Run, Mr. Pan~

CentOS7.4安装部署openstack [Liberty版] (一)

一、OpenStack简介

OpenStack是一个由NASA(美国国家航空航天局)和Rackspace合作研发并发起的,以Apache许可证授权的自由软件开放源代码项目。
OpenStack是一个开源的云计算管理平台项目,由几个主要的组件组合起来完成具体工作。OpenStack支持几乎所有类型的云环境,项目目标是提供实施简单、可大规模扩展、丰富、标准统一的云计算管理平台。OpenStack通过各种互补的服务提供了基础设施即服务(IaaS)的解决方案,每个服务提供API以进行集成。
OpenStack是一个旨在为公共及私有云的建设与管理提供软件的开源项目。它的社区拥有超过130家企业及1350位开发者,这些机构与个人都将OpenStack作为基础设施即服务(IaaS)资源的通用前端。OpenStack项目的首要任务是简化云的部署过程并为其带来良好的可扩展性。本文希望通过提供必要的指导信息,帮助大家利用OpenStack前端来设置及管理自己的公共云或私有云。
OpenStack云计算平台,帮助服务商和企业内部实现类似于 Amazon EC2 和 S3 的云基础架构服务(Infrastructure as a Service, IaaS)。OpenStack 包含两个主要模块:Nova 和 Swift,前者是 NASA 开发的虚拟服务器部署和业务计算模块;后者是 Rackspace开发的分布式云存储模块,两者可以一起用,也可以分开单独用。OpenStack除了有 Rackspace 和 NASA 的大力支持外,还有包括 Dell、Citrix、 Cisco、 Canonical等重量级公司的贡献和支持,发展速度非常快,有取代另一个业界领先开源云平台 Eucalyptus 的态势。
openstack 各个服务名称对应
 

二、部署环境

1.主机信息

各角色描述及需求:

控制器:

控制节点运行身份认证服务,镜像服务,管理部分计算和网络服务,不同的网络代理和仪表盘。同样包括像SQL数据库,消息队列及 NTP这样的支撑服务。
可选的:可以在控制节点允许块存储,对象存储,Orchestration和Telemetry服务。
控制节点需要最少两块网卡。

计算:

计算节点运行操作实例的 :hypervisor计算部分。默认情况下使用 KVM 作为hypervisor。计算节点同样运行网络服务代理,用来连接实例到虚拟网络,通过:security groups 为实例提供防火墙服务。
这个服务可以部署超过1个计算节点。每个节点要求最少两个网络接口。

块设备存储:

该可选的块存储节点包含磁盘,块存储服务会向实例提供这些磁盘。
简单起见,计算节点和这个节点间的服务流量使用管理网络。生产环境中应该实施单独的存储网络以增强性能和安全。
这个服务可以部署超过一个块存储节点。每个节点要求至少一个网卡接口。

对象存储:

该可选的对象存储节点包含磁盘,对象存储服务用来存储账号,容器和对象。
简单起见,计算节点和这个节点间的服务流量使用管理网络。生产环境中应该实施单独的存储网络以增强性能和安全。
这个服务要求两个节点。每个节点要求最少一个网络接口。你可以部署超过两个对象存储节点。

网络:

从下面虚拟网络选项中选择一种。
网络选项1:提供者网络
提供者网络选项以最简单的方式部署OpenStack网络服务,可能包括二层服务(桥/交换机)服务、VLAN网络分段。本质上,它建立虚拟网络到物理网络的桥,
依靠物理网络基础设施提供三层服务(路由)。使用DHCP为实例提供IP地址信息。 注:这个选项不支持自服务私有网络,3层(路由)服务和高级服务比如 LBaaS 和 FWaaS。如果您希望有这些特性,考虑自服务网络选项。 网络选项2:自服务网络 自服务网络选项扩展提供者网络选项,三层网络服务启用 self
-service`网络使用叠加分段方法,比如 VXLAN。本质上,它使用NAT路由虚拟网络到路由物理网络。

额外地,这个选项提供高级服务的基础,比如LBaas和FWaaS。

2.域名解析和关闭防火墙 (所有机器上)

/etc/hosts  #主机名称设置后不可用修改
192.168.1.101 controller  
192.168.1.102 compute1
192.168.1.103 block1
192.168.1.104 object1
192.168.1.105 object2

关闭 selinux
sed -i 's#SELINUX=enforcing#SELINUX=disabled#g' /etc/sysconfig/selinux
setenforce 0
关闭 iptables
systemctl start firewalld.service
systemctl stop firewalld.service
systemctl disable firewalld.service

3.密码、时间同步及yum+epel源

密码:安装过程中涉及很多服务的密码,为了方便记忆统一为"123456",生产环境请勿设置
时间:参考文档  http://www.cnblogs.com/panwenbin-logs/p/8384340.html
yum+epel源:建议使用国内的163或阿里yum源
OpenStack源:
cat /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-OpenStack-liberty.repo 
[centos-openstack-liberty]    
name=CentOS-7 - OpenStack liberty     
baseurl=http://vault.centos.org/centos/7.3.1611/cloud/x86_64/openstack-liberty/
gpgcheck=0     
enabled=1     
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-Centos-7

4.升级安装包

yum upgrade
reboot     #重启

5.安装 OpenStack 客户端

yum install -y python-openstackclient 
yum install -y openstack-selinux     #如果启用了 SELinux ,安装 openstack-selinux 包实现对OpenStack服务的安全策略进行自动管理

三、安装配置数据库服务(MySQL)

[root@controller ~]# yum install -y  mariadb mariadb-server MySQL-python
[root@controller ~]# cp /usr/share/mariadb/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf    #或者是/usr/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf
[root@controller ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
bind-address = 192.168.1.101
default-storage-engine = innodb
innodb_file_per_table
collation-server = utf8_general_ci
init-connect = 'SET NAMES utf8'
character-set-server = utf8
max_connections=1000
[root@controller ~]# systemctl enable mariadb.service && systemctl start mariadb.service  #启动数据库服务,并将其配置为开机自启
[root@controller ~]# mysql_secure_installation #密码 123456,一路 y 回车

四、安装配置消息队列服务(rabbitmq)

[root@controller ~]# yum install -y rabbitmq-server
root@controller ~]# systemctl enable rabbitmq-server.service && systemctl start rabbitmq-server.service
[root@controller ~]# rabbitmqctl add_user openstack 123456 #添加 openstack 用户,密码123456
[root@controller ~]# rabbitmqctl set_permissions openstack ".*" ".*" ".*"  #给openstack用户配置写和读权限
[root@controller ~]# rabbitmq-plugins list #查看支持的插件
[root@controller ~]# rabbitmq-plugins enable rabbitmq_management #使用此插件实现 web 管理
[root@linux-node1 ~]# systemctl restart rabbitmq-server.service
[root@controller ~]# netstat -tnlp|grep beam
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:15672 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 997/beam #管理端口
tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:25672 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN 997/beam #server间内部通信口
tcp6 0 0 :::5672 :::* LISTEN 997/beam #client端通信口

访问RabbitMQ,访问地址是http://192.168.1.101:15672/,默认用户名密码都是guest

退出guest用户,测试使用openstack用户登录是否成功

 五、安装和配置OpenStack身份认证服务(代码名称keystone。出于性能原因,这个配置部署Apache HTTP服务处理查询并使用Memcached存储tokens而不用SQL数据库。)

1.服务简述

 

OpenStack:Identity service为认证管理,授权管理和服务目录服务管理提供单点整合。其它OpenStack服务将身份认证服务当做通用统一API来使用。此外,提供用户信息但是不在OpenStack项目中的服务(如LDAP服务)可被整合进先前存在的基础设施中。
为了从identity服务中获益,其他的OpenStack服务需要与它合作。当某个OpenStack服务收到来自用户的请求时,该服务询问Identity服务,验证该用户是否有权限进行此次请求
身份服务包含这些组件:
服务器
  一个中心化的服务器使用RESTful 接口来提供认证和授权服务。
驱动
  驱动或服务后端被整合进集中式服务器中。它们被用来访问OpenStack外部仓库的身份信息, 并且它们可能已经存在于OpenStack被部署在的基础设施(例如,SQL数据库或LDAP服务器)中。
模块
  中间件模块运行于使用身份认证服务的OpenStack组件的地址空间中。这些模块拦截服务请求,取出用户凭据,并将它们送入中央是服务器寻求授权。中间件模块和OpenStack组件间的整合使用Python Web服务器网关接口。
当安装OpenStack身份服务,用户必须将之注册到其OpenStack安装环境的每个服务。身份服务才可以追踪那些OpenStack服务已经安装,以及在网络中定位它们。

 

2.服务需求:在配置 OpenStack 身份认证服务前,必须创建一个数据库及权限授权。

[root@controller ~]# mysql -u root -p123456
MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE keystone;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON keystone.* TO 'keystone'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON keystone.* TO 'keystone'@'%'  IDENTIFIED BY '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
MariaDB [(none)]
> show databases; #查看数据库是否创建成功 +--------------------+ | Database | +--------------------+ | information_schema | | keystone | | mysql | | performance_schema | +--------------------+ MariaDB [(none)]> select User,Password,Host from mysql.user where User like "keystone"; #查看授权 +----------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+ | User | Password | Host | +----------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+ | keystone | *6BB4837EB74329105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9 | % | | keystone | *6BB4837EB74329105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9 | localhost | +----------+-------------------------------------------+-----------+ MariaDB [(none)]> \q Bye

3.服务安装

[root@controller ~]#yum install openstack-keystone httpd mod_wsgi memcached python-memcached -y
[root@controller ~]#systemctl enable memcached.service && systemctl start memcached.service
[root@controller ~]# netstat -tnlp|grep memcached
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:11211         0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      18914/memcached     
tcp6       0      0 ::1:11211               :::*                    LISTEN      18914/memcached    
[root@controller ~]# openssl rand -hex 10  #创建管理员令牌
c5a232c9b4bba9eea176
[root@controller ~]# grep "^[a-z]" -B  1  /etc/keystone/keystone.conf 
[DEFAULT]
admin_token = db771afcb68c09caee6d  #与上面生成的管理员令牌一致
[database]
connection = mysql://keystone:123456@controller/keystone #配置数据库访问地址
[memcache]
servers = localhost:11211 #配置Memcached服务访问地址
[revoke]
driver = sql  #配置SQL 回滚驱动
[token]
provider = uuid  #配置 UUID token provider 和Memcached 驱动
driver = memcache
[root@controller ~]#su -s /bin/sh -c "keystone-manage db_sync" keystone #初始化身份认证服务的数据库
[root@controller ~]# tail /var/log/keystone/keystone.log #查看日志是否有错误,
2018-02-03 21:41:08.343 18981 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 2 -> 3... 
2018-02-03 21:41:08.406 18981 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
2018-02-03 21:41:08.407 18981 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 3 -> 4... 
2018-02-03 21:41:08.565 18981 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
2018-02-03 21:41:08.565 18981 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 4 -> 5... 
2018-02-03 21:41:08.600 18981 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
2018-02-03 21:41:08.620 18981 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 0 -> 1... 
2018-02-03 21:41:08.667 18981 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
2018-02-03 21:41:08.667 18981 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 1 -> 2... 
2018-02-03 21:41:08.813 18981 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done

配置 Apache HTTP 服务器

[root@controller ~]# grep -n "^ServerName" /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf #配置 ServerName 选项为控制节点
96:ServerName controller
[root@controller ~]# vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/wsgi-keystone.conf
Listen 5000
Listen 35357

<VirtualHost *:5000>
    WSGIDaemonProcess keystone-public processes=5 threads=1 user=keystone group=keystone display-name=%{GROUP}
    WSGIProcessGroup keystone-public
    WSGIScriptAlias / /usr/bin/keystone-wsgi-public
    WSGIApplicationGroup %{GLOBAL}
    WSGIPassAuthorization On
    <IfVersion >= 2.4>
      ErrorLogFormat "%{cu}t %M"
    </IfVersion>
    ErrorLog /var/log/httpd/keystone-error.log
    CustomLog /var/log/httpd/keystone-access.log combined

    <Directory /usr/bin>
        <IfVersion >= 2.4>
            Require all granted
        </IfVersion>
        <IfVersion < 2.4>
            Order allow,deny
            Allow from all
        </IfVersion>
    </Directory>
</VirtualHost>

<VirtualHost *:35357>
    WSGIDaemonProcess keystone-admin processes=5 threads=1 user=keystone group=keystone display-name=%{GROUP}
    WSGIProcessGroup keystone-admin
    WSGIScriptAlias / /usr/bin/keystone-wsgi-admin
    WSGIApplicationGroup %{GLOBAL}
    WSGIPassAuthorization On
    <IfVersion >= 2.4>
      ErrorLogFormat "%{cu}t %M"
    </IfVersion>
    ErrorLog /var/log/httpd/keystone-error.log
    CustomLog /var/log/httpd/keystone-access.log combined

    <Directory /usr/bin>
        <IfVersion >= 2.4>
            Require all granted
        </IfVersion>
        <IfVersion < 2.4>
            Order allow,deny
            Allow from all
        </IfVersion>
    </Directory>
</VirtualHost>

[root@controller ~]# systemctl enable httpd.service && systemctl start httpd.service #启动 Apache HTTP 服务并配置其随系统启动
[root@controller ~]# netstat -tnlp|grep httpd
tcp6       0      0 :::80                   :::*                    LISTEN      19148/httpd         
tcp6       0      0 :::35357                :::*                    LISTEN      19148/httpd    #用于管理, 只有admin_role可以使用     
tcp6 0 0 :::5000 :::* LISTEN 19148/httpd #用于业务,普通用户使用

创建服务实体和API端点

[root@controller ~]# export OS_URL=http://controller:35357/v3 #配置端点URL
[root@controller ~]# export OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=3   #配置认证 API 版本
[root@controller ~]# export OS_TOKEN=db771afcb68c09caee6d  #配置认证令牌
[root@controller ~]# env|grep ^OS #查看设置是否生效
OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=3
OS_TOKEN=db771afcb68c09caee6d
OS_URL=http://controller:35357/v3


在Openstack环境中,认证服务管理服务目录。服务使用这个目录来决定您的环境中可用的服务。
[root@controller ~]# openstack service create --name keystone --description "OpenStack Identity" identity #为身份认证服务创建服务实体
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| Field       | Value                            |
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| description | OpenStack Identity               |
| enabled     | True                             |
| id          | 351c5f4d5174430eacb38b16a6403d40 |
| name        | keystone                         |
| type        | identity                         |
+-------------+----------------------------------+
身份认证服务管理了一个与环境相关的 API 端点的目录。服务使用这个目录来决定如何与您环境中的其他服务进行通信。
OpenStack使用三个API端点变种代表每种服务:admin,internal和public。默认情况下,管理API端点允许修改用户和租户而公共和内部APIs不允许这些操作。
在生产环境中,处于安全原因,变种为了服务不同类型的用户可能驻留在单独的网络上。对实例而言,公共API网络为了让顾客管理他们自己的云在互联网上是可见的。
管理API网络在管理云基础设施的组织中操作也是有所限制的。内部API网络可能会被限制在包含OpenStack服务的主机上。此外,OpenStack支持可伸缩性的多区域。
[root@controller
~]# openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne identity public http://controller:5000/v2.0 #创建认证服务的 API 端点 +--------------+----------------------------------+ | Field | Value | +--------------+----------------------------------+ | enabled | True | | id | 1ee55eac378f4d179bacb4ea3d1850d1 | | interface | public | | region | RegionOne | | region_id | RegionOne | | service_id | 351c5f4d5174430eacb38b16a6403d40 | | service_name | keystone | | service_type | identity | | url | http://controller:5000/v2.0 | +--------------+----------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne identity internal http://controller:5000/v2.0 +--------------+----------------------------------+ | Field | Value | +--------------+----------------------------------+ | enabled | True | | id | 00da46788e874f529f67046226c7b0c9 | | interface | internal | | region | RegionOne | | region_id | RegionOne | | service_id | 351c5f4d5174430eacb38b16a6403d40 | | service_name | keystone | | service_type | identity | | url | http://controller:5000/v2.0 | +--------------+----------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne identity admin http://controller:35357/v2.0 +--------------+----------------------------------+ | Field | Value | +--------------+----------------------------------+ | enabled | True | | id | fab8917d632a4a8c8ccb4290cbd382c6 | | interface | admin | | region | RegionOne | | region_id | RegionOne | | service_id | 351c5f4d5174430eacb38b16a6403d40 | | service_name | keystone | | service_type | identity | | url | http://controller:35357/v2.0 | +--------------+----------------------------------+ 注:每个添加到OpenStack环境中的服务要求一个或多个服务实体和三个认证服务中的API 端点变种。 为进行管理操作,创建管理的项目、用户和角色 [root@controller ~]# openstack project create --domain default --description "Admin Project" admin #创建 admin 项目 +-------------+----------------------------------+ | Field | Value | +-------------+----------------------------------+ | description | Admin Project | | domain_id | default | | enabled | True | | id | 839cdfc946e1491c8004e3b732d17f9a | | is_domain | False | | name | admin | | parent_id | None | +-------------+----------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# openstack user create --domain default --password-prompt admin #创建 admin 用户 User Password: #密码设置为123456 Repeat User Password: +-----------+----------------------------------+ | Field | Value | +-----------+----------------------------------+ | domain_id | default | | enabled | True | | id | d4f0c9b24be84306960e29a7961d22a3 | | name | admin | +-----------+----------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# openstack role create admin #创建 admin 角色 +-------+----------------------------------+ | Field | Value | +-------+----------------------------------+ | id | ebab14b851254fe69abb49132f3b76a2 | | name | admin | +-------+----------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# openstack role add --project admin --user admin admin #添加 admin 角色到 admin 项目和用户上,这个命令执行后没有输出 每个服务包含独有用户的service 项目。创建``service``项目 [root@controller ~]# openstack project create --domain default --description "Service Project" service +-------------+----------------------------------+ | Field | Value | +-------------+----------------------------------+ | description | Service Project | | domain_id | default | | enabled | True | | id | cfbdca3af1a043d8ace0f47724312e60 | | is_domain | False | | name | service | | parent_id | None | +-------------+----------------------------------+ 常规任务应该使用无特权的项目和用户,作为示例,创建一个demo项目和用户 [root@controller ~]# openstack project create --domain default --description "Demo Project" demo #创建demo 项目,当为这个项目创建额外用户时,不要重复这一步。 +-------------+----------------------------------+ | Field | Value | +-------------+----------------------------------+ | description | Demo Project | | domain_id | default | | enabled | True | | id | 2003811a2ad548e7b686f06a55fe9ce9 | | is_domain | False | | name | demo | | parent_id | None | +-------------+----------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# openstack user create --domain default --password-prompt demo #创建 demo 用户 User Password: Repeat User Password: +-----------+----------------------------------+ | Field | Value | +-----------+----------------------------------+ | domain_id | default | | enabled | True | | id | d4ffbeefe72d412187047a79e3a51d00 | | name | demo | +-----------+----------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# openstack role create user #创建 user 角色 +-------+----------------------------------+ | Field | Value | +-------+----------------------------------+ | id | a1b9a999563544daa808e5ee1e0edaf0 | | name | user | +-------+----------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# openstack role add --project demo --user demo user #添加 user 角色到 demo 项目和用户 ,你可以重复此过程来创建额外的项目和用户。

验证操作

[root@controller ~]# vim /usr/share/keystone/keystone-dist-paste.ini#因为安全性的原因,关闭临时认证令牌机制,删除 以下三个段中 admin_token_auth字段
 [pipeline:public_api] 
 [pipeline:admin_api]
 [pipeline:api_v3]  
[root@controller ~]# unset OS_TOKEN OS_URL #重置OS_TOKEN和OS_URL环境变量
[root@controller ~]# openstack --os-auth-url http://controller:35357/v3 --os-project-domain-id default --os-user-domain-id default --os-project-name admin --os-username admin --os-auth-type password  token issue  #使用 admin 用户,请求认证令牌,密码为123456
Password: 
+------------+----------------------------------+
| Field      | Value                            |
+------------+----------------------------------+
| expires    | 2018-02-03T15:25:41.805097Z      |
| id         | ed30245e370648a185539a970e6c9e19 |
| project_id | 839cdfc946e1491c8004e3b732d17f9a |
| user_id    | d4f0c9b24be84306960e29a7961d22a3 |
+------------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# openstack --os-auth-url http://controller:5000/v3 --os-project-domain-id default --os-user-domain-id default --os-project-name demo --os-username demo --os-auth-type password token issue  #使用 demo 用户,请求认证令牌
Password: 
+------------+----------------------------------+
| Field      | Value                            |
+------------+----------------------------------+
| expires    | 2018-02-03T15:25:58.135574Z      |
| id         | a9c52f8f92804a81b7d0c6b5496a8ee3 |
| project_id | 2003811a2ad548e7b686f06a55fe9ce9 |
| user_id    | d4ffbeefe72d412187047a79e3a51d00 |
+------------+----------------------------------+

前面我们使用环境变量和命令选项的组合通过openstack客户端与身份认证服务交互。为了提升客户端操作的效率,OpenStack支持简单的客户端环境变量脚本即OpenRC 文件
创建 admin 和 ``demo``项目和用户创建客户端环境变量脚本,为客户端操作加载合适的的凭证。
[root@controller ~]# cat admin-openrc.sh  #编辑文件 admin-openrc.sh 并添加如下内容
export OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_ID=default
export OS_USER_DOMAIN_ID=default
export OS_PROJECT_NAME=admin
export OS_TENANT_NAME=admin
export OS_USERNAME=admin
export OS_PASSWORD=123456
export OS_AUTH_URL=http://controller:35357/v3
export OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=3
[root@controller ~]# cat demo-openrc.sh  #编辑文件 demo-openrc.sh 并添加如下内容
export OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_ID=default
export OS_USER_DOMAIN_ID=default
export OS_PROJECT_NAME=demo
export OS_TENANT_NAME=demo
export OS_USERNAME=demo
export OS_PASSWORD=123456
export OS_AUTH_URL=http://controller:5000/v3
export OS_IDENTITY_API_VERSION=3 
[root@controller ~]# source admin-openrc.sh #加载admin-openrc.sh文件来身份认证服务的环境变量位置和admin项目和用户证书
[root@controller ~]#  openstack token issue #请求认证令牌信息
+------------+----------------------------------+
| Field      | Value                            |
+------------+----------------------------------+
| expires    | 2018-02-03T15:30:58.249772Z      |
| id         | 48602913c79046f69d4db4ce7645b61b |
| project_id | 839cdfc946e1491c8004e3b732d17f9a |
| user_id    | d4f0c9b24be84306960e29a7961d22a3 |
+------------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# source demo-openrc.sh #同上
[root@controller ~]#  openstack token issue
+------------+----------------------------------+
| Field      | Value                            |
+------------+----------------------------------+
| expires    | 2018-02-03T15:31:09.666144Z      |
| id         | 9f3a4ff3239f418c8c000e712b42b216 |
| project_id | 2003811a2ad548e7b686f06a55fe9ce9 |
| user_id    | d4ffbeefe72d412187047a79e3a51d00 |
+------------+----------------------------------+

 

六、添加镜像服务

OpenStack 的镜像服务 (glance) 允许用户发现、注册和恢复虚拟机镜像。它提供了一个 REST API,允许您查询虚拟机镜像的 metadata 并恢复一个实际的镜像。您可以存储虚拟机镜像通过不同位置的镜像服务使其可用,就像 OpenStack 对象存储那样从简单的文件系统到对象存储系统。

1.服务简述

 

镜像服务 (glance) 允许用户发现、注册和获取虚拟机镜像。它提供了一个 REST API,允许您查询虚拟机镜像的 metadata 并获取一个现存的镜像。您可以将虚拟机镜像存储到各种位置,从简单的文件系统到对象存储系统—-例如 OpenStack 对象存储, 并通过镜像服务使用。
OpenStack镜像服务是IaaS的核心服务。它接受磁盘镜像或服务器镜像API请求,和来自终端用户或OpenStack计算组件的元数据定义。它也支持包括OpenStack对象存储在内的多种类型仓库上的磁盘镜像或服务器镜像存储。
大量周期性进程运行于OpenStack镜像服务上以支持缓存。同步复制(Replication)服务保证集群中的一致性和可用性。其它周期性进程包括auditors, updaters, 和 reapers。
OpenStack镜像服务包括以下组件:
glance-api
  接收镜像API的调用,诸如镜像发现、恢复、存储。
glance-registry
  存储、处理和恢复镜像的元数据,元数据包括项诸如大小和类型。
  glance-registry是私有内部服务,用于服务OpenStack Image服务。不要向用户暴露该服务
数据库
  存放镜像元数据,用户是可以依据个人喜好选择数据库的,多数的部署使用MySQL或SQLite。
镜像文件的存储仓库
  支持多种类型的仓库,它们有普通文件系统、对象存储、RADOS块设备、HTTP、以及亚马逊S3。记住,其中一些仓库仅支持只读方式使用。
元数据定义服务
  通用的API,是用于为厂商,管理员,服务,以及用户自定义元数据。这种元数据可用于不同的资源,例如镜像,工件,卷,配额以及集合。一个定义包括了新属性的键,描述,约束以及可以与之关联的资源的类型。

 

2.部署需求:安装和配置镜像服务之前,必须创建创建一个数据库、服务凭证和API端点。

[root@controller ~]#  mysql -u root -p123456  #创建数据并授权
MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE glance;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>  GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON glance.* TO 'glance'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON glance.* TO 'glance'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> \q
Bye
[root@controller ~]# source admin-openrc.sh  #获得 admin 凭证来获取只有管理员能执行命令的访问权限
[root@controller ~]# openstack user create --domain default --password-prompt glance #创建 glance 用户
User Password:      #密码为123456
Repeat User Password:
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| Field     | Value                            |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| domain_id | default                          |
| enabled   | True                             |
| id        | 87a0389545e54e6697db202744c736b6 |
| name      | glance                           |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# openstack role add --project service --user glance admin #添加 admin 角色到 glance 用户和 service 项目上,命令没有输出
[root@controller ~]# openstack service create --name glance  --description "OpenStack Image service" image #创建glance服务实体
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| Field       | Value                            |
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| description | OpenStack Image service          |
| enabled     | True                             |
| id          | b4c7005fde9b4c0085e2fc5874f02f34 |
| name        | glance                           |
| type        | image                            |
+-------------+----------------------------------+

创建镜像服务的 API 端点
[root@controller ~]# openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne image public http://controller:9292 
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| Field        | Value                            |
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| enabled      | True                             |
| id           | 589466fdddf447b9b7e273954c2b7987 |
| interface    | public                           |
| region       | RegionOne                        |
| region_id    | RegionOne                        |
| service_id   | b4c7005fde9b4c0085e2fc5874f02f34 |
| service_name | glance                           |
| service_type | image                            |
| url          | http://controller:9292           |
+--------------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne image internal http://controller:9292
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| Field        | Value                            |
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| enabled      | True                             |
| id           | f67a5c559caf4580aee84304d1a2f37d |
| interface    | internal                         |
| region       | RegionOne                        |
| region_id    | RegionOne                        |
| service_id   | b4c7005fde9b4c0085e2fc5874f02f34 |
| service_name | glance                           |
| service_type | image                            |
| url          | http://controller:9292           |
+--------------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]#  openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne  image admin http://controller:9292
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| Field        | Value                            |
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| enabled      | True                             |
| id           | fb54cd8ff23b4ea0872f1a5db7182d8e |
| interface    | admin                            |
| region       | RegionOne                        |
| region_id    | RegionOne                        |
| service_id   | b4c7005fde9b4c0085e2fc5874f02f34 |
| service_name | glance                           |
| service_type | image                            |
| url          | http://controller:9292           |
+--------------+----------------------------------+

3.服务安装

[root@controller ~]# yum install -y openstack-glance python-glance python-glanceclient 
 [root@controller neutron]# grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/glance/glance-api.conf #编辑/etc/glance/glance-api.conf
[DEFAULT]
notification_driver = noop #配置 noop 禁用通知,因为他们只适合与可选的Telemetry 服务
verbose = True
[database]
connection = mysql://glance:123456@controller/glance  #配置数据库访问地址
[glance_store]
default_store = file  #配置本地文件系统存储和镜像文件位置
filesystem_store_datadir = /var/lib/glance/images/
[keystone_authtoken] #配置认证服务访问信息,在 [keystone_authtoken] 中注释或者删除其他选项
auth_uri = http://controller:5000
auth_url = http://controller:35357
auth_plugin = password
project_domain_id = default
user_domain_id = default
project_name = service
username = glance
password = 123456
[paste_deploy]
flavor = keystone #配置认证服务访问

[root@controller neutron]# grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/glance/glance-registry.conf   #编辑/etc/glance/glance-registry.conf
[DEFAULT]
notification_driver = noop #配置 noop 禁用通知,因为他们只适合与可选的Telemetry 服务
verbose = True
[database]
connection = mysql://glance:123456@controller/glance
[keystone_authtoken] #配置认证服务访问信息,在 [keystone_authtoken] 中注释或者删除其他选项
auth_uri = http://controller:5000
auth_url = http://controller:35357
auth_plugin = password
project_domain_id = default
user_domain_id = default
project_name = service
username = glance
password = 123456
[paste_deploy]
flavor = keystone #配置认证服务访问
[root@controller ~]# su -s /bin/sh -c "glance-manage db_sync" glance #将配置写入镜像服务数据库
[root@controller yum.repos.d]# tail /var/log/glance/api.log 
2018-02-04 19:42:34.439 20807 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 40 -> 41... 
2018-02-04 19:42:34.468 20807 INFO glance.db.sqlalchemy.migrate_repo.schema [-] creating table artifacts
2018-02-04 19:42:34.567 20807 INFO glance.db.sqlalchemy.migrate_repo.schema [-] creating table artifact_tags
2018-02-04 19:42:34.978 20807 INFO glance.db.sqlalchemy.migrate_repo.schema [-] creating table artifact_properties
2018-02-04 19:42:35.054 20807 INFO glance.db.sqlalchemy.migrate_repo.schema [-] creating table artifact_blobs
2018-02-04 19:42:35.211 20807 INFO glance.db.sqlalchemy.migrate_repo.schema [-] creating table artifact_blob_locations
2018-02-04 19:42:35.339 20807 INFO glance.db.sqlalchemy.migrate_repo.schema [-] creating table artifact_dependencies
2018-02-04 19:42:35.542 20807 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
2018-02-04 19:42:35.542 20807 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 41 -> 42... 
2018-02-04 19:42:36.271 20807 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
[root@controller yum.repos.d]# systemctl enable openstack-glance-api.service openstack-glance-registry.service #启动镜像服务、配置他们随机启动
[root@controller yum.repos.d]# systemctl start openstack-glance-api.service openstack-glance-registry.service
[root@controller ~]# netstat -tnlp|grep python
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:9292            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      20858/python2    #glance-api    
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:9191            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      20859/python2     #glance-registry

验证操作
[root@controller ~]# echo "export OS_IMAGE_API_VERSION=2" | tee -a admin-openrc.sh demo-openrc.sh #在每个客户端脚本中,配置镜像服务客户端使用2.0的API
export OS_IMAGE_API_VERSION=2
[root@controller ~]#    source admin-openrc.sh #获得 admin 凭证来获取只有管理员能执行命令的访问权限
[root@controller ~]# wget http://download.cirros-cloud.net/0.3.4/cirros-0.3.4-x86_64-disk.img #下载测试源镜像
[root@controller ~]# glance image-create --name "cirros" --file cirros-0.3.4-x86_64-disk.img --disk-format qcow2  --container-format bare --visibility public --progress
#使用 QCOW2 磁盘格式, bare 容器格式上传镜像到镜像服务并设置公共可见,这样所有的项目都可以访问它 [
=============================>] 100% +------------------+--------------------------------------+ | Property | Value | +------------------+--------------------------------------+ | checksum | ee1eca47dc88f4879d8a229cc70a07c6 | | container_format | bare | | created_at | 2018-02-04T11:50:48Z | | disk_format | qcow2 | | id | 936bce27-085b-4d79-8cce-68cff70d7abd | | min_disk | 0 | | min_ram | 0 | | name | cirros | | owner | 839cdfc946e1491c8004e3b732d17f9a | | protected | False | | size | 13287936 | | status | active | | tags | [] | | updated_at | 2018-02-04T11:50:49Z | | virtual_size | None | | visibility | public | +------------------+--------------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# glance image-list #确认镜像的上传并验证属性 +--------------------------------------+--------+ | ID | Name | +--------------------------------------+--------+ | 936bce27-085b-4d79-8cce-68cff70d7abd | cirros | +--------------------------------------+--------+

七、安装和配置 Compute 服务,即 nova

1.服务简述

 

使用OpenStack计算服务来托管和管理云计算系统。OpenStack计算服务是基础设施即服务(IaaS)系统的主要部分,模块主要由Python实现。
OpenStack计算组件请求OpenStack Identity服务进行认证;请求OpenStack Image服务提供磁盘镜像;为OpenStack dashboard提供用户与管理员接口。磁盘镜像访问限制在项目与用户上;配额以每个项目进行设定(例如,每个项目下可以创建多少实例)。OpenStack组件可以在标准硬件上水平大规模扩展,并且下载磁盘镜像启动虚拟机实例。
OpenStack计算服务由下列组件所构成:
nova-api 服务
  接收和响应来自最终用户的计算API请求。此服务支持OpenStack计算服务API,Amazon EC2 API,以及特殊的管理API用于赋予用户做一些管理的操作。它会强制实施一些规则,发起多数的编排活动,例如运行一个实例。
nova-api-metadata 服务
  接受来自虚拟机发送的元数据请求。``nova-api-metadata``服务一般在安装``nova-network``服务的多主机模式下使用。更详细的信息,请参考OpenStack管理员手册中的链接`Metadata service <http://docs.openstack.org/admin-guide/compute-networking-nova.html#metadata-service>`__ in the OpenStack Administrator Guide。
nova-compute服务
  一个持续工作的守护进程,通过Hypervior的API来创建和销毁虚拟机实例。例如:
  1.XenServer/XCP 的 XenAPI
  2.KVM 或 QEMU 的 libvirt
  3.VMware 的 VMwareAPI
  过程是蛮复杂的。最为基本的,守护进程同意了来自队列的动作请求,转换为一系列的系统命令如启动一个KVM实例,然后,到数据库中更新它的状态。
nova-scheduler服务
  拿到一个来自队列请求虚拟机实例,然后决定那台计算服务器主机来运行它。
nova-conductor模块
  媒介作用于``nova-compute``服务与数据库之间。它排除了由``nova-compute``服务对云数据库的直接访问。nova-conductor模块可以水平扩展。但是,不要将它部署在运行nova-compute服务的主机节点上。参考Configuration Reference Guide <http://docs.openstack.org/mitaka/config-reference/compute/conductor.html>`__。
nova-cert模块
  服务器守护进程向Nova Cert服务提供X509证书。用来为euca-bundle-image生成证书。仅仅是在EC2 API的请求中使用
nova-network worker 守护进程
  与nova-comput`服务类似,从队列中接受网络任务,并且操作网络。执行任务例如创建桥接的接口或者改变IPtables的规则。
nova-consoleauth 守护进程
  授权控制台代理所提供的用户令牌。详情可查看nova-novncproxy和 nova-xvpvncproxy。该服务必须为控制台代理运行才可奏效。在集群配置中你可以运行二者中任一代理服务而非仅运行一个nova-consoleauth服务。更多关于nova-consoleauth的信息,请查看`About nova-consoleauth <http://docs.openstack.org/admin-guide/compute-remote-console-access.html#about-nova-consoleauth>`__。
nova-novncproxy 守护进程
  提供一个代理,用于访问正在运行的实例,通过VNC协议,支持基于浏览器的novnc客户端。
nova-spicehtml5proxy 守护进程
  提供一个代理,用于访问正在运行的实例,通过 SPICE 协议,支持基于浏览器的 HTML5 客户端。
nova-xvpvncproxy 守护进程
  提供一个代理,用于访问正在运行的实例,通过VNC协议,支持OpenStack特定的Java客户端。
nova-cert 守护进程
  X509 证书。
nova客户端
  用于用户作为租户管理员或最终用户来提交命令。
队列
  一个在守护进程间传递消息的中央集线器。常见实现有RabbitMQ 及Zero MQ 等AMQP消息队列。
SQL数据库
  存储构建时和运行时的状态,为云基础设施,包括有:
  1.可用实例类型
  2.使用中的实例
  3.可用网络
  4.项目
理论上,OpenStack计算可以支持任何和SQL
-Alchemy所支持的后端数据库,通常使用SQLite3来做测试可开发工作,MySQL和PostgreSQL 作生产环境。

 

2.部署需求:创建Nova服务所需数据库及相关授权、服务凭证和API端点

controller端(控制端):

[root@controller ~]# mysql -u root -p123456 
MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE nova;  #创建 nova 数据库
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>   GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON nova.* TO 'nova'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '123456';  #对nova数据库授予恰当的访问权限
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON nova.* TO 'nova'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> \q
Bye
[root@controller ~]# source admin-openrc.sh #获得 admin 凭证来获取只有管理员能执行命令的访问权限
创建服务证书
[root@controller ~]# openstack user create --domain default --password-prompt nova  #创建 nova 用户
User Password:    #密码为123456
Repeat User Password:
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| Field     | Value                            |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| domain_id | default                          |
| enabled   | True                             |
| id        | 00a917a5ba494d13b3c48bb51d47384c |
| name      | nova                             |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# openstack role add --project service --user nova admin  #添加admin 角色到 nova 用户,命令没有输出
[root@controller ~]# openstack service create --name nova --description "OpenStack Compute" compute #创建nova 服务实体
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| Field       | Value                            |
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| description | OpenStack Compute                |
| enabled     | True                             |
| id          | 9ced96bbfda44296aba0311fbc52f68e |
| name        | nova                             |
| type        | compute                          |
+-------------+----------------------------------+
创建计算服务API端点
[root@controller ~]# openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne  compute public http://controller:8774/v2/%\(tenant_id\)s
+--------------+-----------------------------------------+
| Field        | Value                                   |
+--------------+-----------------------------------------+
| enabled      | True                                    |
| id           | 02b501d9270345fe887165c35c9ee9b2        |
| interface    | public                                  |
| region       | RegionOne                               |
| region_id    | RegionOne                               |
| service_id   | 9ced96bbfda44296aba0311fbc52f68e        |
| service_name | nova                                    |
| service_type | compute                                 |
| url          | http://controller:8774/v2/%(tenant_id)s |
+--------------+-----------------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne   compute internal http://controller:8774/v2/%\(tenant_id\)s
+--------------+-----------------------------------------+
| Field        | Value                                   |
+--------------+-----------------------------------------+
| enabled      | True                                    |
| id           | 886844dc06d84b838e623f6d3939818c        |
| interface    | internal                                |
| region       | RegionOne                               |
| region_id    | RegionOne                               |
| service_id   | 9ced96bbfda44296aba0311fbc52f68e        |
| service_name | nova                                    |
| service_type | compute                                 |
| url          | http://controller:8774/v2/%(tenant_id)s |
+--------------+-----------------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne    compute admin http://controller:8774/v2/%\(tenant_id\)s
+--------------+-----------------------------------------+
| Field        | Value                                   |
+--------------+-----------------------------------------+
| enabled      | True                                    |
| id           | b72dc761e3004e398277d90441ee2cc3        |
| interface    | admin                                   |
| region       | RegionOne                               |
| region_id    | RegionOne                               |
| service_id   | 9ced96bbfda44296aba0311fbc52f68e        |
| service_name | nova                                    |
| service_type | compute                                 |
| url          | http://controller:8774/v2/%(tenant_id)s |
+--------------+-----------------------------------------+

3.安装服务

[root@controller ~]# yum install -y openstack-nova-api openstack-nova-cert openstack-nova-conductor openstack-nova-console openstack-nova-novncproxy openstack-nova-scheduler python-novaclient  #安装软件包
 root@controller neutron]# grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/nova/nova.conf #编辑/etc/nova/nova.conf文件
[DEFAULT]
rpc_backend = rabbit # #配置 RabbitMQ消息队列访问
auth_strategy = keystone # #配置认证服务访问
my_ip = 192.168.1.101 #配置 my_ip使用控制节点的管理接口的IP地址
network_api_class = nova.network.neutronv2.api.API  #启用网络服务支持
security_group_api = neutron
linuxnet_interface_driver = nova.network.linux_net.NeutronLinuxBridgeInterfaceDriver
firewall_driver = nova.virt.firewall.NoopFirewallDriver
enabled_apis=osapi_compute,metadata  #禁用EC2 API
verbose = True
[database]
connection = mysql://nova:123456@controller/nova #配置数据库访问
[glance]
host = controller   #配置镜像服务的位置,域名如果无法解析也可以IP地址
[keystone_authtoken]  #配置认证服务访问
auth_uri = http://controller:5000
auth_url = http://controller:35357
auth_plugin = password
project_domain_id = default
user_domain_id = default
project_name = service
username = nova
password = 123456
[neutron]  #配置计算使用网络访问参数,启用元数据代理和配置secret
url = http://controller:9696
auth_url = http://controller:35357
auth_plugin = password
project_domain_id = default
user_domain_id = default
region_name = RegionOne
project_name = service
username = neutron
password = 123456
service_metadata_proxy = True  #启用元数据代理和配置元数据共享密码
metadata_proxy_shared_secret = 123456 #自定义,与/etc/neutron/metadata_agent.ini文件中一致即可
[oslo_concurrency]
lock_path = /var/lib/nova/tmp   #配置锁路径
[oslo_messaging_rabbit]  #配置 RabbitMQ消息队列访问
rabbit_host = controller
rabbit_userid = openstack
rabbit_password = 123456
[vnc] #配置VNC代理使用控制节点的管理IP地址
vncserver_listen = $my_ip
vncserver_proxyclient_address = $my_ip

[root@controller ~]# su -s /bin/sh -c "nova-manage db sync" nova  #同步Compute 数据库,忽略告警信息
[root@controller yum.repos.d]# tail /var/log/nova/nova-manage.log 
2018-02-04 20:26:52.552 21752 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 297 -> 298... 
2018-02-04 20:26:52.663 21752 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
2018-02-04 20:26:52.664 21752 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 298 -> 299... 
2018-02-04 20:26:52.740 21752 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
2018-02-04 20:26:52.740 21752 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 299 -> 300... 
2018-02-04 20:26:52.931 21752 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
2018-02-04 20:26:52.931 21752 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 300 -> 301... 
2018-02-04 20:26:53.217 21752 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
2018-02-04 20:26:53.218 21752 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] 301 -> 302... 
2018-02-04 20:26:53.230 21752 INFO migrate.versioning.api [-] done
[root@controller ~]# systemctl enable openstack-nova-api.service openstack-nova-cert.service   openstack-nova-consoleauth.service openstack-nova-scheduler.service openstack-nova-conductor.service openstack-nova-novncproxy.service   #启动 Compute 服务并将其设置为随系统启动
[root@controller ~]# systemctl start openstack-nova-api.service openstack-nova-cert.service openstack-nova-consoleauth.service openstack-nova-scheduler.service openstack-nova-conductor.service openstack-nova-novncproxy.service

compute1(计算节点)安装并配置Nova服务:

[root@compute1 ~]# yum install -y openstack-nova-compute sysfsutils
[root@compute1 ~]# egrep -c '(vmx|svm)' /proc/cpuinfo #确定计算节点是否支持虚拟机的硬件加速 。如果这个命令返回 1或者更大的值,说明计算节点支持硬件加速,一般不需要进行额外的配置。
如果这个命令返回``0``,则计算节点不支持硬件加速,必须配置 libvirt使用QEMU而不是使用KVM。
1
[root@compute1 neutron]#  grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/nova/nova.conf #编辑/etc/nova/nova.conf文件
[DEFAULT]
rpc_backend = rabbit   #配置RabbitMQ消息队列
auth_strategy = keystone #配置认证服务访问 
my_ip = 192.168.1.102  #计算节点上的管理网络接口的IP 地址
network_api_class = nova.network.neutronv2.api.API   #启用网络服务支持 
security_group_api = neutron
linuxnet_interface_driver = nova.network.linux_net.NeutronLinuxBridgeInterfaceDriver
firewall_driver = nova.virt.firewall.NoopFirewallDriver  #网络包括防火墙服务,你必须使用nova.virt.firewall.NoopFirewallDriver驱动程序禁用计算机防火墙服务
verbose = True
[glance]
host = controller   #配置镜像服务的位置
[keystone_authtoken]  #配置认证服务访问
auth_uri = http://controller:5000
auth_url = http://controller:35357
auth_plugin = password
project_domain_id = default
user_domain_id = default
project_name = service
username = nova
password = 123456
[libvirt]
virt_type = kvm
[neutron] #配置计算使用网络访问参数
url = http://controller:9696
auth_url = http://controller:35357
auth_plugin = password
project_domain_id = default
user_domain_id = default
region_name = RegionOne
project_name = service
username = neutron
password = 123456
[oslo_concurrency]
lock_path = /var/lib/nova/tmp    #配置锁路径
[oslo_messaging_rabbit]  #配置RabbitMQ消息队列
rabbit_host = controller
rabbit_userid = openstack
rabbit_password = 123456
[vnc] #启用并配置远程控制台访问
enabled = True
vncserver_listen = 0.0.0.0
vncserver_proxyclient_address = $my_ip
novncproxy_base_url = http://controller:6080/vnc_auto.html #如果主机无法解析controller主机名,你可以将 controller替换为你控制节点管理网络的IP地址。

[root@compute1 ~]# systemctl enable libvirtd.service openstack-nova-compute.service  #启动计算服务及其依赖,并将其配置为随系统自动启动
[root@compute1 ~]# systemctl start libvirtd.service openstack-nova-compute.service

验证操作:
controller端(控制端):

[root@controller ~]# source admin-openrc.sh  #获得 admin 凭证来获取只有管理员能执行命令的访问权限
[root@controller ~]#  nova service-list #列出服务组件,以验证是否成功启动并注册了每个进程  该输出应该显示四个服务组件在控制节点上启用,一个服务组件在计算节点上启用
+----+------------------+------------+----------+---------+-------+----------------------------+-----------------+
| Id | Binary           | Host       | Zone     | Status  | State | Updated_at                 | Disabled Reason |
+----+------------------+------------+----------+---------+-------+----------------------------+-----------------+
| 1  | nova-scheduler   | controller | internal | enabled | up    | 2018-02-04T12:44:55.000000 | -               |
| 2  | nova-conductor   | controller | internal | enabled | up    | 2018-02-04T12:44:55.000000 | -               |
| 3  | nova-consoleauth | controller | internal | enabled | up    | 2018-02-04T12:44:55.000000 | -               |
| 4  | nova-cert        | controller | internal | enabled | up    | 2018-02-04T12:44:55.000000 | -               |
| 5  | nova-compute     | compute1   | nova     | enabled | up    | 2018-02-04T12:44:49.000000 | -               |
+----+------------------+------------+----------+---------+-------+----------------------------+-----------------+
[root@controller ~]# nova endpoints #列出身份认证服务中的 API 端点来验证身份认证服务的连通性
WARNING: keystone has no endpoint in ! Available endpoints for this service:  #忽略输出的警告
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| keystone  | Value                            |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| id        | 00da46788e874f529f67046226c7b0c9 |
| interface | internal                         |
| region    | RegionOne                        |
| region_id | RegionOne                        |
| url       | http://controller:5000/v2.0      |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| keystone  | Value                            |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| id        | 1ee55eac378f4d179bacb4ea3d1850d1 |
| interface | public                           |
| region    | RegionOne                        |
| region_id | RegionOne                        |
| url       | http://controller:5000/v2.0      |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| keystone  | Value                            |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| id        | fab8917d632a4a8c8ccb4290cbd382c6 |
| interface | admin                            |
| region    | RegionOne                        |
| region_id | RegionOne                        |
| url       | http://controller:35357/v2.0     |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
WARNING: nova has no endpoint in ! Available endpoints for this service:
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| nova      | Value                                                      |
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| id        | 02b501d9270345fe887165c35c9ee9b2                           |
| interface | public                                                     |
| region    | RegionOne                                                  |
| region_id | RegionOne                                                  |
| url       | http://controller:8774/v2/839cdfc946e1491c8004e3b732d17f9a |
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| nova      | Value                                                      |
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| id        | 886844dc06d84b838e623f6d3939818c                           |
| interface | internal                                                   |
| region    | RegionOne                                                  |
| region_id | RegionOne                                                  |
| url       | http://controller:8774/v2/839cdfc946e1491c8004e3b732d17f9a |
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| nova      | Value                                                      |
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+
| id        | b72dc761e3004e398277d90441ee2cc3                           |
| interface | admin                                                      |
| region    | RegionOne                                                  |
| region_id | RegionOne                                                  |
| url       | http://controller:8774/v2/839cdfc946e1491c8004e3b732d17f9a |
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+
WARNING: glance has no endpoint in ! Available endpoints for this service:
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| glance    | Value                            |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| id        | 589466fdddf447b9b7e273954c2b7987 |
| interface | public                           |
| region    | RegionOne                        |
| region_id | RegionOne                        |
| url       | http://controller:9292           |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| glance    | Value                            |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| id        | f67a5c559caf4580aee84304d1a2f37d |
| interface | internal                         |
| region    | RegionOne                        |
| region_id | RegionOne                        |
| url       | http://controller:9292           |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| glance    | Value                            |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| id        | fb54cd8ff23b4ea0872f1a5db7182d8e |
| interface | admin                            |
| region    | RegionOne                        |
| region_id | RegionOne                        |
| url       | http://controller:9292           |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# nova image-list  #列出镜像服务目录的镜像,验证镜像服务的连通性
+--------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------+
| ID                                   | Name   | Status | Server |
+--------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------+
| 936bce27-085b-4d79-8cce-68cff70d7abd | cirros | ACTIVE |        |
+--------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------+

八、安装和配置网络服务(neutron)

OpenStack网络(neutron)管理您OpenStack环境中虚拟网络基础设施(VNI)所有网络方面和物理网络基础设施(PNI)的接入层方面。OpenStack网络允许租户创建包括像 firewall,load balancer和 virtual private network (VPN)等这样服务的高级网络虚拟拓扑。

1.服务简述

 

OpenStack Networking(neutron),允许创建、插入接口设备,这些设备由其他的OpenStack服务管理。插件式的实现可以容纳不同的网络设备和软件,为OpenStack架构与部署提供了灵活性。
它包含下列组件:
neutron-server
  接收和路由API请求到合适的OpenStack网络插件,以达到预想的目的。
OpenStack网络插件和代理
  插拔端口,创建网络和子网,以及提供IP地址,这些插件和代理依赖于供应商和技术而不同,OpenStack网络基于插件和代理为Cisco 虚拟和物理交换机、NEC OpenFlow产品,Open vSwitch,Linux bridging以及VMware NSX 产品穿线搭桥。
  常见的代理L3(3层),DHCP(动态主机IP地址),以及插件代理。
消息队列
  大多数的OpenStack Networking安装都会用到,用于在neutron-server和各种各样的代理进程间路由信息。也为某些特定的插件扮演数据库的角色,以存储网络状态

OpenStack网络主要和OpenStack计算交互,以提供网络连接到它的实例。

 

2.部署需求:创建neutron服务数据库,服务凭证和API端点

[root@controller ~]# mysql -u root -p123456
MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE neutron;  #创建neutron数据库
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>  GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON neutron.* TO 'neutron'@'localhost'   IDENTIFIED BY '123456';  #对neutron数据库授予恰当的访问权限
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>  GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON neutron.* TO 'neutron'@'%'   IDENTIFIED BY '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> \q
Bye
[root@controller ~]#  source admin-openrc.sh  #获得 admin 凭证来获取只有管理员能执行命令的访问权限

创建服务证书
[root@controller ~]#  openstack user create --domain default --password-prompt neutron #创建neutron用户
User Password:     #密码为123456
Repeat User Password:
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| Field     | Value                            |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
| domain_id | default                          |
| enabled   | True                             |
| id        | c704bcba775b43b4b9b12a06f60af725 |
| name      | neutron                          |
+-----------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# openstack role add --project service --user neutron admin  #添加admin 角色到neutron 用户
[root@controller ~]# openstack service create --name neutron --description "OpenStack Networking" network  #创建neutron服务实体
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| Field       | Value                            |
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| description | OpenStack Networking             |
| enabled     | True                             |
| id          | 71ddd68d6f6c463f8656274270650d68 |
| name        | neutron                          |
| type        | network                          |
+-------------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]#  openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne network public http://controller:9696  #创建网络服务API端点
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| Field        | Value                            |
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| enabled      | True                             |
| id           | 7761b18170534542af7a614f53025110 |
| interface    | public                           |
| region       | RegionOne                        |
| region_id    | RegionOne                        |
| service_id   | 71ddd68d6f6c463f8656274270650d68 |
| service_name | neutron                          |
| service_type | network                          |
| url          | http://controller:9696           |
+--------------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne network internal http://controller:9696
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| Field        | Value                            |
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| enabled      | True                             |
| id           | 1e92ad2a17854c678d37079dd9a9e297 |
| interface    | internal                         |
| region       | RegionOne                        |
| region_id    | RegionOne                        |
| service_id   | 71ddd68d6f6c463f8656274270650d68 |
| service_name | neutron                          |
| service_type | network                          |
| url          | http://controller:9696           |
+--------------+----------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# openstack endpoint create --region RegionOne network admin http://controller:9696
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| Field        | Value                            |
+--------------+----------------------------------+
| enabled      | True                             |
| id           | 077b1b1213a84699b6c5fda239db148d |
| interface    | admin                            |
| region       | RegionOne                        |
| region_id    | RegionOne                        |
| service_id   | 71ddd68d6f6c463f8656274270650d68 |
| service_name | neutron                          |
| service_type | network                          |
| url          | http://controller:9696           |
+--------------+----------------------------------+

3.配置服务(这里使用网络服务选项2)

controller端(控制端):


[root@controller ~]#yum install openstack-neutron openstack-neutron-ml2 openstack-neutron-linuxbridge python-neutronclient ebtables ipset
[root@controller ~]#  grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/neutron/neutron.conf #编辑/etc/neutron/neutron.conf文件
[DEFAULT]
core_plugin = ml2 #启用Layer 2 (ML2)插件模块,路由服务和重叠的IP地址
service_plugins = router
allow_overlapping_ips = True
rpc_backend = rabbit #配置 "RabbitMQ" 消息队列访问
auth_strategy = keystone #配置认证服务访问
notify_nova_on_port_status_changes = True #配置网络以能够反映计算网络拓扑变化
notify_nova_on_port_data_changes = True
nova_url = http://controller:8774/v2
verbose = True #启用详细日志
[keystone_authtoken] #配置认证服务访问,在 [keystone_authtoken] 中注释或者删除其他选项。
uth_uri = http://controller:5000
auth_url = http://controller:35357
auth_plugin = password
project_domain_id = default
user_domain_id = default
project_name = service
username = neutron
password = 123456
[database]
connection = mysql://neutron:123456@controller/neutron  #配置数据库访问
[nova] #配置网络以能够反映计算网络拓扑变化
auth_url = http://controller:35357
auth_plugin = password
project_domain_id = default
user_domain_id = default
region_name = RegionOne
project_name = service
username = nova
password = 123456
[oslo_concurrency]
lock_path = /var/lib/neutron/tmp #配置锁路径
[oslo_messaging_rabbit] #配置 "RabbitMQ"消息队列访问
rabbit_host = controller
rabbit_userid = openstack
rabbit_password = 123456

[root@controller ~]#  grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/neutron/plugins/ml2/ml2_conf.ini #编辑/etc/neutron/plugins/ml2/ml2_conf.ini文件
[ml2]
type_drivers = flat,vlan,vxlan #启用flat,VLAN和VXLAN网络
tenant_network_types = vxlan #启用VXLAN项目(私有)网络  Linux桥接代理只支持VXLAN网络。
mechanism_drivers = linuxbridge,l2population #启用Linux 桥接和layer-2 population mechanisms
extension_drivers = port_security #启用端口安全扩展驱动
[ml2_type_flat]
flat_networks = public #配置公共flat提供网络
[ml2_type_vxlan]
vni_ranges = 1:1000 #配置VXLAN网络标识范围与私有网络不同
[securitygroup]
enable_ipset = True #启用 ipset 增加安全组的方便性


[root@controller ~]#  grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/neutron/plugins/ml2/linuxbridge_agent.ini #编辑/etc/neutron/plugins/ml2/linuxbridge_agent.ini文件
[linux_bridge]
physical_interface_mappings = public:ens32 #映射公共虚拟网络到公共物理网络接口
[vxlan] #启用VXLAN覆盖网络,配置处理覆盖网络和启用layer-2 的物理网络接口的IP地址
enable_vxlan = True
local_ip = 192.168.1.101
l2_population = True
[agent]
prevent_arp_spoofing = True #启用ARP欺骗防护
[securitygroup]  #启用安全组并配置 Linux 桥接 iptables 防火墙驱动
enable_security_group = True
firewall_driver = neutron.agent.linux.iptables_firewall.IptablesFirewallDriver

[root@controller ~]#  grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/neutron/l3_agent.ini  #编辑/etc/neutron/l3_agent.ini 文件
[DEFAULT] #配置Linux桥接网络驱动和外部网络桥接
interface_driver = neutron.agent.linux.interface.BridgeInterfaceDriver
external_network_bridge =  #故意缺少值,这样就可以在一个代理上启用多个外部网络
verbose = True #启用详细日志

[root@controller ~]#  grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/neutron/dhcp_agent.ini  #编辑/etc/neutron/dhcp_agent.ini 文件
[DEFAULT]         #配置Linux桥接网卡驱动,Dnsmasq DHCP驱动并启用隔离元数据,这样在公共网络上的实例就可以通过网络访问元数据
interface_driver = neutron.agent.linux.interface.BridgeInterfaceDriver
dhcp_driver = neutron.agent.linux.dhcp.Dnsmasq
enable_isolated_metadata = True
verbose = True
dnsmasq_config_file = /etc/neutron/dnsmasq-neutron.conf  #启用 dnsmasq 配置文件

[root@controller ~]#  grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/neutron/dnsmasq-neutron.conf  #编辑创建并/etc/neutron/dnsmasq-neutron.conf 文件
dhcp-option-force=26,1450

[root@controller ~]#  grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/neutron/metadata_agent.ini
[DEFAULT] #配置访问参数
auth_uri = http://controller:5000
auth_url = http://controller:35357
auth_region = RegionOne
auth_plugin = password
project_domain_id = default
user_domain_id = default
project_name = service
username = neutron
password = 123456
nova_metadata_ip = controller #配置元数据主机
metadata_proxy_shared_secret = 123456 #配置元数据代理共享密码,自定义
verbose = True
admin_tenant_name = %SERVICE_TENANT_NAME%
admin_user = %SERVICE_USER%
admin_password = %SERVICE_PASSWORD%

[root@controller ~]#ln -s /etc/neutron/plugins/ml2/ml2_conf.ini /etc/neutron/plugin.ini #网络服务初始化脚本需要一个超链接 /etc/neutron/plugin.ini指向ML2插件配置文件/etc/neutron/plugins/ml2/ml2_conf.ini。
[root@controller ~]#su -s /bin/sh -c "neutron-db-manage --config-file /etc/neutron/neutron.conf --config-file /etc/neutron/plugins/ml2/ml2_conf.ini upgrade head" neutron #同步数据库
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Context impl MySQLImpl.
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Will assume non-transactional DDL.
  Running upgrade for neutron ...
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Context impl MySQLImpl.
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Will assume non-transactional DDL.
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade  -> juno, juno_initial
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade juno -> 44621190bc02, add_uniqueconstraint_ipavailability_ranges
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 44621190bc02 -> 1f71e54a85e7, ml2_network_segments models change for multi-segment network.
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 1f71e54a85e7 -> 408cfbf6923c, remove ryu plugin
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 408cfbf6923c -> 28c0ffb8ebbd, remove mlnx plugin
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 28c0ffb8ebbd -> 57086602ca0a, scrap_nsx_adv_svcs_models
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 57086602ca0a -> 38495dc99731, ml2_tunnel_endpoints_table
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 38495dc99731 -> 4dbe243cd84d, nsxv
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 4dbe243cd84d -> 41662e32bce2, L3 DVR SNAT mapping
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 41662e32bce2 -> 2a1ee2fb59e0, Add mac_address unique constraint
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 2a1ee2fb59e0 -> 26b54cf9024d, Add index on allocated
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 26b54cf9024d -> 14be42f3d0a5, Add default security group table
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 14be42f3d0a5 -> 16cdf118d31d, extra_dhcp_options IPv6 support
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 16cdf118d31d -> 43763a9618fd, add mtu attributes to network
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 43763a9618fd -> bebba223288, Add vlan transparent property to network
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade bebba223288 -> 4119216b7365, Add index on tenant_id column
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 4119216b7365 -> 2d2a8a565438, ML2 hierarchical binding
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 2d2a8a565438 -> 2b801560a332, Remove Hyper-V Neutron Plugin
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 2b801560a332 -> 57dd745253a6, nuage_kilo_migrate
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 57dd745253a6 -> f15b1fb526dd, Cascade Floating IP Floating Port deletion
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade f15b1fb526dd -> 341ee8a4ccb5, sync with cisco repo
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 341ee8a4ccb5 -> 35a0f3365720, add port-security in ml2
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 35a0f3365720 -> 1955efc66455, weight_scheduler
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 1955efc66455 -> 51c54792158e, Initial operations for subnetpools
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 51c54792158e -> 589f9237ca0e, Cisco N1kv ML2 driver tables
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 589f9237ca0e -> 20b99fd19d4f, Cisco UCS Manager Mechanism Driver
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 20b99fd19d4f -> 034883111f, Remove allow_overlap from subnetpools
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 034883111f -> 268fb5e99aa2, Initial operations in support of subnet allocation from a pool
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 268fb5e99aa2 -> 28a09af858a8, Initial operations to support basic quotas on prefix space in a subnet pool
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 28a09af858a8 -> 20c469a5f920, add index for port
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 20c469a5f920 -> kilo, kilo
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade kilo -> 354db87e3225, nsxv_vdr_metadata.py
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 354db87e3225 -> 599c6a226151, neutrodb_ipam
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 599c6a226151 -> 52c5312f6baf, Initial operations in support of address scopes
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 52c5312f6baf -> 313373c0ffee, Flavor framework
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 313373c0ffee -> 8675309a5c4f, network_rbac
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade kilo -> 30018084ec99, Initial no-op Liberty contract rule.
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 30018084ec99 -> 4ffceebfada, network_rbac
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 4ffceebfada -> 5498d17be016, Drop legacy OVS and LB plugin tables
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 5498d17be016 -> 2a16083502f3, Metaplugin removal
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 2a16083502f3 -> 2e5352a0ad4d, Add missing foreign keys
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 2e5352a0ad4d -> 11926bcfe72d, add geneve ml2 type driver
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 11926bcfe72d -> 4af11ca47297, Drop cisco monolithic tables
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 8675309a5c4f -> 45f955889773, quota_usage
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 45f955889773 -> 26c371498592, subnetpool hash
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 26c371498592 -> 1c844d1677f7, add order to dnsnameservers
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 1c844d1677f7 -> 1b4c6e320f79, address scope support in subnetpool
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 1b4c6e320f79 -> 48153cb5f051, qos db changes
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 48153cb5f051 -> 9859ac9c136, quota_reservations
INFO  [alembic.runtime.migration] Running upgrade 9859ac9c136 -> 34af2b5c5a59, Add dns_name to Port
  OK
[root@controller ~]#systemctl restart openstack-nova-api.service #重启计算API 服务
#启动网络服务并配置他们开机自启动(对所有网络选项)
[root@controller ~]#systemctl enable neutron-server.service neutron-linuxbridge-agent.service neutron-dhcp-agent.service neutron-metadata-agent.service 
[root@controller ~]#systemctl start  neutron-server.service neutron-linuxbridge-agent.service neutron-dhcp-agent.service neutron-metadata-agent.service  neutron-l3-agent.service
对网络选项2,同样也启用并启动layer-3服务:
[root@controller ~]#systemctl enable neutron-l3-agent.service
[root@controller ~]#systemctl start neutron-l3-agent.service

 compute1(计算节点):

[root@compute1 ~]# yum install openstack-neutron openstack-neutron-linuxbridge ebtables ipset -y
 配置Networking通用组件,Networking 通用组件的配置包括认证机制、消息队列和插件。
 [root@compute1 ]#  grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/neutron/neutron.conf
[DEFAULT]
rpc_backend = rabbit #配置RabbitMQ消息队列访问
auth_strategy = keystone #配置认证服务访问 在 [keystone_authtoken] 中注释或者删除其他选项。
verbose = True
[keystone_authtoken] #配置认证服务访问
auth_uri = http://controller:5000
auth_url = http://controller:35357
auth_plugin = password
project_domain_id = default
user_domain_id = default
project_name = service
username = neutron
password = 123456
[oslo_concurrency]
lock_path = /var/lib/neutron/tmp #配置锁路径
[oslo_messaging_rabbit] # #配置RabbitMQ消息队列访问
rabbit_host = controller
rabbit_userid = openstack
rabbit_password = 123456
 
配置Linux 桥接代理
[root@compute1 ]#  grep "^[a-z]" -B  1 /etc/neutron/plugins/ml2/linuxbridge_agent.ini
[linux_bridge]
physical_interface_mappings = public:eth0  #映射公共虚拟网络到公共物理网络接口
[vxlan]  #启用VXLAN覆盖网络,配置处理覆盖网络和启用layer-2 的物理网络接口的IP地址
enable_vxlan = True
local_ip = 192.168.1.102
l2_population = True
[agent]
prevent_arp_spoofing = True #启用ARP欺骗防护
[securitygroup]  #启用安全组并配置 Linux 桥接 iptables 防火墙驱动
enable_security_group = True
firewall_driver = neutron.agent.linux.iptables_firewall.IptablesFirewallDriver 

[root@compute1 ~]#systemctl restart openstack-nova-compute.service  # 重启计算服务
[root@compute1 ~]#systemctl enable neutron-linuxbridge-agent.service #启动Linux桥接代理并配置它开机自启动
[root@compute1 ~]#systemctl start  neutron-linuxbridge-agent.service

验证操作:
controller端(控制端):

[root@controller ~]#  source admin-openrc.sh  #获得 admin 凭证来获取只有管理员能执行命令的访问权限
[root@controller ~]#  neutron ext-list  #列出加载的扩展,对neutron-server进程是否启动正常进行验证
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| alias                 | name                                          |
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
| dns-integration       | DNS Integration                               |
| ext-gw-mode           | Neutron L3 Configurable external gateway mode |
| binding               | Port Binding                                  |
| agent                 | agent                                         |
| subnet_allocation     | Subnet Allocation                             |
| l3_agent_scheduler    | L3 Agent Scheduler                            |
| external-net          | Neutron external network                      |
| flavors               | Neutron Service Flavors                       |
| net-mtu               | Network MTU                                   |
| quotas                | Quota management support                      |
| l3-ha                 | HA Router extension                           |
| provider              | Provider Network                              |
| multi-provider        | Multi Provider Network                        |
| extraroute            | Neutron Extra Route                           |
| router                | Neutron L3 Router                             |
| extra_dhcp_opt        | Neutron Extra DHCP opts                       |
| security-group        | security-group                                |
| dhcp_agent_scheduler  | DHCP Agent Scheduler                          |
| rbac-policies         | RBAC Policies                                 |
| port-security         | Port Security                                 |
| allowed-address-pairs | Allowed Address Pairs                         |
| dvr                   | Distributed Virtual Router                    |
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# neutron agent-list  #列出代理以验证启动 neutron 代理是否成功 ,该输出应该显示在控制节点上有四个代理,在每个计算节点上有一个代理
+--------------------------------------+--------------------+------------+-------+----------------+---------------------------+
| id                                   | agent_type         | host       | alive | admin_state_up | binary                    |
+--------------------------------------+--------------------+------------+-------+----------------+---------------------------+
| 186d2121-3fe5-49b6-b462-fe404afb159e | Linux bridge agent | controller | :-)   | True           | neutron-linuxbridge-agent |
| 73aa6284-ac78-4859-80df-2334bcd71736 | Metadata agent     | controller | :-)   | True           | neutron-metadata-agent    |
| 7424c397-481e-49c8-a8df-71d68e7c3b29 | L3 agent           | controller | :-)   | True           | neutron-l3-agent          |
| 8d555ed3-5612-4af2-8119-7e53145a9b03 | DHCP agent         | controller | :-)   | True           | neutron-dhcp-agent        |
| d6f66209-5155-4303-87e7-275dec0e792a | Linux bridge agent | compute1   | :-)   | True           | neutron-linuxbridge-agent |
+--------------------------------------+--------------------+------------+-------+----------------+---------------------------+

九、启动一个实例

创建虚拟网络

在创建私有项目网络前,必须创建创建公共网络(在启动实例前,必须创建必要的虚拟网络设施。对网络选择1,实例通过layer-2(桥接/交换)使用连接到物理网络设施的公共提供虚拟网络。这个网络包括一个为实例提供IP地址的DHCP服务。admin或者其他权限用户必须创建这个网络,因为它直接连接到物理网络设施。)

创建公共网络
[root@controller ~]# source admin-openrc.sh   #加载 admin 凭证来获取管理员能执行的命令访问权限
[root@controller ~]# neutron net-create public --shared --provider:physical_network public --provider:network_type flat  #创建网络
Created a new network:
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                     | Value                                |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| admin_state_up            | True                                 |
| id                        | 5fc60cce-0943-4844-b9e2-c768af2ea302 |
| mtu                       | 0                                    |
| name                      | public                               |
| port_security_enabled     | True                                 |
| provider:network_type     | flat                                 |
| provider:physical_network | public                               |
| provider:segmentation_id  |                                      |
| router:external           | False                                |
| shared                    | True                                 |
| status                    | ACTIVE                               |
| subnets                   |                                      |
| tenant_id                 | e5f65d198e594c9f8a8db29a6a9d01a7     |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# neutron subnet-create public 192.168.1.0/24 --name public --allocation-pool start=192.168.1.220,end=192.168.1.250 --dns-nameserver 114.114.114.114  --gateway 192.168.1.1    #在网络上创建一个子网
Created a new subnet:
+-------------------+----------------------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                              |
+-------------------+----------------------------------------------------+
| allocation_pools  | {"start": "192.168.1.220", "end": "192.168.1.250"} |
| cidr              | 192.168.1.0/24                                     |
| dns_nameservers   | 192.168.1.1                                    |
| enable_dhcp       | True                                               |
| gateway_ip        | 192.168.1.1                                        |
| host_routes       |                                                    |
| id                | ac92ba15-daef-4bc3-a353-ed1325c85844               |
| ip_version        | 4                                                  |
| ipv6_address_mode |                                                    |
| ipv6_ra_mode      |                                                    |
| name              | public                                             |
| network_id        | 5fc60cce-0943-4844-b9e2-c768af2ea302               |
| subnetpool_id     |                                                    |
| tenant_id         | e5f65d198e594c9f8a8db29a6a9d01a7                   |
+-------------------+----------------------------------------------------+

创建私有项目网络
[root@controller ~]# source demo-openrc.sh  #加载 demo 凭证来获取管理员能执行的命令访问权限
[root@controller ~]# neutron net-create private #创建网络 非特权用户一般不能在这个命令制定更多参数
Created a new network:
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                 | Value                                |
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+
| admin_state_up        | True                                 |
| id                    | ce8a6c38-5a84-47c0-b058-9bdd8b67e179 |
| mtu                   | 0                                    |
| name                  | private                              |
| port_security_enabled | True                                 |
| router:external       | False                                |
| shared                | False                                |
| status                | ACTIVE                               |
| subnets               |                                      |
| tenant_id             | a152b2b891a147dfa3068d66311ad0c3     |
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# neutron subnet-create private172.16.1.0/24 --name private   --dns-nameserver 114.114.114.114 --gateway 172.16.1.1  #在网络上创建一个子网
Created a new subnet:
+-------------------+------------------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                          |
+-------------------+------------------------------------------------+
| allocation_pools  | {"start": "172.16.1.2", "end": "172.16.1.254"} |
| cidr              | 172.16.1.0/24                                  |
| dns_nameservers   | 114.114.114.114                                |
| enable_dhcp       | True                                           |
| gateway_ip        | 172.16.1.1                                     |
| host_routes       |                                                |
| id                | 91f26704-6ead-4d73-870e-115dd8377998           |
| ip_version        | 4                                              |
| ipv6_address_mode |                                                |
| ipv6_ra_mode      |                                                |
| name              | private                                        |
| network_id        | ce8a6c38-5a84-47c0-b058-9bdd8b67e179           |
| subnetpool_id     |                                                |
| tenant_id         | a152b2b891a147dfa3068d66311ad0c3               |
+-------------------+------------------------------------------------+

创建路由器
[root@controller ~]# source admin-openrc.sh #获得 admin 凭证来获取只有管理员能执行的命令的访问权限
[root@controller ~]# neutron net-update public --router:external #添加router: external到 public 网络
Updated network: public
[root@controller ~]#  source demo-openrc.sh  #加载 demo 凭证获得用户能执行的命令访问权限
[root@controller ~]#  neutron router-create router #创建路由
Created a new router:
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                 | Value                                |
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+
| admin_state_up        | True                                 |
| external_gateway_info |                                      |
| id                    | 649c8cfc-e117-4105-b55d-cd9214792ae3 |
| name                  | router                               |
| routes                |                                      |
| status                | ACTIVE                               |
| tenant_id             | a152b2b891a147dfa3068d66311ad0c3     |
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]# neutron router-interface-add router private #在路由器添加一个私网子网接口
Added interface65404353-b387-4243-81b8-a2cbeb5b6b4d to router router.
[root@controller ~]# neutron router-gateway-set router public  #在路由器上设置公共网络的网关
Set gateway for router router

验证操作

[root@controller ~]# source admin-openrc.sh #加载 admin 凭证来获取管理员能执行的命令访问权限
[root@controller ~]# ip netns  #列出网络命名空间。你应该可以看到一个qrouter命名空间和两个qdhcp命名空间。
qrouter-649c8cfc-e117-4105-b55d-cd9214792ae3 (id: 2)
qdhcp-ce8a6c38-5a84-47c0-b058-9bdd8b67e179 (id: 1)
qdhcp-5fc60cce-0943-4844-b9e2-c768af2ea302 (id: 0)
[root@controller ~]#  neutron router-port-list router  #列出路由器上的端口来确定公网的网关IP 地址
+--------------------------------------+------+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id                                   | name | mac_address       | fixed_ips                                                                            |
+--------------------------------------+------+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 65404353-b387-4243-81b8-a2cbeb5b6b4d |      | fa:16:3e:a2:c5:29 | {"subnet_id": "91f26704-6ead-4d73-870e-115dd8377998", "ip_address": "172.16.1.1"}    |
| d3d1023b-5cfc-473b-ace9-84e25a6cfdba |      | fa:16:3e:15:19:d1 | {"subnet_id": "ac92ba15-daef-4bc3-a353-ed1325c85844", "ip_address": "192.168.1.201"} |
+--------------------------------------+------+-------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
[root@controller ~]#  ping -c 4 192.168.1.221  #从控制节点或任意公共物理网络上的主机Ping这个IP地址
PING 192.168.1.201 (192.168.1.221) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.1.221: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.293 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.221: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.066 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.221: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.120 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.1.221: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.065 ms

--- 192.168.1.221 ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3000ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.065/0.136/0.293/0.093 ms

生成一个密钥对
[root@controller ~]# source demo-openrc.sh
[root@controller ~]# ssh-keygen -q -N ""   #可以跳过执行 ssh-keygen 命令而使用已存在的公钥
Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): 
[root@controller ~]# nova keypair-add --pub-key ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub mykey #生成和添加秘钥对
[root@controller ~]# nova keypair-list #验证公钥的添加
+-------+-------------------------------------------------+
| Name  | Fingerprint                                     |
+-------+-------------------------------------------------+
| mykey | 18:29:30:72:2d:e3:02:e5:a0:79:ea:09:8e:1b:a8:ae |
+-------+-------------------------------------------------+

添加安全组规则(默认情况下, default安全组适用于所有实例并且包括拒绝远程访问实例的防火墙规则。推荐至少允许ICMP (ping) 和安全shell(SSH))
[root@controller ~]# nova secgroup-add-rule default icmp -1 -1 0.0.0.0/0  #允许 ICMP (ping)
+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+
| IP Protocol | From Port | To Port | IP Range  | Source Group |
+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+
| icmp        | -1        | -1      | 0.0.0.0/0 |              |
+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+
[root@controller ~]# nova secgroup-add-rule default tcp 22 22 0.0.0.0/0  #允许安全 shell (SSH) 的访问
+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+
| IP Protocol | From Port | To Port | IP Range  | Source Group |
+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+
| tcp         | 22        | 22      | 0.0.0.0/0 |              |
+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+

#一个实例指定了虚拟机资源的大致分配,包括处理器、内存和存储
[root@controller ~]# source demo-openrc.sh
[root@controller ~]# nova flavor-list #列出可用类型,实验使用m1.tiny方案。
+----+-----------+-----------+------+-----------+------+-------+-------------+-----------+
| ID | Name      | Memory_MB | Disk | Ephemeral | Swap | VCPUs | RXTX_Factor | Is_Public |
+----+-----------+-----------+------+-----------+------+-------+-------------+-----------+
| 1  | m1.tiny   | 512       | 1    | 0         |      | 1     | 1.0         | True      |
| 2  | m1.small  | 2048      | 20   | 0         |      | 1     | 1.0         | True      |
| 3  | m1.medium | 4096      | 40   | 0         |      | 2     | 1.0         | True      |
| 4  | m1.large  | 8192      | 80   | 0         |      | 4     | 1.0         | True      |
| 5  | m1.xlarge | 16384     | 160  | 0         |      | 8     | 1.0         | True      |
+----+-----------+-----------+------+-----------+------+-------+-------------+-----------+
[root@controller ~]# nova image-list
+--------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------+ | ID | Name | Status | Server | +--------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------+ | 2df37e06-ed46-4399-b5d0-f643640b6a52 | cirros | ACTIVE | | +--------------------------------------+--------+--------+--------+ [root@controller ~]# neutron net-list
+--------------------------------------+---------+-----------------------------------------------------+ | id | name | subnets | +--------------------------------------+---------+-----------------------------------------------------+ | 5fc60cce-0943-4844-b9e2-c768af2ea302 | public | ac92ba15-daef-4bc3-a353-ed1325c85844 192.168.1.0/24 | | ce8a6c38-5a84-47c0-b058-9bdd8b67e179 | private | 91f26704-6ead-4d73-870e-115dd8377998 172.16.1.0/24 | +--------------------------------------+---------+-----------------------------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# nova secgroup-lsit
+--------------------------------------+---------+------------------------+ | Id | Name | Description | +--------------------------------------+---------+------------------------+ | 0771996c-9673-4ce0-b6c6-8a890a326295 | default | Default security group | +--------------------------------------+---------+------------------------+ [root@controller ~]# nova boot --flavor m1.tiny --image cirros --nic net-id=ce8a6c38-5a84-47c0-b058-9bdd8b67e179 --security-group default --key-name mykey private-instance #启动实例 +--------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | Property | Value | +--------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ | OS-DCF:diskConfig | MANUAL | | OS-EXT-AZ:availability_zone | | | OS-EXT-STS:power_state | 0 | | OS-EXT-STS:task_state | scheduling | | OS-EXT-STS:vm_state | building | | OS-SRV-USG:launched_at | - | | OS-SRV-USG:terminated_at | - | | accessIPv4 | | | accessIPv6 | | | adminPass | VLYaSAvPAE54 | | config_drive | | | created | 2018-02-05T12:43:27Z | | flavor | m1.tiny (1) | | hostId | | | id | de88100a-47f1-4be5-b54d-e14d828e1150 | | image | cirros (2df37e06-ed46-4399-b5d0-f643640b6a52) | | key_name | mykey | | metadata | {} | | name | private-instance | | os-extended-volumes:volumes_attached | [] | | progress | 0 | | security_groups | default | | status | BUILD | | tenant_id | a152b2b891a147dfa3068d66311ad0c3 | | updated | 2018-02-05T12:43:27Z | | user_id | 182ee839b7584748aedb1cbda6d55ce2 | +--------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+ [root@controller ~]#nova list #检查实例的状态
+--------------------------------------+------------------+--------+------------+-------------+--------------------+ | ID | Name | Status | Task State | Power State | Networks | +--------------------------------------+------------------+--------+------------+-------------+--------------------+ | de88100a-47f1-4be5-b54d-e14d828e1150 | private-instance | ACTIVE | - | Running | private=172.16.1.3 | +--------------------------------------+------------------+--------+------------+-------------+--------------------+ [root@controller ~]# nova get-vnc-console private-instance novnc #获取实例的 Virtual Network Computing (VNC) 会话URL并从web浏览器访问它
+-------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Type | Url | +-------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | novnc | http://controller:6080/vnc_auto.html?token=ffec3792-a83a-4c2e-a138-bac3f8c7595d | +-------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

访问url:http://controller:6080/vnc_auto.html?token=ffec3792-a83a-4c2e-a138-bac3f8c7595d  #浏览器需要可以解析域名或者直接输入IP

#默认密码是 cirros用户是cubswin:)

十、添加仪表盘(dashboard)

OpenStack Dashboard为人所知是一个web接口,使得云管理员和用户可以管理不同的OpenStack资源和服务。仪表盘使得通过OpenStack API与OpenStack计算云控制器进行基于web的交互成为可能。Horizon 允许自定义仪表板的商标。Horizon 提供了一套内核类和可重复使用的模板及工具。

安装和配置

[root@controller ~]# yum install openstack-dashboard -y
[root@controller ~]# vim /etc/openstack-dashboard/local_settings #编辑文件 /etc/openstack-dashboard/local_settings 
OPENSTACK_HOST = "controller"  #在 controller 节点上配置仪表盘以使用 OpenStack 服务
ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['*', ]  #允许所有主机访问仪表板
CACHES = {     #配置 memcached 会话存储服务,并将其他的会话存储服务配置注释。
    'default': {
         'BACKEND': 'django.core.cache.backends.memcached.MemcachedCache',
         'LOCATION': 'controller:11211',
    }
}
OPENSTACK_KEYSTONE_DEFAULT_ROLE = "user"  #为通过仪表盘创建的用户配置默认的 user 角色
OPENSTACK_KEYSTONE_MULTIDOMAIN_SUPPORT = True  #启用multi-domain model
OPENSTACK_API_VERSIONS = {   #配置服务API版本,这样你就可以通过Keystone V3 API来登录dashboard
    "identity": 3,
    "volume": 2,
}
TIME_ZONE = "Asia/Shanghai"  #配置时区

=================================================== 如果选择网络选项1,禁用支持3层网络服务,网络选项2默认即可:
OPENSTACK_NEUTRON_NETWORK
= { ... 'enable_router': False, 'enable_quotas': False, 'enable_distributed_router': False, 'enable_ha_router': False, 'enable_lb': False, 'enable_firewall': False, 'enable_vpn': False, 'enable_fip_topology_check': False, }
===================================================== [root@controller
~]# systemctl enable httpd.service memcached.service #启动web 服务器和会话存储服务,并配置它们随系统启动 [root@controller ~]# systemctl restart httpd.service memcached.service

在浏览器中输入 http://controller/dashboard 访问仪表盘(需要浏览器可以解析)

使用"admin"或"demo"用户登录,密码:123456

登录后:

#如果访问网站报500错误,错误日志中报如下错误

解决方法如下:

[root@controller ~]# grep "WSGIApplicationGroup"  -B 1 /etc/httpd/conf.d/openstack-dashboard.conf  #在WSGISocketPrefix run/wsgi下方添加一行内容 "WSGIApplicationGroup %{GLOBAL}"
WSGISocketPrefix run/wsgi 
WSGIApplicationGroup %{GLOBAL}

由于篇幅有限,后续内容见 CentOS7.4安装部署openstack [Liberty版] (二)博客

posted @ 2018-02-05 23:21  百衲本  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏