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1. 简介

kea是下一代的dhcp技术,也是ISC开发的。它支持ipv4和ipv6的地址分配,并且还可以支持动态dns更新。kea从2014年初开始研发,也算是比较新的技术了,并且现在也在更新中。


 
kea

现在工作中遇到一些问题。新到货的服务器要配置带外ip,之前使用老的DHCP方法根据mac地址绑定IP,但是这样做总感觉不太好。
第一、每个机房都有一个配置文件,管理起来不方便;
第二、当我需要查询绑定的结果时,查询起来也不方便;
第三、配置文件毕竟是文件格式,安全性不太好保障。
因为遇到了上面的种种问题,我就想,有没有什么方法可以把mac与ip的记录放到数据库中。这样更安全可靠好管理,然后在凯哥的指点下,学会了kea这个dhcp服务。
感觉非常好,唯一不足的就是有些很实用的功能需要花钱购买,还贵,还是dollar。

1.1 支持的平台

根据官方的说法,他支持的平台比较多,例如Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Fedora 和 FreeBSD等。现在比较新的Kea版本是Kea 1.4.0 。在很多系统上测试都没问题。并且centos上安装epel源,可以直接yum安装kea(yum install kea),只不过版本比较低。

2. 安装

这里的安装过程,我就按照我的方法来讲了,有兴趣多了解的同学可以去官网查看。

2.1 安装数据库

[root@test01 ~]# cat /etc/centos-release
CentOS Linux release 7.4.1708 (Core)
[root@test01 ~]# yum install mariadb mariadb-server -y
[root@test01 ~]# systemctl start mariadb.service
[root@test01 ~]# systemctl enable mariadb.service
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mariadb.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service.
[root@test01 ~]# mysql_secure_installation

2.2 安装必要的依赖

[root@test01 ~]# yum install gcc gcc-c++ openssl-devel mariadb-devel libtool automake autoconf -y

2.3 编译安装必要的依赖

安装Boost C++库,要求版本在1.57以上,不然可能工作的不太好。
这个安装可能比较慢,要有耐心。

[root@test01 ~]# wget https://dl.bintray.com/boostorg/release/1.65.1/source/boost_1_65_1.tar.gz
[root@test01 ~]# tar -zxvf boost_1_65_1.tar.gz
[root@test01 ~]# cd boost_1_65_1/
[root@test01 boost_1_65_1]# ./bootstrap.sh
[root@test01 boost_1_65_1]# ./b2 install

安装log4cplus,要求版本在1.0.3以上。

[root@test01 ~]# wget https://jaist.dl.sourceforge.net/project/log4cplus/log4cplus-stable/2.0.1/log4cplus-2.0.1.tar.gz
[root@test01 ~]# tar -zxvf log4cplus-2.0.1.tar.gz
[root@test01 ~]# cd log4cplus-2.0.1/
[root@test01 log4cplus-2.0.1]# ./configure
[root@test01 log4cplus-2.0.1]# make
[root@test01 log4cplus-2.0.1]# make install

2.4 安装kea

这里也非常慢,要有耐心。

[root@test01 ~]# wget http://ftp.isc.org/isc/kea/1.4.0/kea-1.4.0.tar.gz
[root@test01 ~]# tar -zxvf kea-1.4.0.tar.gz
[root@test01 ~]# cd kea-1.4.0/
[root@test01 kea-1.4.0]# ./configure --with-mysql
[root@test01 kea-1.4.0]# make
[root@test01 kea-1.4.0]# make install

3. 配置

3.1 简单的配置验证

初始化数据库

[root@test01 kea-1.4.0]# mysql -u root  -p
Enter password: 
...

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE kea;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE USER 'kea'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'kea';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL ON kea.* TO 'kea'@'%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> quit
Bye
[root@test01 kea-1.4.0]# kea-admin lease-init mysql -u kea -p kea -n kea
Checking if there is a database initialized already. Please ignore errors.
Initializing database using script /usr/local/share/kea/scripts/mysql/dhcpdb_create.mysql
mysql returned status code 0
Lease DB version reported after initialization: 6.0

因为我的测试环境没有ipv6,所以去掉ipv6服务的启动。

[root@test01 ~]# cd /usr/local/etc/kea/
[root@test01 kea]# vim keactrl.conf 
dhcp6=no

配置dhcpv4的网络端口。

[root@test01 kea]# ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN qlen 1
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:9b:7b:dc brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.1.30/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global ens33
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: ens37: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:9b:7b:e6 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.212.1/24 brd 192.168.212.255 scope global ens37
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
[root@test01 kea]# vim kea-dhcp4.conf 
"interfaces-config": {
        "interfaces": ["ens37"]
    },

配置IP地址段

[root@test01 kea]# vim kea-dhcp4.conf
"subnet4": [
{
      "subnet": "192.168.212.0/24",
      "pools": [ { "pool": "192.168.212.100 - 192.168.212.200" } ],
      "option-data": [ { "name": "routers", "data": "192.168.212.201" } ]
}
]

启动kea服务并测试

[root@test01 kea]# keactrl start
INFO/keactrl: Starting /usr/local/sbin/kea-dhcp4 -c /usr/local/etc/kea/kea-dhcp4.conf
INFO/keactrl: kea-ctrl-agent appears to be running, see: PID 97955, PID file: /usr/local/var/kea/kea-ctrl-agent.kea-ctrl-agent.pid.
[root@test01 kea]# keactrl status
DHCPv4 server: active
DHCPv6 server: inactive
DHCP DDNS: inactive
Control Agent: active
Kea DHCPv4 configuration file: /usr/local/etc/kea/kea-dhcp4.conf
Kea DHCPv6 configuration file: /usr/local/etc/kea/kea-dhcp6.conf
Kea DHCP DDNS configuration file: /usr/local/etc/kea/kea-dhcp-ddns.conf
Kea Control Agent configuration file: /usr/local/etc/kea/kea-ctrl-agent.conf
keactrl configuration file: /usr/local/etc/kea/keactrl.conf

客户端进行测试

[root@test01 ~]# dhclient -v ens33
Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client 4.2.5
Copyright 2004-2013 Internet Systems Consortium.
All rights reserved.
For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/

Listening on LPF/ens33/00:0c:29:f9:21:91
Sending on   LPF/ens33/00:0c:29:f9:21:91
Sending on   Socket/fallback
DHCPDISCOVER on ens33 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 6 (xid=0x62beba25)
DHCPREQUEST on ens33 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 (xid=0x62beba25)
DHCPOFFER from 192.168.212.1
DHCPACK from 192.168.212.1 (xid=0x62beba25)
bound to 192.168.212.100 -- renewal in 877 seconds.
[root@test01 ~]# ip r
default via 192.168.212.201 dev ens33 
192.168.128.0/24 dev ens37 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.128.128 
192.168.212.0/24 dev ens33 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.212.100 
[root@test01 ~]#

查看kea的日志

[root@test01 kea]# tail -n2 /usr/local/var/log/kea-dhcp4.log
2018-07-07 00:37:53.599 INFO  [kea-dhcp4.leases/97980] DHCP4_LEASE_ADVERT [hwtype=1 00:0c:29:f9:21:91], cid=[no info], tid=0x25babe62: lease 192.168.212.100 will be advertised
2018-07-07 00:37:53.600 INFO  [kea-dhcp4.leases/97980] DHCP4_LEASE_ALLOC [hwtype=1 00:0c:29:f9:21:91], cid=[no info], tid=0x25babe62: lease 192.168.212.100 has been allocated

至此,基本的功能已经完成

3.2 数据库绑定ip

配置数据库的连接地址

[root@test01 kea]# pwd
/usr/local/etc/kea
[root@test01 kea]# vim kea-dhcp4.conf 
    "hosts-database": {
        "type": "mysql",
        "name": "kea",
        "user": "kea",
        "password": "kea",
        "host": "192.168.1.30",
        "port": 3306
    },

将mac和ip绑定的配置插到数据库中

[root@test01 kea]# cat mac_ip.sql 
START TRANSACTION;
---要分配的IP地址
SET @ipv4_reservation='192.168.212.99';
---要分配的主机名,有这个功能但是很少用
SET @hostname = 'myhost.example.org';
---绑定的类型,一般情况是hw-address,代表mac地址
SET @identifier_type='hw-address';
---客户端的mac地址
SET @identifier_value='00:0C:29:F9:21:91';
---网络id,这个可以自己定义
SET @dhcp4_subnet_id=1;
---PXE启动的时候配置的nextserver,一般不在这里配,但是也可以指定
SET @next_server='192.168.212.1';
---nextserver的主机名
SET @server_hostname='server-name.example.org';
---PXE启动的文件,一般是pxelinux.0;如果是efi启动模式的话,文件不一样
SET @boot_file_name='bootfile.efi';

INSERT INTO hosts (dhcp_identifier,
                   dhcp_identifier_type,
                   dhcp4_subnet_id,
                   ipv4_address,
                   hostname,
                   dhcp4_next_server,
                   dhcp4_server_hostname,
                   dhcp4_boot_file_name)
VALUES (UNHEX(REPLACE(@identifier_value, ':', '')),
        (SELECT type FROM host_identifier_type WHERE name=@identifier_type),
        @dhcp4_subnet_id,
        INET_ATON(@ipv4_reservation),
        @hostname,
        INET_ATON(@next_server),
        @server_hostname,
        @boot_file_name);

COMMIT;
[root@test01 kea]# mysql -u kea -h 192.168.212.1 -p
Enter password: 
MariaDB [(none)]> use kea;
MariaDB [kea]> source mac_ip.sql;

MariaDB [kea]> SELECT
    ->     HEX(h.dhcp_identifier) AS dhcp_identifier,
    ->     i.name AS dhcp_identifier_name,
    ->     h.dhcp4_subnet_id AS dhcp4_subnet_id,
    ->     INET_NTOA(h.ipv4_address) AS ipv4_address,
    ->     h.hostname AS hostname
    -> FROM
    ->     hosts AS h
    ->         INNER JOIN
    ->     host_identifier_type AS i ON h.dhcp_identifier_type = i.type;
+-----------------+----------------------+-----------------+----------------+--------------------+
| dhcp_identifier | dhcp_identifier_name | dhcp4_subnet_id | ipv4_address   | hostname           |
+-----------------+----------------------+-----------------+----------------+--------------------+
| 000C29F92191    | hw-address           |               1 | 192.168.212.99 | myhost.example.org |
+-----------------+----------------------+-----------------+----------------+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [kea]> exit
Bye
[root@test01 kea]# cd
[root@test01 ~]# keactrl reload
INFO/keactrl: Reloading kea-dhcp4...
INFO/keactrl: kea-dhcp6 isn't running.
INFO/keactrl: kea-dhcp-ddns isn't running.
INFO/keactrl: Reloading kea-ctrl-agent...

测试成功

[root@test01 ~]# ip r
default via 192.168.212.201 dev ens33 
192.168.128.0/24 dev ens37 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.128.128 
192.168.212.0/24 dev ens33 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.212.100 
[root@test01 ~]# 
[root@test01 ~]# 
[root@test01 ~]# dhclient -r ens33
[root@test01 ~]# ip r
192.168.128.0/24 dev ens37 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.128.128 
[root@test01 ~]# dhclient -v ens33
Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client 4.2.5
Copyright 2004-2013 Internet Systems Consortium.
All rights reserved.
For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/

Listening on LPF/ens33/00:0c:29:f9:21:91
Sending on   LPF/ens33/00:0c:29:f9:21:91
Sending on   Socket/fallback
DHCPDISCOVER on ens33 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 6 (xid=0x514a221b)
DHCPREQUEST on ens33 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 (xid=0x514a221b)
DHCPOFFER from 192.168.212.1
DHCPACK from 192.168.212.1 (xid=0x514a221b)
bound to 192.168.212.99 -- renewal in 703 seconds.
[root@test01 ~]# ip r
default via 192.168.212.201 dev ens33 
192.168.128.0/24 dev ens37 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.128.128 
192.168.212.0/24 dev ens33 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.212.99 
[root@test01 ~]#

至此,数据里面加入mac和ip的绑定已经成功了

3.3 PXE启动配置

  1. 环境测试。
    之前上面加入数据库的有next-server,所以给服务器pxe启动的时候可以看到这么一步:


     
     

    好!接下来我们配置pxe启动!
    首先搭建PXE环境,我上一篇文章有介绍ipxe。

  2. 搭建tftp服务。
[root@test01 ~]# yum install tftp tftp-server xinetd
[root@test01 ~]# cat /etc/xinetd.d/tftp 
service tftp
{
    socket_type     = dgram
    protocol        = udp
    wait            = yes
    user            = root
    server          = /usr/sbin/in.tftpd
    server_args     = -s /var/lib/tftpboot
    disable         = no
    per_source      = 11
    cps         = 100 2
    flags           = IPv4
}
[root@test01 ~]# cd /var/lib/tftpboot/
[root@test01 tftpboot]# wget http://boot.ipxe.org/ipxe.efi
[root@test01 tftpboot]# wget http://boot.ipxe.org/undionly.kpxe
[root@test01 tftpboot]# systemctl enable xinetd
[root@test01 tftpboot]# systemctl restart xinetd
[root@test01 ~]# cd /tmp/
[root@test01 tmp]# tftp
(to) 192.168.212.1
tftp> get undionly.kpxe
tftp> quit
[root@test01 tmp]# md5sum undionly.kpxe 
758e2d856b69a94fb52cf0b1acc091c1  undionly.kpxe
[root@test01 tmp]# md5sum /var/lib/tftpboot/undionly.kpxe 
758e2d856b69a94fb52cf0b1acc091c1  /var/lib/tftpboot/undionly.kpxe
  1. 搭建http服务。
[root@test01 ~]# yum install httpd
[root@test01 ~]# vim /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
ServerAdmin root@192.168.212.1
[root@test01 ~]# systemctl enable httpd.service
[root@test01 ~]# systemctl start httpd.service
[root@test01 ~]# cat /var/www/html/boot/boot_menu.php 
#!ipxe
kernel http://192.168.212.1/boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img
initrd http://192.168.212.1/boot/initrd.img
boot
[root@test01 ~]# cd /var/www/html/boot/
[root@test01 boot]# wget http://mirrors.163.com/centos/6.10/isos/x86_64/CentOS-6.10-x86_64-netinstall.iso
[root@test01 boot]# mount -o loop ./CentOS-6.10-x86_64-netinstall.iso /mnt/
[root@test01 boot]# cd /mnt/isolinux/
[root@test01 isolinux]# cp vmlinuz /var/www/html/boot/
[root@test01 isolinux]# cp initrd.img /var/www/html/boot/
[root@test01 isolinux]# cd /var/www/html/boot/
[root@test01 boot]# umount /mnt/
[root@test01 boot]# mv CentOS-6.10-x86_64-netinstall.iso /tmp/
[root@test01 ~]# curl http://192.168.212.1/boot/boot_menu.php
#!ipxe
kernel http://192.168.212.1/boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img
initrd http://192.168.212.1/boot/initrd.img
boot
[root@test01 ~]#
  1. 删除之前的记录。
    环境搭建好了,理论上没问题了,删掉之前hosts记录。使用sql语句:
DELETE FROM `kea`.`hosts` WHERE  `host_id`=1;
  1. 配置kea-dhcp4文件。
    让我们来指定next-server和filename。默认我们指定的是undionly.kpxe,如果在client-classes中匹配到其它的,那么优先client-classes里的。这个我之前的ipxe文章中介绍过
"client-classes":
    [
      {
        "name": "XClient_iPXE",
        "test": "substring(option[77].hex,0,4) == 'iPXE'",
        "boot-file-name": "http://192.168.212.1/boot/boot_menu.php"
      },
      {
        "name": "HTTPClient",
        "test": "substring(option[60].hex,0,20) == 'PXEClient:Arch:00010'",
        "boot-file-name": "http://192.168.212.1/boot/boot_menu.php"
      },
      {
        "name": "UEFI-32-1",
        "test": "substring(option[60].hex,0,20) == 'PXEClient:Arch:00006'",
        "boot-file-name": "ipxe/i386/ipxe.efi"
      },
      {
        "name": "UEFI-32-2",
        "test": "substring(option[60].hex,0,20) == 'PXEClient:Arch:00002'",
        "boot-file-name": "ipxe/i386/ipxe.efi"
      },
      {
        "name": "UEFI-64-1",
        "test": "substring(option[60].hex,0,20) == 'PXEClient:Arch:00007'",
        "boot-file-name": "ipxe.efi"
      },
      {
        "name": "UEFI-64-2",
        "test": "substring(option[60].hex,0,20) == 'PXEClient:Arch:00008'",
        "boot-file-name": "ipxe.efi"
      },
      {
        "name": "UEFI-64-3",
        "test": "substring(option[60].hex,0,20) == 'PXEClient:Arch:00009'",
        "boot-file-name": "ipxe.efi"
      }
      // {
      //   "name": "Legacy-1",
      //   "test": "substring(option[60].hex,0,20) == 'PXEClient:Arch:00000'",
      //   "boot-file-name": "undionly.kpxe"
      // }
    ],

    "next-server": "192.168.212.1",
    "boot-file-name": "undionly.kpxe",

    "subnet4": [
        {
            "subnet": "192.168.212.0/24",
            "pools": [ { "pool": "192.168.212.100 - 192.168.212.200" } ],
            "option-data": [ { "name": "routers", "data": "192.168.212.1" }]
        }
    ]

注:如果测试不成功,可以把配置文件中的注释和一些无关的配置删掉。这样文档看起来更清晰,当然这可能会让你不清楚每段配置的含义,没关系,你可以参考/usr/local/share/doc/kea/kea-guide.txt或是官方文档。

  1. 最后测试并验证。


     
     

    这个画面不好捕捉,为了好看我们可以做一个ipxe的界面。

  2. 修改启动文件,制作界面
[root@test01 boot]# cat /var/www/html/boot/boot_menu.php 
#!ipxe
   set menu-timeout 5000
   set menu-default PXE
   isset ${ip} || dhcp
   isset ${next-server} || set next-server 192.168.212.1
:start
  menu iPXE Boot Menu
  item --gap --             -------------------------------- TOOL --------------------------------
  item PXE                  PXE Tool
  item --gap --             ---------------------------- Advanced options -----------------------
  item --key c config       Configure settings                                   -- c
  item shell                Drop to iPXE shell
  item  Local               Boot from local drive 0x80
  item reboot               Reboot computer
  item --key x exit         Exit iPXE and continue BIOS boot                     -- x
  choose --timeout ${menu-timeout} --default ${menu-default} selected
  imgfree
  goto ${selected}
:shell
  echo Type 'exit' to get the back to the menu
  shell
  goto start
:failed
  echo Booting failed, dropping to shell
  goto shell
:Local
sanboot --no-describe --drive 0x80
goto failed
:reboot
  reboot
:exit
  exit
:config
  config
  goto start
:PXE
  kernel http://${next-server}/boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img
  initrd http://${next-server}/boot/initrd.img || goto failed
  boot || goto failed
  goto start
  1. 重启得到如下界面。


     
     

3.4 API接口配置

Kea Control Agent是一个守护进程,它用来提供一个管理kea服务的接口。通过http请求传过来的参数,对kea服务进行操作管理,十分的方便。下面我们做一下基本的配置,并验证

[root@test01 kea]# pwd
/usr/local/etc/kea
[root@test01 kea]# vim kea-ctrl-agent.conf 
{
    "Control-agent": {
        "http-host": "192.168.1.30",
        "http-port": 8080,

        "control-sockets": {
            "dhcp4": {
                "comment": "main server",
                "socket-type": "unix",
                "socket-name": "/path/to/the/unix/socket-v4"
            },
            "dhcp6": {
                "socket-type": "unix",
                "socket-name": "/path/to/the/unix/socket-v4",
                "user-context": { "version": 3 }
            }
        },

        "hooks-libraries": [
        {
            "library": "/opt/local/control-agent-commands.so",
            "parameters": {
                "param1": "foo"
            }
        } ]
    },

    "Logging": {
        "loggers": [ {
            "name": "kea-ctrl-agent",
            "severity": "INFO"
        } ]
    }
}
[root@test01 kea]# vim kea-dhcp4.conf
"Dhcp4": {
    "control-socket": {
        "socket-type": "unix",
        "socket-name": "/tmp/kea-dhcp4-ctrl.sock"
    },

测试

[root@test01 kea]# curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '{ "command": "config-get" }' http://192.168.1.30:8080/
[ { "arguments": { "Control-agent": { "control-sockets": { "dhcp4": { "socket-name": "/tmp/kea-dhcp4-ctrl.sock", "socket-type": "unix" }, "dhcp6": { "socket-name": "/tmp/kea-dhcp6-ctrl.sock", "socket-type": "unix" } }, "hooks-libraries": [  ], "http-host": "192.168.1.30", "http-port": 8080 } }, "result": 0 } ]
[root@test01 kea]# 

3.5 更高级的功能知晓

1.mac地址和ip绑定的接口。
配置钩子:

"Dhcp6": { 
    "hooks-libraries": [
        {
            "library": "/path/libdhcp_host_cmds.so"
        }
        ...
    ] 
}

使用方法:

curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d '
{
    "command": "reservation-add",
    "arguments": {
        "reservation": {
            "subnet-id": 1,
            "hw-address": "1a:1b:1c:1d:1e:1f",
            "ip-address": "192.0.2.202"
        }
    }
' 
http://192.168.1.30:8080/
}

参考:https://kea.isc.org/docs/kea-guide.html#host-cmds

  1. 网段信息的接口管理。
    参考:https://kea.isc.org/docs/kea-guide.html#subnet-cmds
  2. 还有很多其它很好的很实用的功能,可续需要收费。


     
     

4. 总结



作者:小小运维
链接:https://www.jianshu.com/p/b333c4271939
来源:简书
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posted on 2019-11-02 20:08  bluesky  阅读(1396)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报