继承自List<T>的类通过NewtonJson的序列化问题

啥问题呀?

NewtonSoft.Json是我们最常用的Json组件库之一了。这里来讨论下使用NewtonSoft.Json序列化List<T>子类的情景。序列化使用了类JsonSerializer

情景重现

如果我们有一个Field实体类。另有一个FieldGroup类表示Field的分组,并携带组属性GroupFormat。我们需要序列化这个FieldGroup,该如何实现呢?

机智如我,这么写了:

// FieldGroup 实现类
public class FieldGroup : List<Field>
{
    public Format GroupFormat{ get;set; }
}

// 序列化过程
public void main()
{
    var group = new FieldGroup()
    {
        GroupFormat = "Format 1"
    };
    group.Add(new Field()
    {
        Name = "Field 1"
    });

    Console.WriteLine(JsonUtil.SerializeByNsj(group));
}

结果我很纳闷儿,GroupFormat属性被JsonSerializer吃了吗?

[
    {
        "Name": "Field 1"
    }
]

咋解决呢?

既然JsonSerializer不会自己处理这个GroupFormat属性,那我来告诉你它是必须要序列化的!我们使用[JsonObject(MemberSerialization.OptOut)]来标记这个类除了显示地标记了[JsonIgnore]特性的公有属性都需要被序列化。

[JsonObject(MemberSerialization.OptOut)]
public class FieldGroup : List<Field>
{
    public string Format { get; set; }
}

这下好了吧?emmmmmmm......

{
    "Format": "Format 1",
    "Capacity": 4,
    "Count": 1
}

神(NewtonSoft.Json)呐!你又把List吃了吗!我该拿你怎样昂昂昂昂昂昂......
当然是,这样:

[JsonObject(MemberSerialization.OptOut)]
public class FieldGroup : IEnumerable<Field>
{
    public PrintFormat GroupFormat { get; set; } = new PrintFormat();
    // 使用内部的 List<Field> 代替继承,可直接被序列化和反序列化
    public List<Field> Fields { get; set; } = new List<Field>();
    // 使用索引对外提供类似于List<T>的访问方式;
    public Field this[int index]
    {
        get => Fields[index];
        set => Fields[index] = value;
    }
    // 提供List<T>一致的Add方法,有需要可以提供其他方法
    public void Add(Field field)
    {
        Fields.Add(field);
    }
    // 提供类似于List<T>的IEnumerable功能
    public IEnumerator<Field> GetEnumerator()
    {
        return new FieldEnumerator(Fields);
    }
    IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator()
    {
        return GetEnumerator();
    }
}

这次的结果是?

{
    "Fields": [
        {
            "Name": "Field 1"
        }
    ],
    "Format": "Format 1"
}

老外有话说

Is there any way to JSON.NET-serialize a subclass of List that also has extra properties?

public class LocationListJsonConverter : JsonConverter
{
    public override bool CanConvert(System.Type objectType)
    {
        return objectType == typeof(LocationList);
    }

    public override object ReadJson(JsonReader reader, System.Type objectType, object existingValue, JsonSerializer serializer)
    {
        var locationList = (existingValue as LocationList) ?? new LocationList();
        var jLocationList = JObject.ReadFrom(reader);

        locationList.IsExpanded = (bool)(jLocationList["IsExpanded"] ?? false);

        var jLocations = jLocationList["_Items"];
        if(jLocations != null)
        {
            foreach(var jLocation in jLocations)
            {
                var location = serializer.Deserialize<Location>(new JTokenReader(jLocation));
                locationList.Add(location);
            }
        }
        return locationList;
    }

    public override void WriteJson(JsonWriter writer, object value, JsonSerializer serializer)
    {
        var locationList = value as LocationList;
        JObject jLocationList = new JObject();
        if(locationList.IsExpanded)
            jLocationList.Add("IsExpanded", true);
        if(locationList.Count > 0)
        {
            var jLocations = new JArray();
            foreach(var location in locationList)
            {
                jLocations.Add(JObject.FromObject(location, serializer));
            }
            jLocationList.Add("_Items", jLocations);
        }
        jLocationList.WriteTo(writer);
    }
}

我的博客园:https://www.cnblogs.com/liwuqingxin/

我的个人站:https://liwuqingxin.github.io/

posted @ 2020-09-13 10:15  丽舞倾心  阅读(42)  评论(0编辑  收藏