获取客户端真实IP地址

Java-Web获取客户端真实IP:

  

发生的场景:服务器端接收客户端请求的时候,一般需要进行签名验证,客户端IP限定等情况,在进行客户端IP限定的时候,需要首先获取该真实的IP。

一般分为两种情况:

  方式一、客户端未经过代理,直接访问服务器端(nginx,squid,haproxy);

  方式二、客户端通过多级代理,最终到达服务器端(nginx,squid,haproxy);

 

客户端请求信息都包含在HttpServletRequest中,可以通过方法getRemoteAddr()获得该客户端IP。

  方式一形式,可以直接获得该客户端真实IP。

  方式二中通过代理的形式,此时经过多级反向的代理,通过方法getRemoteAddr()得不到客户端真实IP,可以通过x-forwarded-for获得转发后请求信息。当客户端请求被转发,IP将会追加在其后并以逗号隔开,例如:10.47.103.13,4.2.2.2,10.96.112.230。

 

请求中的参数:

  request.getHeader("x-forwarded-for") : 10.47.103.13,4.2.2.2,10.96.112.230

  request.getHeader("X-Real-IP") : 10.47.103.13

  request.getRemoteAddr():10.96.112.230

 

客户端访问经过转发,IP将会追加在其后并以逗号隔开。最终准确的客户端信息为:

  • x-forwarded-for 不为空,则为逗号前第一个IP ;
  • X-Real-IP不为空,则为该IP ;
  • 否则为getRemoteAddr() ;

 

相关请求头的解释:

  • X-Forwarded-For :这是一个 Squid 开发的字段,只有在通过了HTTP代理或者负载均衡服务器时才会添加该项。    

    格式为X-Forwarded-For:client1,proxy1,proxy2,一般情况下,第一个ip为客户端真实ip,后面的为经过的代理服务器ip。现在大部分的代理都会加上这个请求头。

  • Proxy-Client-IP/WL- Proxy-Client-IP :这个一般是经过apache http服务器的请求才会有,用apache http做代理时一般会加上Proxy-Client-IP请求头,而WL-Proxy-Client-IP是他的weblogic插件加上的头。
  • HTTP_CLIENT_IP :有些代理服务器会加上此请求头。
  • X-Real-IP  :nginx代理一般会加上此请求头。

 

 1     /** 
 2      * 获取用户真实IP地址,不使用request.getRemoteAddr()的原因是有可能用户使用了代理软件方式避免真实IP地址, 
 3      * 可是,如果通过了多级反向代理的话,X-Forwarded-For的值并不止一个,而是一串IP值 
 4      */
 5     private String getIpAddr(HttpServletRequest request) {
 6         String ip = request.getHeader("x-forwarded-for"); 
 7         System.out.println("x-forwarded-for ip: " + ip);
 8         if (ip != null && ip.length() != 0 && !"unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {  
 9             // 多次反向代理后会有多个ip值,第一个ip才是真实ip
10             if( ip.indexOf(",")!=-1 ){
11                 ip = ip.split(",")[0];
12             }
13         }  
14         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {  
15             ip = request.getHeader("Proxy-Client-IP");  
16             System.out.println("Proxy-Client-IP ip: " + ip);
17         }  
18         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {  
19             ip = request.getHeader("WL-Proxy-Client-IP");  
20             System.out.println("WL-Proxy-Client-IP ip: " + ip);
21         }  
22         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {  
23             ip = request.getHeader("HTTP_CLIENT_IP");  
24             System.out.println("HTTP_CLIENT_IP ip: " + ip);
25         }  
26         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {  
27             ip = request.getHeader("HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR");  
28             System.out.println("HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR ip: " + ip);
29         }  
30         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {  
31             ip = request.getHeader("X-Real-IP");  
32             System.out.println("X-Real-IP ip: " + ip);
33         }  
34         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {  
35             ip = request.getRemoteAddr();  
36             System.out.println("getRemoteAddr ip: " + ip);
37         } 
38         System.out.println("获取客户端ip: " + ip);
39         return ip;  
40     }

 

 1 import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
 2 
 3 /**
 4 * IP校验
 5 */
 6 public class IPUtils {
 7     
 8     public static String getClientAddress(HttpServletRequest request) {
 9         if (request == null) {
10             return "unknown";
11         }
12         String ip = request.getHeader("x-forwarded-for");
13         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {
14             ip = request.getHeader("Proxy-Client-IP");
15         }
16         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {
17             ip = request.getHeader("X-Forwarded-For");
18         }
19         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {
20             ip = request.getHeader("WL-Proxy-Client-IP");
21         }
22         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {
23             ip = request.getHeader("X-Real-IP");
24         }
25 
26         if (ip == null || ip.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ip)) {
27             ip = request.getRemoteAddr();
28         }
29         return ip.equals("0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1") ? "127.0.0.1" : ip;
30     }
31     
32 }
 1 public String getIpAddr(HttpServletRequest request){  
 2         String ipAddress = request.getHeader("x-forwarded-for");  
 3             if(ipAddress == null || ipAddress.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ipAddress)) {  
 4                 ipAddress = request.getHeader("Proxy-Client-IP");  
 5             }  
 6             if(ipAddress == null || ipAddress.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ipAddress)) {  
 7                 ipAddress = request.getHeader("WL-Proxy-Client-IP");  
 8             }  
 9             if(ipAddress == null || ipAddress.length() == 0 || "unknown".equalsIgnoreCase(ipAddress)) {  
10                 ipAddress = request.getRemoteAddr();  
11                 if(ipAddress.equals("127.0.0.1") || ipAddress.equals("0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1")){  
12                     //根据网卡取本机配置的IP  
13                     InetAddress inet=null;  
14                     try {  
15                         inet = InetAddress.getLocalHost();  
16                     } catch (UnknownHostException e) {  
17                         e.printStackTrace();  
18                     }  
19                     ipAddress= inet.getHostAddress();  
20                 }  
21             }  
22             //对于通过多个代理的情况,第一个IP为客户端真实IP,多个IP按照','分割  
23             if(ipAddress!=null && ipAddress.length()>15){ //"***.***.***.***".length() = 15  
24                 if(ipAddress.indexOf(",")>0){  
25                     ipAddress = ipAddress.substring(0,ipAddress.indexOf(","));  
26                 }  
27             }  
28             return ipAddress;   
29     }

 

太平洋网络IP地址查询Web接口:http://whois.pconline.com.cn/

  1 import java.io.BufferedReader;
  2 import java.io.DataOutputStream;
  3 import java.io.IOException;
  4 import java.io.InputStreamReader;
  5 import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
  6 import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
  7 import java.net.URL;
  8 
  9 /**
 10  *     根据IP地址获取详细的地域信息 第一个方法是传入ip获取真实地址 最后一个方法是获取访问者真实ip 即使通过Nginx多层代理也可以获取
 11  */
 12 public class AddressUtils {
 13 
 14     public static String getAddresses(String content, String encodingString) throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
 15         // 这里调用pconline的接口
 16         String urlStr = "http://ip.taobao.com/service/getIpInfo.php";
 17         // 从http://whois.pconline.com.cn取得IP所在的省市区信息
 18         String returnStr = getResult(urlStr, content, encodingString);
 19         if (returnStr != null) {
 20             // 处理返回的省市区信息
 21             System.out.println(returnStr);
 22             String[] temp = returnStr.split(",");
 23             if (temp.length < 3) {
 24                 return "0";// 无效IP,局域网测试
 25             }
 26             String country = "";
 27             String area = "";
 28             String region = "";
 29             String city = "";
 30             String county = "";
 31             String isp = "";
 32             for (int i = 0; i < temp.length; i++) {
 33                 switch (i) {
 34                 case 1:
 35                     country = (temp[i].split(":"))[2].replaceAll("\"", "");
 36                     country = decodeUnicode(country);// 国家
 37                     break;
 38 //                  case 3:  
 39 //                      area = (temp[i].split(":"))[1].replaceAll("\"", "");  
 40 //                      area =decodeUnicode(area);//地区  
 41 //                   break;  
 42                 case 5:
 43                     region = (temp[i].split(":"))[1].replaceAll("\"", "");
 44                     region = decodeUnicode(region);// 省份
 45                     break;
 46                 case 7:
 47                     city = (temp[i].split(":"))[1].replaceAll("\"", "");
 48                     city = decodeUnicode(city);// 市区
 49                     break;
 50                 case 9:
 51                     county = (temp[i].split(":"))[1].replaceAll("\"", "");
 52                     county = decodeUnicode(county);// 地区
 53                     break;
 54                 case 11:
 55                     isp = (temp[i].split(":"))[1].replaceAll("\"", "");
 56                     isp = decodeUnicode(isp);// ISP公司
 57                     break;
 58                 }
 59             }
 60             System.out.println(country + area + "=" + region + "=" + city + "=" + county + "=" + isp);
 61             StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer(country).append(region).append(city).append(county).append(" ")
 62                     .append(isp);
 63             return sb.toString();
 64         }
 65         return null;
 66     }
 67 
 68     /**
 69      * @param urlStr   请求的地址
 70      * @param content  请求的参数 格式为:name=xxx&pwd=xxx
 71      * @param encoding 服务器端请求编码。如GBK,UTF-8等
 72      * @return
 73      */
 74     private static String getResult(String urlStr, String content, String encoding) {
 75         URL url = null;
 76         HttpURLConnection connection = null;
 77         try {
 78             url = new URL(urlStr);
 79             connection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();// 新建连接实例
 80             connection.setConnectTimeout(3000);// 设置连接超时时间,单位毫秒
 81             connection.setReadTimeout(3000);// 设置读取数据超时时间,单位毫秒
 82             connection.setDoOutput(true);// 是否打开输出流 true|false
 83             connection.setDoInput(true);// 是否打开输入流true|false
 84             connection.setRequestMethod("POST");// 提交方法POST|GET
 85             connection.setUseCaches(false);// 是否缓存true|false
 86             connection.connect();// 打开连接端口
 87             DataOutputStream out = new DataOutputStream(connection.getOutputStream());// 打开输出流往对端服务器写数据
 88             out.writeBytes(content);// 写数据(提交表单)
 89             out.flush();// 刷新
 90             out.close();// 关闭输出流
 91             // 往对端写完数据对端服务器返回数据,以BufferedReader流来读取
 92             BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(connection.getInputStream(), encoding));
 93             StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer();
 94             String line = "";
 95             while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
 96                 buffer.append(line);
 97             }
 98             reader.close();
 99             return buffer.toString();
100         } catch (IOException e) {
101             e.printStackTrace();
102         } finally {
103             if (connection != null) {
104                 connection.disconnect();// 关闭连接
105             }
106         }
107         return null;
108     }
109 
110     /**
111      * unicode 转换成 中文
112      */
113     public static String decodeUnicode(String theString) {
114         char aChar;
115         int len = theString.length();
116         StringBuffer outBuffer = new StringBuffer(len);
117         for (int x = 0; x < len;) {
118             aChar = theString.charAt(x++);
119             if (aChar == '\\') {
120                 aChar = theString.charAt(x++);
121                 if (aChar == 'u') {
122                     int value = 0;
123                     for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
124                         aChar = theString.charAt(x++);
125                         switch (aChar) {
126                         case '0':
127                         case '1':
128                         case '2':
129                         case '3':
130                         case '4':
131                         case '5':
132                         case '6':
133                         case '7':
134                         case '8':
135                         case '9':
136                             value = (value << 4) + aChar - '0';
137                             break;
138                         case 'a':
139                         case 'b':
140                         case 'c':
141                         case 'd':
142                         case 'e':
143                         case 'f':
144                             value = (value << 4) + 10 + aChar - 'a';
145                             break;
146                         case 'A':
147                         case 'B':
148                         case 'C':
149                         case 'D':
150                         case 'E':
151                         case 'F':
152                             value = (value << 4) + 10 + aChar - 'A';
153                             break;
154                         default:
155                             throw new IllegalArgumentException("Malformed      encoding.");
156                         }
157                     }
158                     outBuffer.append((char) value);
159                 } else {
160                     if (aChar == 't') {
161                         aChar = '\t';
162                     } else if (aChar == 'r') {
163                         aChar = '\r';
164                     } else if (aChar == 'n') {
165                         aChar = '\n';
166                     } else if (aChar == 'f') {
167                         aChar = '\f';
168                     }
169                     outBuffer.append(aChar);
170                 }
171             } else {
172                 outBuffer.append(aChar);
173             }
174         }
175         return outBuffer.toString();
176     }
177 
178     // 测试
179     public static void main(String[] args) {
180         AddressUtils addressUtils = new AddressUtils();
181         
182         /**
183          *     测试IP:111.121.72.101  中国贵州省贵阳市 电信
184          */
185         String ip = "111.121.72.101";
186         String address = "";
187         try {
188             address = addressUtils.getAddresses("ip=" + ip, "utf-8");
189         } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
190             e.printStackTrace();
191         } catch (Exception e) {
192             e.printStackTrace();
193         }
194         System.out.println(address);//中国贵州省贵阳市 电信
195     }
196 }

 

posted @ 2018-09-07 16:53  为你编程  阅读(24420)  评论(0编辑  收藏