git 优雅的撤销中间某次提交

环境
git : 2+

前言
最近两天,公司的git合并代码时,出现了严重的问题,浪费很多时间;
现在记录下;
情况是这样的,一个同事自己的本地分支(远程没有),不知怎么的,有了别人开发分支的代码,而他自己又不知道;
其在切换到主分支,并merge自己的分支,此时其已经把别人正在开发的代码都合并到了主分支。

到了晚上准备升级时,才发现,主分支的代码出了问题;此时版本库是这样的:


如图 100047dcc这一步就有不该有的代码;

而此时版本库已经提交过了很多次,现在的问题就是,如何撤销掉100047dcc提交的代码,并且保留其他人提交的代码。

这个问题,折腾到了晚上9点半左右,尝试了网上给出的:

git rebase -i commit_id
//再通过将pick改为drop
1
2
但是,实际的效果是,100047dcc代码没了,其他人提交的代码也没有了!
也就是给人感觉和git reset --hard be8c6f6dd没有什么区别!

最后因为太晚,从提交记录上看,100047dcc之后就一个人提交了代码,所以就执行了:

//先切一个备份分支
git branch -b master_tmp
//再执行
git reset --hard be8c6f6dd
1
2
3
4
之后,那个人(也就是我)从备份分支上把文件拷贝回来—(因为我是直接在主分支上改的,自己的分支并没有代码)。

第二天,我打算去拷贝文件,我执行如下操作:

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master)
$ git pull
remote: Counting objects: 44, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (23/23), done.
remote: Total 26 (delta 19), reused 0 (delta 0)
Unpacking objects: 100% (26/26), done.
From gitlab.gofund.cn:gg-service/ggservice
+ 1784b12...384decc master -> origin/master (forced update)
f8f2b19..eb33489 devyaomy -> origin/devyaomy
* [new branch] master_tmp -> origin/master_tmp
Already up-to-date.

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master)
$ git status
On branch master
Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master' by 796 commits.
(use "git push" to publish your local commits)
nothing to commit, working directory clean

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master)
$ git push
Total 0 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
To git@gitlab.gofund.cn:gg-service/ggservice.git
384decc..1784b12 master -> master
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
简单的说,我的操作就是两步:
1git pull
2、git push
结果又把代码还原回去了!

为啥呢?

虽然昨天晚上,把远程库的版本回退到了正确的版本,但是我的本地主分支还是最新的commit,也就是说,相比远程库,我本地库是超前了多次提交,毕竟因为远程库回退了嘛!

这个时候,我必须也得对本地库进行回退,回退到线上相同的commit节点才行。

这个时候,我做了以下几个操作:

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master)
$ git reset --soft 384deccaa6
$ git status
On branch master
Your branch is up-to-date with 'origin/master'.
Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)

modified: .gitignore
modified: conf/application.conf
new file: conf/hanlp.properties
new file: dataservice/app/ggservice/common/UserCodeEnum.java
new file: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/BindEmailGG3Action.java
new file: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/SendEmailCaptchaGG3Action.java
// 文件太多不一一显示
yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master)
$ git reset --hard 384deccaa6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
上面敲了很多命令,其实真正只需要git reset --hard 384deccaa6即可。

git reset --hard 384deccaa6
1
接下来,我开始复制粘贴,从备份分支上,把代码拷贝下。
真的操蛋,这等于是增加工作量啊!

revert 撤销某次提交
到了下午,又有个同事干了类似我上午的操作。把不该有的代码提交上去了!
这就麻烦了,虽然远程库回退了!结果是要求凡是pull最新代码的人,都得进行本地回退的操作。
否则,就没完没了!

到了晚上,对着备份分支进行测试,终于找到了优雅的解决办法!

这就是revert命令

该命令就是为撤销某次提交而存在的;

首先,我是明白100047dcc这次提交是有问题的,这是问题的源头;
也就是说,只要我们把这次提交的给撤销了,就不会有问题了!

步骤 一
$ git revert 100047dcc
error: Commit 100047dccb58f3ee5e27b0dfaf5c02ac91dc2c73 is a merge but no -m option was given.
fatal: revert failed
1
2
3
结果报错了,报了一个Commit is a merge but no -m option was given.

为什么呢?

如果100047dcc这只是一个普通的提交,其实是不会报错的!
但是,这是一个merge的提交。

那么在撤销时,git并不知道我要撤销具体哪次!如下图:


这个时候,怎么办呢?

我的做法

步骤二
yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp)
$ git revert 100047dcc -m 1
error: could not revert 100047d... Merge branch 'master' of gitlab.gofund.cn:gg-service/ggservice into wjs
hint: after resolving the conflicts, mark the corrected paths
hint: with 'git add <paths>' or 'git rm <paths>'
hint: and commit the result with 'git commit'
1
2
3
4
5
6
我执行了这样的一个操作:

git revert 100047dcc -m 1
1
参数 -m 就是指定要撤销的那个提价,从左往右,从1开始数;也就是我撤销的是ca4a7ff999。

接着其把代码冲突,然后我就解决冲突,保留主分支的代码,去掉那个人的代码。

解决完冲突后,我执行如下操作:

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git add -A

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git status
On branch master_tmp
Your branch is up-to-date with 'origin/master_tmp'.
You are currently reverting commit 100047d.
(all conflicts fixed: run "git revert --continue")
(use "git revert --abort" to cancel the revert operation)

Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)

modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/datacentre/action/GetIncomeDistributeAction.java
//文件太多省略。。。

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git commit -m "ceshi"
[master_tmp d2ae829] ceshi
18 files changed, 95 insertions(+), 396 deletions(-)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
我上面执行的语句其实就是:

$ git add -A
$ git commit -m "ceshi"
1
2
步骤三
yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp)
$ git revert 100047dcc -m 2
error: could not revert 100047d... Merge branch 'master' of gitlab.gofund.cn:gg-service/ggservice into wjs
hint: after resolving the conflicts, mark the corrected paths
hint: with 'git add <paths>' or 'git rm <paths>'
hint: and commit the result with 'git commit'
1
2
3
4
5
6
也就是执行:

$ git revert 100047dcc -m 2
1
即 撤销be8c6f6dde的提交,这个时候也会提示代码冲突了,

接着和上面一样,解决冲突,在提交:

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git status
On branch master_tmp
Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master_tmp' by 1 commit.
(use "git push" to publish your local commits)
You are currently reverting commit 100047d.
(fix conflicts and run "git revert --continue")
(use "git revert --abort" to cancel the revert operation)

Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)

modified: .gitignore
deleted: conf/hanlp.properties
deleted: dataservice/app/ggservice/common/UserCodeEnum.java
deleted: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/BindEmailGG3Action.java
deleted: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/SendEmailCaptchaGG3Action.java
deleted: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/service/EmailCaptchaService.java
deleted: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/expert/action/GetExpertOfStockAssessAction.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/expert/service/ExpertGG3Service.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/action/GetMyStockLabelInfoAction.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/action/UpdateUserTokenInfoAction.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/service/AppDOSInfoService.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/service/UserInfoService.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/graph/action/GetStockPlateComponentAction.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/graph/service/StockPlateService.java
// 文件太多省略。。。

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git add -A

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git status
On branch master_tmp
Your branch is ahead of 'origin/master_tmp' by 1 commit.
(use "git push" to publish your local commits)
You are currently reverting commit 100047d.
(all conflicts fixed: run "git revert --continue")
(use "git revert --abort" to cancel the revert operation)

Changes to be committed:
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)

modified: .gitignore
modified: conf/application.conf
deleted: conf/hanlp.properties
deleted: dataservice/app/ggservice/common/UserCodeEnum.java
deleted: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/BindEmailGG3Action.java
deleted: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/SendEmailCaptchaGG3Action.java
deleted: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/service/EmailCaptchaService.java
deleted: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/expert/action/GetExpertOfStockAssessAction.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/expert/service/ExpertGG3Service.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/action/GetMyStockLabelInfoAction.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/action/UpdateUserTokenInfoAction.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/service/AppDOSInfoService.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/ggmtoolbox/service/UserInfoService.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/graph/action/GetStockPlateComponentAction.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/graph/service/StockPlateService.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/hq/action/GetStockHistoryDynamicAction.java
modified: dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/keybordspirit/action/GetMyGroupStockIndexAction.java

yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp|REVERTING)
$ git commit -m "使用revert 版本号 -m 1或者2同时进行撤销某次提交测试"
[master_tmp 236da00] 使用revert 版本号 -m 1或者2同时进行撤销某次提交测试
95 files changed, 2093 insertions(+), 10011 deletions(-)
delete mode 100644 conf/hanlp.properties
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/common/UserCodeEnum.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/BindEmailGG3Action.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/action/SendEmailCaptchaGG3Action.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/email/service/EmailCaptchaService.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/expert/action/GetExpertOfStockAssessAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/mobile/action/BindMobileGG3Action.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/mobile/action/SendMobileCaptchaGG3Action.java
rewrite dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/mystocktags/service/MyStockTagService.java (82%)
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetAuthorRankListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetAuthorRecommendReportListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetHonoraryAuthorListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetHotIndustryListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetHotStockListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetHotThemeListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/action/GetOrganRankListAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/condition/AuthorOrganRankCondition.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/condition/HotReportCondition.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/report/service/HotReportService.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/AutoLoginAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/BindOuterChannelAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/EmailRegisterAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/GetUserAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/IsAccountExistAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/LoginAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/LogoutAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/OuterChannelLoginAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/action/RegisterAction.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/service/LoginService.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/service/RegisterService.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/service/UserCommonUtils.java
delete mode 100644 dataservice/app/ggservice/v1/usergg/service/UserService.java
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
即:

$ git add -A
$ git commit -m "使用revert 版本号 -m 1或者2同时进行撤销某次提交测试"
1
2
可以看出删除掉了那个人提交的文件。

最后一步
yutao@yutao MINGW64 /d/sts/workspace/ggservice (master_tmp)
$ git push
1
2
这样就把那个人提交错误的代码给删除了,其他人的本地分支也不需要版本回退了!
一次改好,到处OK!

总结
当想撤销中间某次提交时,强烈建议使用revert命令,而不是reset。
git reset –hard commit_id 虽然可以回退远程库,但是其要求pull最新代码的每个人的本地分支都要进行版本回退。这样就增加工作量了!

正确的步骤:

git revert commit_id
//如果commit_id是merge节点的话,-m是指定具体哪个提交点
git revert commit_id -m 1
//接着就是解决冲突
git add -A
git commit -m ".."
git revert commit_id -m 2
//接着就是解决冲突
git add -A
git commit -m ".."
git push
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
其中git revert commit_id -m 数字是针对,merge提交点的操作。
如果是普通的提交点,不需要这么麻烦。
————————————————
版权声明:本文为CSDN博主「山鬼谣me」的原创文章,遵循CC 4.0 BY-SA版权协议,转载请附上原文出处链接及本声明。
原文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/u013066244/java/article/details/79920012

posted @ 2020-06-24 15:24  邱明成  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏