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重新想象 Windows 8 Store Apps (61) - 通信: http, oauth

Posted on 2013-09-23 09:15  webabcd  阅读(...)  评论(... 编辑 收藏

[源码下载]


重新想象 Windows 8 Store Apps (61) - 通信: http, oauth



作者:webabcd


介绍
重新想象 Windows 8 Store Apps 之 通信

  • HttpClient 概述
  • http get string
  • http get stream
  • http post string
  • http post stream
  • OAuth 2.0 验证的客户端



示例
用于演示 http 通信的服务端
WebServer/HttpDemo.aspx.cs

/*
 * 用于响应 http 请求
 */

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Threading;

namespace WebServer
{
    public partial class HttpDemo : System.Web.UI.Page
    {
        protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            // 停 3 秒,以方便测试 http 请求的取消
            Thread.Sleep(3000);

            var action = Request.QueryString["action"];

            switch (action)
            {
                case "getString": // 响应 http get string 
                    Response.Write("hello webabcd");
                    break;
                case "getStream": // 响应 http get stream 
                    Response.Write("hello webabcd hello webabcd hello webabcd hello webabcd hello webabcd hello webabcd hello webabcd hello webabcd hello webabcd hello webabcd hello webabcd hello webabcd");
                    break;
                case "postString": // 响应 http post string 
                    Response.Write(string.Format("param1:{0}, param2:{1}, referrer:{2}", Request.Form["param1"], Request.Form["param2"], Request.UrlReferrer));
                    break;
                case "postStream": // 响应 http post stream 
                    using (StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(Request.InputStream))
                    {
                        string body = reader.ReadToEnd();
                        Response.Write(Server.HtmlEncode(body));
                    }
                    break;
                default:
                    break;
            }

            Response.End();
        }
    }
}

 

1、通过 HttpClient, HttpRequestMessage, HttpResponseMessage 实现 HTTP 通信
Communication/HTTP/Summary.xaml

<Page
    x:Class="XamlDemo.Communication.HTTP.Summary"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    xmlns:local="using:XamlDemo.Communication.HTTP"
    xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
    xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
    mc:Ignorable="d">

    <Grid Background="Transparent">
        <StackPanel Margin="120 0 0 0">

            <TextBlock Name="lblMsg" FontSize="14.667" />

            <Button Name="btnPost" Content="http post" Click="btnPost_Click_1" Margin="0 10 0 0" />

            <Button Name="btnCancel" Content="cancel" Click="btnCancel_Click_1" Margin="0 10 0 0" />

        </StackPanel>
    </Grid>
</Page>

Communication/HTTP/Summary.xaml.cs

/*
 * 通过 HttpClient, HttpRequestMessage, HttpResponseMessage 实现 HTTP 通信
 * 
 * HttpClient - 用于发起 http 请求,以及接收 http 响应
 *     BaseAddress - 发送请求的 uri
 *     DefaultRequestHeaders - 默认的 http 请求头信息
 *     MaxResponseContentBufferSize - 读取响应内容时,所可以缓冲的最大字节数。默认值:64K
 *     Timeout - http 请求的超时时间
 *     CancelPendingRequests() - 取消该 HttpClient 对象所有挂起的 http 请求
 *     GetStringAsync(), GetStreamAsync(), GetByteArrayAsync(), GetAsync() - http get 数据
 *     PostAsync(), DeleteAsync(), PutAsync() - http post delete put 数据
 *         参数:HttpContent content - http 请求的数据(HttpContent 类型)
 *             继承自 HttpContent 的类有:StringContent, ByteArrayContent, StreamContent, FormUrlEncodedContent 等
 *         参数:HttpCompletionOption completionOption(HttpCompletionOption 枚举)
 *             ResponseContentRead - 获取到全部内容后再返回数据,默认值
 *             ResponseHeadersRead - 获取到头信息后就返回数据,用于流式获取
 * 
 * HttpRequestMessage - http 请求
 *     Method - http 方法
 *     RequestUri - 请求的 uri
 *     Version - http 版本,默认是 1.1
 *     Headers - http 的请求头信息
 *     Content - http 请求的内容(HttpContent 类型)
 *         继承自 HttpContent 的类有:StringContent, ByteArrayContent, StreamContent, FormUrlEncodedContent 等
 *         
 * HttpResponseMessage - http 响应
 *     RequestMessage - 对应的 HttpRequestMessage 对象
 *     Headers - http 的响应头信息
 *     Version - http 版本,默认是 1.1
 *     StatusCode - http 响应的状态码
 *     ReasonPhrase - http 响应的状态码所对应的短语
 *     IsSuccessStatusCode - http 响应的状态码是否是成功的值(200-299)
 *     EnsureSuccessStatusCode() - 当 IsSuccessStatusCode 为 false 时会抛出异常
 *     
 * 
 * 注:关于下载/上传的进度获取,请参见“后台任务”
 * 
 * 另:win8 metro 的 http 抓包可用 fiddler
 * 
 * 还有:
 * http 通信还可以通过如下方法实现
 * HttpWebRequest webRequest = WebRequest.Create(url);
 */

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Net.Http;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Windows.UI.Xaml;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Controls;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Navigation;

namespace XamlDemo.Communication.HTTP
{
    public sealed partial class Summary : Page
    {
        private HttpClient _httpClient;

        public Summary()
        {
            this.InitializeComponent();
        }

        protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e)
        {
            // 释放资源
            if (_httpClient != null)
            {
                _httpClient.Dispose();
                _httpClient = null;
            }
        }

        private async void btnPost_Click_1(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            _httpClient = new HttpClient();

            try
            {
                string url = "http://localhost:39629/HttpDemo.aspx?action=postString";
                // 创建一个 HttpRequestMessage 对象
                HttpRequestMessage request = new HttpRequestMessage(HttpMethod.Post, url);

                // 需要 post 的数据
                var postData = new FormUrlEncodedContent(
                    new List<KeyValuePair<string, string>>
                    {
                        new KeyValuePair<string, string>("param1", "web"),
                        new KeyValuePair<string, string>("param2", "abcd")
                    }
                );

                // http 请求的数据
                request.Content = postData;
                // http 请求的头信息
                request.Headers.Referrer = new Uri("http://webabcd.cnblogs.com");

                // 请求 HttpRequestMessage 对象,并返回 HttpResponseMessage 数据
                HttpResponseMessage response = await _httpClient.SendAsync(request);

                // http 响应的状态码及其对应的短语
                lblMsg.Text += ((int)response.StatusCode) + " " + response.ReasonPhrase;
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;

                // 以字符串的方式获取响应数据
                lblMsg.Text += await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
            catch (TaskCanceledException)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += "取消了";
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += ex.ToString();
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
        }

        private void btnCancel_Click_1(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            // 取消 http 请求
            _httpClient.CancelPendingRequests();
        }
    }
}


2、演示 http get string
Communication/HTTP/GetString.xaml.cs

/*
 * 演示 http get string
 */

using System;
using System.Net.Http;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Windows.UI.Xaml;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Controls;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Navigation;

namespace XamlDemo.Communication.HTTP
{
    public sealed partial class GetString : Page
    {
        private HttpClient _httpClient;

        public GetString()
        {
            this.InitializeComponent();
        }

        protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e)
        {
            // 释放资源
            if (_httpClient != null)
            {
                _httpClient.Dispose();
                _httpClient = null;
            }
        }

        private async void btnGetString_Click_1(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            _httpClient = new HttpClient();

            try
            {
                HttpResponseMessage response = await _httpClient.GetAsync(new Uri("http://localhost:39629/HttpDemo.aspx?action=getString"));

                lblMsg.Text += ((int)response.StatusCode) + " " + response.ReasonPhrase;
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;

                // HttpContent.ReadAsStringAsync() - 以 string 方式获取响应数据
                // HttpContent.ReadAsByteArrayAsync() - 以 byte[] 方式获取响应数据
                // HttpContent.ReadAsStreamAsync() - 以 stream 方式获取响应数据
                lblMsg.Text += await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
            catch (TaskCanceledException)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += "取消了";
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
             catch (Exception ex)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += ex.ToString();
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
        }

        private void btnCancel_Click_1(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            // 取消 http 请求
            _httpClient.CancelPendingRequests();
        }
    }
}


3、演示 http get stream
Communication/HTTP/GetStream.xaml.cs

/*
 * 演示 http get stream
 */

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Net.Http;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Windows.Security.Cryptography;
using Windows.Storage.Streams;
using Windows.UI.Xaml;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Controls;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Navigation;

namespace XamlDemo.Communication.HTTP
{
    public sealed partial class GetStream : Page
    {
        private HttpClient _httpClient;

        public GetStream()
        {
            this.InitializeComponent();
        }

        protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e)
        {
            // 释放资源
            if (_httpClient != null)
            {
                _httpClient.Dispose();
                _httpClient = null;
            }
        }

        private async void btnGetStream_Click_1(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            _httpClient = new HttpClient();

            try
            {
                // HttpCompletionOption.ResponseHeadersRead - 获取到头信息后就返回数据,用于流式获取
                HttpResponseMessage response = await _httpClient.GetAsync(
                    new Uri("http://localhost:39629/HttpDemo.aspx?action=getStream"), 
                    HttpCompletionOption.ResponseHeadersRead);

                lblMsg.Text += ((int)response.StatusCode) + " " + response.ReasonPhrase;
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;

                // HttpContent.ReadAsStringAsync() - 以 string 方式获取响应数据
                // HttpContent.ReadAsByteArrayAsync() - 以 byte[] 方式获取响应数据
                // HttpContent.ReadAsStreamAsync() - 以 stream 方式获取响应数据
                using (Stream responseStream = await response.Content.ReadAsStreamAsync())
                {
                    byte[] buffer = new byte[32];
                    int read = 0;

                    while ((read = await responseStream.ReadAsync(buffer, 0, buffer.Length)) > 0)
                    {
                        lblMsg.Text += "读取的字节数: " + read.ToString();
                        lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;

                        IBuffer responseBuffer = CryptographicBuffer.CreateFromByteArray(buffer);
                        lblMsg.Text += CryptographicBuffer.EncodeToHexString(responseBuffer);
                        lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;

                        buffer = new byte[32];
                    }
                }
            }
            catch (TaskCanceledException)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += "取消了";
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
             catch (Exception ex)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += ex.ToString();
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
        }

        private void btnCancel_Click_1(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            // 取消 http 请求
            _httpClient.CancelPendingRequests();
        }
    }
}


4、演示 http post string
Communication/HTTP/PostString.xaml.cs

/*
 * 演示 http post string
 */

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Net.Http;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Windows.UI.Xaml;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Controls;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Navigation;

namespace XamlDemo.Communication.HTTP
{
    public sealed partial class PostString : Page
    {
        private HttpClient _httpClient;

        public PostString()
        {
            this.InitializeComponent();
        }

        protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e)
        {
            // 释放资源
            if (_httpClient != null)
            {
                _httpClient.Dispose();
                _httpClient = null;
            }
        }

        private async void btnPostString_Click_1(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            _httpClient = new HttpClient();

            try
            {
                // 需要 post 的数据
                var postData = new FormUrlEncodedContent(
                    new List<KeyValuePair<string, string>>
                    {
                        new KeyValuePair<string, string>("param1", "web"),
                        new KeyValuePair<string, string>("param2", "abcd")
                    } 
                );

                HttpResponseMessage response = await _httpClient.PostAsync(
                    new Uri("http://localhost:39629/HttpDemo.aspx?action=postString"),
                    postData);

                lblMsg.Text += ((int)response.StatusCode) + " " + response.ReasonPhrase;
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;

                // HttpContent.ReadAsStringAsync() - 以 string 方式获取响应数据
                // HttpContent.ReadAsByteArrayAsync() - 以 byte[] 方式获取响应数据
                // HttpContent.ReadAsStreamAsync() - 以 stream 方式获取响应数据
                lblMsg.Text += await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
            catch (TaskCanceledException)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += "取消了";
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += ex.ToString();
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
        }

        private void btnCancel_Click_1(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            // 取消 http 请求
            _httpClient.CancelPendingRequests();
        }
    }
}


5、演示 http post stream
Communication/HTTP/PostStream.xaml.cs

/*
 * 演示 http post stream
 */

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Net.Http;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Windows.UI.Xaml;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Controls;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Navigation;

namespace XamlDemo.Communication.HTTP
{
    public sealed partial class PostStream : Page
    {
        private HttpClient _httpClient;

        public PostStream()
        {
            this.InitializeComponent();
        }

        protected override void OnNavigatedFrom(NavigationEventArgs e)
        {
            // 释放资源
            if (_httpClient != null)
            {
                _httpClient.Dispose();
                _httpClient = null;
            }
        }

        private async void btnPostStream_Click_1(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            _httpClient = new HttpClient();

            try
            {
                // 需要 post 的 stream 数据
                Stream stream = GenerateSampleStream(128);
                StreamContent streamContent = new StreamContent(stream);

                HttpResponseMessage response = await _httpClient.PostAsync(
                   new Uri("http://localhost:39629/HttpDemo.aspx?action=postStream"),
                   streamContent);

                lblMsg.Text += ((int)response.StatusCode) + " " + response.ReasonPhrase;
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;

                // HttpContent.ReadAsStringAsync() - 以 string 方式获取响应数据
                // HttpContent.ReadAsByteArrayAsync() - 以 byte[] 方式获取响应数据
                // HttpContent.ReadAsStreamAsync() - 以 stream 方式获取响应数据
                lblMsg.Text += await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
            catch (TaskCanceledException)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += "取消了";
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += ex.ToString();
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
            }
        }

        // 生成一个指定大小的内存流
        private static MemoryStream GenerateSampleStream(int size)
        {
            byte[] subData = new byte[size];
            for (int i = 0; i < subData.Length; i++)
            {
                subData[i] = (byte)(97 + i % 26); // a-z
            }

            return new MemoryStream(subData);
        }

        private void btnCancel_Click_1(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            // 取消 http 请求
            _httpClient.CancelPendingRequests();
        }
    }
}


6、演示如何开发一个基于 OAuth 2.0 验证的客户端
Communication/OpenAuth/ClientDemo.xaml

<Page
    x:Class="XamlDemo.Communication.OpenAuth.ClientDemo"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    xmlns:local="using:XamlDemo.Communication.OpenAuth"
    xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
    xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
    mc:Ignorable="d">

    <Grid Background="Transparent">
        <StackPanel Margin="120 0 0 0">

            <Button Name="btnWeibo" Content="登录新浪微博,并返回登录用户好友最新发布的微博" Click="btnWeibo_Click" />

            <TextBlock Name="lblMsg" FontSize="14.667" TextWrapping="Wrap" Margin="0 10 0 0" />

        </StackPanel>
    </Grid>
</Page>

Communication/OpenAuth/ClientDemo.xaml.cs

/*
 * 演示如何开发一个基于 OAuth 2.0 验证的客户端
 * 
 * WebAuthenticationBroker - 用于 OAuth 2.0 验证的第一步,可以将第三方 UI 无缝整合进 app
 *     AuthenticateAsync(WebAuthenticationOptions options, Uri requestUri, Uri callbackUri) - 请求 authorization code,返回一个 WebAuthenticationResult 类型的数据
 *
 * WebAuthenticationResult - 请求 authorization code(OAuth 2.0 验证的第一步)的结果
 *     ResponseData - 响应的数据         
 *     ResponseStatus - 响应的状态
 *     
 * 
 * 关于 OAuth 2.0 协议参见:http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-oauth-v2-20
 */

using System;
using System.Net.Http;
using System.Text.RegularExpressions;
using Windows.Data.Json;
using Windows.Security.Authentication.Web;
using Windows.UI.Xaml;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Controls;

namespace XamlDemo.Communication.OpenAuth
{
    public sealed partial class ClientDemo : Page
    {
        public ClientDemo()
        {
            this.InitializeComponent();
        }

        private async void btnWeibo_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            try
            {
                var appKey = "39261162";
                var appSecret = "652ec0b02f814d514fc288f3eab2efda";
                var callbackUrl = "http://webabcd.cnblogs.com"; // 在新浪微博开放平台设置的回调页

                var requestAuthorizationCode_url = 
                    string.Format("https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/authorize?client_id={0}&response_type=code&redirect_uri={1}", 
                    appKey, 
                    callbackUrl);

                // 第一步:request authorization code
                WebAuthenticationResult WebAuthenticationResult = await WebAuthenticationBroker.AuthenticateAsync(
                    WebAuthenticationOptions.None,
                    new Uri(requestAuthorizationCode_url),
                    new Uri(callbackUrl));

                // 第一步的结果
                lblMsg.Text = WebAuthenticationResult.ResponseStatus.ToString() + Environment.NewLine;

                if (WebAuthenticationResult.ResponseStatus == WebAuthenticationStatus.Success)
                {
                    // 从第一步返回的数据中获取 authorization code
                    var authorizationCode = QueryString(WebAuthenticationResult.ResponseData, "code");
                    lblMsg.Text += "authorizationCode: " + authorizationCode + Environment.NewLine;

                    var requestAccessToken_url =
                        string.Format("https://api.weibo.com/oauth2/access_token?client_id={0}&client_secret={1}&grant_type=authorization_code&redirect_uri={2}&code={3}", 
                        appKey, 
                        appSecret,
                        callbackUrl,
                        authorizationCode);

                    // 第二步:request access token
                    HttpClient client = new HttpClient();
                    var response = await client.PostAsync(new Uri(requestAccessToken_url), null);

                    // 第二步的结果:获取其中的 access token
                    var jsonString = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
                    JsonObject jsonObject = JsonObject.Parse(jsonString);
                    var accessToken = jsonObject["access_token"].GetString();
                    lblMsg.Text += "accessToken: " + accessToken + Environment.NewLine;

                    var requestProtectedResource_url =
                        string.Format("https://api.weibo.com/2/statuses/friends_timeline.json?access_token={0}", 
                        accessToken);

                    // 第三步:request protected resource,获取需要的数据(本例为获取登录用户好友最新发布的微博)
                    var result = await client.GetStringAsync(new Uri(requestProtectedResource_url));
                    lblMsg.Text += "result: " + result;
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                lblMsg.Text += Environment.NewLine;
                lblMsg.Text += ex.ToString();

                // 由于本 app 没有提交新浪微博开放平台审核,所以需要在新浪微博开放平台中添加测试账号,否则会出现异常
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 模拟 QueryString 的实现
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="queryString">query 字符串</param>
        /// <param name="key">key</param>
        private string QueryString(string queryString, string key)
        {
            return Regex.Match(queryString, string.Format(@"(?<=(\&|\?|^)({0})\=).*?(?=\&|$)", key), RegexOptions.IgnoreCase).Value;
        }  
    }
}

/*
 * OAuth 2.0 的 Protocol Flow
     +--------+                               +---------------+
     |        |--(A)- Authorization Request ->|   Resource    |
     |        |                               |     Owner     |
     |        |<-(B)-- Authorization Grant ---|               |
     |        |                               +---------------+
     |        |
     |        |                               +---------------+
     |        |--(C)-- Authorization Grant -->| Authorization |
     | Client |                               |     Server    |
     |        |<-(D)----- Access Token -------|               |
     |        |                               +---------------+
     |        |
     |        |                               +---------------+
     |        |--(E)----- Access Token ------>|    Resource   |
     |        |                               |     Server    |
     |        |<-(F)--- Protected Resource ---|               |
     +--------+                               +---------------+
*/



OK
[源码下载]