UserName);

    request.Content = new StringContent($@"{{""reservationUnit"":""nnnnn"",""reservationActivityContent"":""13211112222"",""reservationPersonName"":""谢谢谢"",""reservationPersonPhone"":""13211112222"",""reservationPlaceId"":""f9833d13-a57f-4bc0-9197-232113667ece"",""reservationPlaceName"":""第一多功能厅"",""reservationForDate"":""2020-06-13"",""reservationForTime"":""10:00~12:00"",""reservationForTimeIds"":""1""}}", Encoding.UTF8, "application/json");

    using var response = await Client.SendAsync(request);
    Assert.Equal(HttpStatusCode.Unauthorized, response.StatusCode);
}

[Fact]
public async Task MakeReservationWithoutUserInfo()
{
    using var request = new HttpRequestMessage(HttpMethod.Post, "/api/reservations")
    {
        Content = new StringContent(
            @"{""reservationUnit"":""nnnnn"",""reservationActivityContent"":""13211112222"",""reservationPersonName"":""谢谢谢"",""reservationPersonPhone"":""13211112222"",""reservationPlaceId"":""f9833d13-a57f-4bc0-9197-232113667ece"",""reservationPlaceName"":""第一多功能厅"",""reservationForDate"":""2020-06-13"",""reservationForTime"":""10:00~12:00"",""reservationForTimeIds"":""1""}",
            Encoding.UTF8, "application/json")
    };

    using var response = await Client.SendAsync(request);
    Assert.Equal(HttpStatusCode.Unauthorized, response.StatusCode);
}

More

QueryString 认证和请求头认证是类似的,这里就不再赘述,只是把请求头上的参数转移到 QueryString 上了,觉得不够好用的可以直接 Github 上找源码修改, 也欢迎 PR,源码地址: https://github.com/WeihanLi/WeihanLi.Web.Extensions

Reference

posted @ 2020-06-09 09:23  WeihanLi  阅读(663)  评论(7编辑  收藏