锋行_THU_SJTU

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这是之前遇到的一道面试题,后来也确实在工作中实际遇到了。于是记录一下,如何(优雅的)比较两个未知结构的json。

假设,现在有两个简单的json文件。

{
    "id":1,
    "name":"testjson01",
    "isadmin":true
}
{
    "isadmin":true,
    "name":"testjson01",
    "id":1    
}

那么,如何比较这两个json的内容是否相同呢?

首先,最基本的方法就是利用golang的反射提供的DeepEqual()

假设我们有一个读取json文件的函数如下:

func LoadJson(path string, dist interface{}) (err error) {
    var content []byte
    if content, err = ioutil.ReadFile(path); err == nil {
        err = json.Unmarshal(content, dist)
    }
    return err
}

那么,我们可以调用该函数来读取json文件。由于json的结构是未知的,所以我们需要声明一个map[string]interface{}来存放对json文件的解析结果。

func main() {
    var (
        json1 map[string]interface{}
        json2 map[string]interface{}
    )
    if err := service.LoadJson("./etc/json/json01.json", &json1); err != nil {
        fmt.Println(err)
    }
    if err := service.LoadJson("./etc/json/json02.json", &json2); err != nil {
        fmt.Println(err)
    }
    fmt.Println(reflect.DeepEqual(json1, json2))
}

这会在终端中输出一个比较的结果:

true

如果我们只需要知道两个json是否相同,那么这样一段简单的代码就可以实现这个要求。

接下来,我们要解决“优雅的”这个定语。

大多数情况下,我们比较两个json,不止需要知道他们是否相同。在他们结构不同的时候,我们还会很自然的关心,他们的区别在哪里。

下面就来解决这个问题。

首先,我们来分析一下json的结构。json作为一个类map的结构体,他的value可能分为3类:

1. json。json的值可能还是json。这就意味着,遇到了值为json的情况,我们需要进行嵌套的比较。另外一点需要注意的,是json结构体本身是无序的,所以比较过程中,要处理好这一点。

2. jsonArray。json的值也有可能是jsonArray。这不仅带来了嵌套比较,还要注意,jsonArray跟json相比,它是有序的。

3. 简单值。这里的简单值包括字符串,实数和布尔值。简单值只需要比较类型和值是否相同即可,也不存在嵌套的情况。

那么思路就清晰了,对于两个json结构体json1和json2,我们首先要遍历json1的键值对,检查json2是否存在对应的键值对,然后根据值的类型分别进行处理。

这里,我们利用golang的反射value.(type)。需要注意的是,value.(type)只能用在switch-case结构中,当我们通过switch判断了value的类型之后,就可以利用断言对其进行类型转换。

在简单值的比较中,因为其不存在结构嵌套的情况,值不同即说明该处存在不同,这样我们就可以用DeepEqual()来简化比较过程。

最后再检查json2中是否存在json1不存在的键值对。

这样,比较是否相同这一目的就达到了。但是目前,这与DeepEqual()并没有不同。所以,我们还需要把整个比较的过程记录下来。对于相同的部分,我们记录json的内容;对于不同的部分,我们分别记录下两者的区别。

type JsonDiff struct {
    HasDiff bool
    Result  string
}

func marshal(j interface{}) string {
    value, _ := json.Marshal(j)
    return string(value)
}

func jsonDiffDict(json1, json2 map[string]interface{}, depth int, diff *JsonDiff) {
    blank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth - 1)))
    longBlank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth)))
    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "{"
    for key, value := range json1 {
        quotedKey := fmt.Sprintf("\"%s\"", key)
        if _, ok := json2[key]; ok {
            switch value.(type) {
            case map[string]interface{}:
                if _, ok2 := json2[key].(map[string]interface{}); !ok2 {
                    diff.HasDiff = true
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(json2[key])
                } else {
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + quotedKey + ": "
                    jsonDiffDict(value.(map[string]interface{}), json2[key].(map[string]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
                }
            case []interface{}:
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + quotedKey + ": "
                if _, ok2 := json2[key].([]interface{}); !ok2 {
                    diff.HasDiff = true
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(json2[key])
                } else {
                    jsonDiffList(value.([]interface{}), json2[key].([]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
                }
            default:
                if !reflect.DeepEqual(value, json2[key]) {
                    diff.HasDiff = true
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(json2[key])
                } else {
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value)
                }
            }
        } else {
            diff.HasDiff = true
            diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value)
        }
        diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
    }
    for key, value := range json2 {
        if _, ok := json1[key]; !ok {
            diff.HasDiff = true
            diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + "\"" + key + "\"" + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
        }
    }
    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "}"
}

func jsonDiffList(json1, json2 []interface{}, depth int, diff *JsonDiff) {
    blank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth - 1)))
    longBlank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth)))
    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "["
    size := len(json1)
    if size > len(json2) {
        size = len(json2)
    }
    for i := 0; i < size; i++ {
        switch json1[i].(type) {
        case map[string]interface{}:
            if _, ok := json2[i].(map[string]interface{}); ok {
                jsonDiffDict(json1[i].(map[string]interface{}), json2[i].(map[string]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
            } else {
                diff.HasDiff = true
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i]) + ","
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
            }
        case []interface{}:
            if _, ok2 := json2[i].([]interface{}); !ok2 {
                diff.HasDiff = true
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i]) + ","
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
            } else {
                jsonDiffList(json1[i].([]interface{}), json2[i].([]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
            }
        default:
            if !reflect.DeepEqual(json1[i], json2[i]) {
                diff.HasDiff = true
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i]) + ","
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
            } else {
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + marshal(json1[i])
            }
        }
        diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
    }
    for i := size; i < len(json1); i++ {
        diff.HasDiff = true
        diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i])
        diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
    }
    for i := size; i < len(json2); i++ {
        diff.HasDiff = true
        diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
        diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
    }
    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "]"
}

因为可能会出现,json很长,但是区别只有一两行这种情况,所以我们还需要设定一个输出范围宽度的设定。

当宽度<0时,输出完整的json比较结果。当宽度>=0时,将输出区别范围结果向上下各扩展宽度行的结果。

 

那么,完整代码如下:

package service

import (
    "encoding/json"
    "fmt"
    "io/ioutil"
    "reflect"
    "strings"
)

type JsonDiff struct {
    HasDiff bool
    Result  string
}

func JsonCompare(left, right map[string]interface{}, n int) (string, bool) {
    diff := &JsonDiff{HasDiff: false, Result: ""}
    jsonDiffDict(left, right, 1, diff)
    if diff.HasDiff {
        if n < 0 {
            return diff.Result, diff.HasDiff
        } else {
            return processContext(diff.Result, n), diff.HasDiff
        }
    }
    return "", diff.HasDiff
}

func marshal(j interface{}) string {
    value, _ := json.Marshal(j)
    return string(value)
}

func jsonDiffDict(json1, json2 map[string]interface{}, depth int, diff *JsonDiff) {
    blank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth - 1)))
    longBlank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth)))
    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "{"
    for key, value := range json1 {
        quotedKey := fmt.Sprintf("\"%s\"", key)
        if _, ok := json2[key]; ok {
            switch value.(type) {
            case map[string]interface{}:
                if _, ok2 := json2[key].(map[string]interface{}); !ok2 {
                    diff.HasDiff = true
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(json2[key])
                } else {
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + quotedKey + ": "
                    jsonDiffDict(value.(map[string]interface{}), json2[key].(map[string]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
                }
            case []interface{}:
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + quotedKey + ": "
                if _, ok2 := json2[key].([]interface{}); !ok2 {
                    diff.HasDiff = true
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(json2[key])
                } else {
                    jsonDiffList(value.([]interface{}), json2[key].([]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
                }
            default:
                if !reflect.DeepEqual(value, json2[key]) {
                    diff.HasDiff = true
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(json2[key])
                } else {
                    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value)
                }
            }
        } else {
            diff.HasDiff = true
            diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + quotedKey + ": " + marshal(value)
        }
        diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
    }
    for key, value := range json2 {
        if _, ok := json1[key]; !ok {
            diff.HasDiff = true
            diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + "\"" + key + "\"" + ": " + marshal(value) + ","
        }
    }
    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "}"
}

func jsonDiffList(json1, json2 []interface{}, depth int, diff *JsonDiff) {
    blank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth - 1)))
    longBlank := strings.Repeat(" ", (2 * (depth)))
    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "["
    size := len(json1)
    if size > len(json2) {
        size = len(json2)
    }
    for i := 0; i < size; i++ {
        switch json1[i].(type) {
        case map[string]interface{}:
            if _, ok := json2[i].(map[string]interface{}); ok {
                jsonDiffDict(json1[i].(map[string]interface{}), json2[i].(map[string]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
            } else {
                diff.HasDiff = true
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i]) + ","
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
            }
        case []interface{}:
            if _, ok2 := json2[i].([]interface{}); !ok2 {
                diff.HasDiff = true
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i]) + ","
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
            } else {
                jsonDiffList(json1[i].([]interface{}), json2[i].([]interface{}), depth+1, diff)
            }
        default:
            if !reflect.DeepEqual(json1[i], json2[i]) {
                diff.HasDiff = true
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i]) + ","
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
            } else {
                diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + longBlank + marshal(json1[i])
            }
        }
        diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
    }
    for i := size; i < len(json1); i++ {
        diff.HasDiff = true
        diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n-" + blank + marshal(json1[i])
        diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
    }
    for i := size; i < len(json2); i++ {
        diff.HasDiff = true
        diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n+" + blank + marshal(json2[i])
        diff.Result = diff.Result + ","
    }
    diff.Result = diff.Result + "\n" + blank + "]"
}

func processContext(diff string, n int) string {
    index1 := strings.Index(diff, "\n-")
    index2 := strings.Index(diff, "\n+")
    begin := 0
    end := 0
    if index1 >= 0 && index2 >= 0 {
        if index1 <= index2 {
            begin = index1
        } else {
            begin = index2
        }
    } else if index1 >= 0 {
        begin = index1
    } else if index2 >= 0 {
        begin = index2
    }
    index1 = strings.LastIndex(diff, "\n-")
    index2 = strings.LastIndex(diff, "\n+")
    if index1 >= 0 && index2 >= 0 {
        if index1 <= index2 {
            end = index2
        } else {
            end = index1
        }
    } else if index1 >= 0 {
        end = index1
    } else if index2 >= 0 {
        end = index2
    }
    pre := diff[0:begin]
    post := diff[end:]
    i := 0
    l := begin
    for i < n && l >= 0 {
        i++
        l = strings.LastIndex(pre[0:l], "\n")
    }
    r := 0
    j := 0
    for j <= n && r >= 0 {
        j++
        t := strings.Index(post[r:], "\n")
        if t >= 0 {
            r = r + t + 1
        }
    }
    if r < 0 {
        r = len(post)
    }
    return pre[l+1:] + diff[begin:end] + post[0:r+1]
}

func LoadJson(path string, dist interface{}) (err error) {
    var content []byte
    if content, err = ioutil.ReadFile(path); err == nil {
        err = json.Unmarshal(content, dist)
    }
    return err
}

 

posted on 2018-09-17 15:16 锋行_THU_SJTU 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏