1. The Ribbon: Also known as the Fluent User Interface, the ribbon is the contextual menu at the top of the SharePoint 2010 page that is used to interact with the current page or activity.
2. Site Actions: A drop-down menu, used primarily by authenticated uses for managing many aspects of the SharePoint site.
3. Global Breadcrumbs Pop-out: This pop-out menu is the replacement for the global breadcrumbs in SharePoint 2007. It shows a hierarchical view of the current site with links to its parent sites.
4. Page State Action Button: A contextual shortcut button thatoften displays a quick link for editing and saving the page.
5. Ribbon Contextual Tabs: These tabs allow the user to switch between major sections of the ribbon. They are contextual based on the current activity on the page.
6. Welcome Menu: This control shows the current user name and has a drop-down for My Site, My Profile, My Settings, Sign in as Different User, and Sign Out. When users are not logged in, the control shows the Sign In Link, If language packs are installed, this control also allows user to switch their language.
7. Developer Dashboard Launcher: This button is hidden by default and can be activated with STSADM or PowerShell. Clicking the button displays the developer dashboard, which is typically shown at the bottom of the page.
8. Title Logo: This is the main site icon that is shown by default in SharePoint. It can be changed by setting the Logo URL from Site Actions->Site Setting->Title, description, and icon.
9. Breadcrumb: Specific to the default v4 master page, this is a combination of the site title and the current pages's title that is designed to look like a traditional breadcrumb.
10. Social Buttons: Social media buttons that are used to mark the page as liked or to add tags and notes.
11. Top Link Bar: Also known as the top navigation bar or global navigation, this is the primary horizontal navigation for the site.
12. Search Area: Comprised of a search box to enter search terms and a button to start the search. If SharePoint is configured to show search scopes, they will appear to the left of the search box.
13. Help Icon: The help icon links to the SharePoint 2010 product help documents. Often hidden for public-facing Internet sites.
14. Quick Launch: Also known as the left navigation or current navigation. It is typically used for secondary vertical navigation to show pages related to the current location.
15. Tree View: Displays a Windows Explorer-style tree view representation of the current site. Often hidden for public-facing Internet sites.
16. Recycle Bin: A link to a collection of items that were recently deleted from the site. Often hidden for public-facing sites.
17. All Site Content: Known as the View All Site Content button in SharePoint 2007, this links to the All Site Content page of the SharePoint site. Often hidden for public-facing Internet sites.
18. Body Area: This is the main content placeholder. It is required for rendering the actual content of the current page.