日志打入kafka改造历程-我们到底能走多远系列49

方案

日志收集的方案有很多,包括各种日志过滤清洗,分析,统计,而且看起来都很高大上。本文只描述一个打入kafka的功能。
流程:app->kafka->logstash->es->kibana
业务应用直接将日志打入kafka,然后由logstash消费,数据进入es。
另一方面,应用在服务器上会打日志文件。

如图:

详细

初步实现

首先,我们来初步实现这个方案,搭建elk略去不谈,其中特别注意各个版本的兼容。这里主要在代码层面讲解如何实现的历程。
要将日志数据写入kafka,我们想只要依赖官方提供的kafka client就可以了,翻看github,有现成的:链接

没多少代码,通看一遍,在此基础上进行修改即可。
以下代码在spring boot框架基础。
核心appender代码:

public class KafkaAppender<E> extends KafkaAppenderConfig<E> {

    /**
     * Kafka clients uses this prefix for its slf4j logging.
     * This appender defers appends of any Kafka logs since it could cause harmful infinite recursion/self feeding effects.
     */
    private static final String KAFKA_LOGGER_PREFIX = "org.apache.kafka.clients";

    public static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(KafkaAppender.class);

    private LazyProducer lazyProducer = null;
    private final AppenderAttachableImpl<E> aai = new AppenderAttachableImpl<E>();
    private final ConcurrentLinkedQueue<E> queue = new ConcurrentLinkedQueue<E>();
    private final FailedDeliveryCallback<E> failedDeliveryCallback = new FailedDeliveryCallback<E>() {
        @Override
        public void onFailedDelivery(E evt, Throwable throwable) {
            aai.appendLoopOnAppenders(evt);
        }
    };

    public KafkaAppender() {
        // setting these as config values sidesteps an unnecessary warning (minor bug in KafkaProducer)
        addProducerConfigValue(ProducerConfig.KEY_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, ByteArraySerializer.class.getName());
        addProducerConfigValue(ProducerConfig.VALUE_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, ByteArraySerializer.class.getName());
    }

    @Override
    public void doAppend(E e) {
        ensureDeferredAppends();
        if (e instanceof ILoggingEvent && ((ILoggingEvent)e).getLoggerName().startsWith(KAFKA_LOGGER_PREFIX)) {
            deferAppend(e);
        } else {
            super.doAppend(e);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void start() {
        // only error free appenders should be activated
        if (!checkPrerequisites()) return;

        lazyProducer = new LazyProducer();
        super.start();
    }

    @Override
    public void stop() {
        super.stop();
        if (lazyProducer != null && lazyProducer.isInitialized()) {
            try {
                lazyProducer.get().close();
            } catch (KafkaException e) {
                this.addWarn("Failed to shut down kafka producer: " + e.getMessage(), e);
            }
            lazyProducer = null;
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void addAppender(Appender<E> newAppender) {
        aai.addAppender(newAppender);
    }

    @Override
    public Iterator<Appender<E>> iteratorForAppenders() {
        return aai.iteratorForAppenders();
    }

    @Override
    public Appender<E> getAppender(String name) {
        return aai.getAppender(name);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isAttached(Appender<E> appender) {
        return aai.isAttached(appender);
    }

    @Override
    public void detachAndStopAllAppenders() {
        aai.detachAndStopAllAppenders();
    }

    @Override
    public boolean detachAppender(Appender<E> appender) {
        return aai.detachAppender(appender);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean detachAppender(String name) {
        return aai.detachAppender(name);
    }

    @Override
    protected void append(E e) {
        // encode 逻辑
        final byte[] payload = encoder.doEncode(e);
        final byte[] key = keyingStrategy.createKey(e);
        final ProducerRecord<byte[], byte[]> record = new ProducerRecord<byte[],byte[]>(topic, key, payload);
        Producer producer = lazyProducer.get();
        if(producer == null){
            logger.error("kafka producer is null");
            return;
        }
        // 核心发送方法
        deliveryStrategy.send(lazyProducer.get(), record, e, failedDeliveryCallback);
    }

    protected Producer<byte[], byte[]> createProducer() {
        return new KafkaProducer<byte[], byte[]>(new HashMap<String, Object>(producerConfig));
    }

    private void deferAppend(E event) {
        queue.add(event);
    }

    // drains queue events to super
    private void ensureDeferredAppends() {
        E event;

        while ((event = queue.poll()) != null) {
            super.doAppend(event);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Lazy initializer for producer, patterned after commons-lang.
     *
     * @see <a href="https://commons.apache.org/proper/commons-lang/javadocs/api-3.4/org/apache/commons/lang3/concurrent/LazyInitializer.html">LazyInitializer</a>
     */
    private class LazyProducer {

        private volatile Producer<byte[], byte[]> producer;

        private boolean initialized;
        public Producer<byte[], byte[]> get() {
            Producer<byte[], byte[]> result = this.producer;
            if (result == null) {
                synchronized(this) {
                    if(!initialized){
                        result = this.producer;
                        if(result == null) {
                            // 注意 这里initialize可能失败,比如传入servers为非法字符,返回producer为空,所以只用initialized标记来确保不进行重复初始化,而避免不断出错的初始化
                            this.producer = result = this.initialize();
                            initialized = true;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }

            return result;
        }

        protected Producer<byte[], byte[]> initialize() {
            Producer<byte[], byte[]> producer = null;
            try {
                producer = createProducer();
            } catch (Exception e) {
                addError("error creating producer", e);
            }
            return producer;
        }

        public boolean isInitialized() { return producer != null; }
    }

}

以上代码对producer生产时进行initialized标记,确保在异常场景时只生产一次。
在实际场景中比如我们的servers配置非ip的字符,initialize方法会返回null,因为判断是否进行initialize()方法是判断producer是否为空,所以进入不断失败的情况,从而导致应用启动失败。
配置logback-spring.xml:

<springProperty scope="context" name="LOG_KAFKA_SERVERS" source="application.log.kafka.bootstrap.servers"/>
<springProperty scope="context" name="LOG_KAFKA_TOPIC" source="application.log.kafka.topic"/>
<appender name="KafkaAppender" class="com.framework.common.log.kafka.KafkaAppender">
    <topic>${LOG_KAFKA_TOPIC}</topic>
    <producerConfig>bootstrap.servers=${LOG_KAFKA_SERVERS}</producerConfig>
</appender>

bootstrap.properties配置:

application.log.kafka.bootstrap.servers=10.0.11.55:9092
application.log.kafka.topic=prod-java

在打入kafka的json进行自定义,上面的encoder.doEncode(e)进行扩展:

public class FormatKafkaMessageEncoder<E> extends KafkaMessageEncoderBase<E> {

    protected static final int BUILDER_CAPACITY = 2048;
    protected static final int LENGTH_OPTION  = 2048;
    public static final String CAUSED_BY = "Caused by: ";
    public static final String SUPPRESSED = "Suppressed: ";
    public static final char TAB = '\t';

    public byte[] encode(ILoggingEvent event) {
        Map<String, String> formatMap = new HashMap<>();
        formatMap.put("timestamp", event.getTimeStamp()!=0?String.valueOf(new Date(event.getTimeStamp())):"");
        formatMap.put("span", event.getMDCPropertyMap()!=null?event.getMDCPropertyMap().get("X-B3-SpanId"):"");
        formatMap.put("trace", event.getMDCPropertyMap()!=null?event.getMDCPropertyMap().get("X-B3-TraceId"):"");
        formatMap.put("class", event.getLoggerName());
        formatMap.put("level", event.getLevel() != null?event.getLevel().toString():"");
        formatMap.put("message", event.getMessage());
        formatMap.put("stacktrace", event.getThrowableProxy()!=null?convertStackTrace(event.getThrowableProxy()):"");
        formatMap.put("thread", event.getThreadName());
        formatMap.put("ip", IpUtil.getLocalIP());
        formatMap.put("application", event.getLoggerContextVO()!=null&&event.getLoggerContextVO().getPropertyMap()!=null?
                event.getLoggerContextVO().getPropertyMap().get("springAppName"):"");

        String formatJson = JSONObject.toJSONString(formatMap);

        return formatJson.getBytes();
    }

    @Override
    public byte[] doEncode(E event) {
        return encode((ILoggingEvent) event);
    }


    public String convertStackTrace(IThrowableProxy tp){
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(BUILDER_CAPACITY);

        recursiveAppend(sb, tp, null);

        return sb.toString();
    }

    private void recursiveAppend(StringBuilder sb, IThrowableProxy tp, String prefix) {
        if(tp == null){
            return;
        }
        if (prefix != null) {
            sb.append(prefix);
        }
        sb.append(tp.getClassName()).append(": ").append(tp.getMessage());
        sb.append(CoreConstants.LINE_SEPARATOR);
        StackTraceElementProxy[] stepArray = tp.getStackTraceElementProxyArray();
        boolean unrestrictedPrinting = LENGTH_OPTION > stepArray.length;
        int maxIndex = (unrestrictedPrinting) ? stepArray.length : LENGTH_OPTION;

        for (int i = 0; i < maxIndex; i++) {
            sb.append(TAB);
            StackTraceElementProxy element = stepArray[i];
            sb.append(element);
            sb.append(CoreConstants.LINE_SEPARATOR);
        }

        IThrowableProxy[] suppressed = tp.getSuppressed();
        if (suppressed != null) {
            for (IThrowableProxy current : suppressed) {
                recursiveAppend(sb, current, SUPPRESSED);
            }
        }

        recursiveAppend(sb, tp.getCause(), CAUSED_BY);
    }

}

其中recursiveAppend方法是模仿ch.qos.logback.classic.spi.ThrowableProxyUtil,用来答应异常的全部堆栈。
还有这个ip的获取问题,InetAddress.getLocalHost().getHostAddress()解决不了。
以下是详细代码:

public class IpUtil {

    public static final String DEFAULT_IP = "127.0.0.1";

    public static String cacheLocalIp = null;

    private static Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(IpUtil.class);

    /**
     * 直接根据第一个网卡地址作为其内网ipv4地址,避免返回 127.0.0.1
     *
     * @return
     */
    private static String getLocalIpByNetworkCard() {
        String ip = null;
        try {
            for (Enumeration<NetworkInterface> e = NetworkInterface.getNetworkInterfaces(); e.hasMoreElements(); ) {
                NetworkInterface item = e.nextElement();
                for (InterfaceAddress address : item.getInterfaceAddresses()) {
                    if (item.isLoopback() || !item.isUp()) {
                        continue;
                    }
                    if (address.getAddress() instanceof Inet4Address) {
                        Inet4Address inet4Address = (Inet4Address) address.getAddress();
                        ip = inet4Address.getHostAddress();
                    }
                }
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.error("getLocalIpByNetworkCard error", e);
            try {
                ip = InetAddress.getLocalHost().getHostAddress();
            } catch (Exception e1) {
                logger.error("InetAddress.getLocalHost().getHostAddress() error", e1);
                ip = DEFAULT_IP;
            }
        }

        return ip == null ? DEFAULT_IP : ip;
    }

    public synchronized static String getLocalIP() {
        if(cacheLocalIp == null){
            cacheLocalIp = getLocalIpByNetworkCard();
            return cacheLocalIp;
        }else{
            return cacheLocalIp;
        }
    }
}

另外在logback-spring.xml中配置了本地日志appender:

<!-- 按照每天生成日志文件 -->
   <appender name="filelog"  class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.RollingFileAppender">
       <rollingPolicy class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.SizeAndTimeBasedRollingPolicy">
           <!-- rollover daily -->
           <fileNamePattern>${LOG_FOLDER}/${springAppName}.%d{yyyy-MM-dd}.%i.log</fileNamePattern>
           <!-- each file should be at most 100MB, keep 6 days worth of history-->
           <maxFileSize>300MB</maxFileSize>
           <!--历史文件保留个数-->
           <maxHistory>5</maxHistory>
       </rollingPolicy>
       <encoder>
           <!--格式化输出:%d表示日期,%thread表示线程名,%-5level:级别从左显示5个字符宽度%msg:日志消息,%n是换行符-->
           <pattern>${CONSOLE_LOG_PATTERN}</pattern>
       </encoder>
   </appender>

注意这里使用SizeAndTimeBasedRollingPolicy而不是使用TimeBasedRollingPolicy+SizeBasedTriggeringPolicy。
后者是按文件大小优先级最高不会自动按日期生成新的log文件。

至此,一个打入kafka日志的代码就算完结了,功能完全,执行正确。

异常场景

思考下,在启动应用或在应用运行时,kafka无法正确接收信息,比如挂掉了。那么这个打日志的功能会怎么表现呢?
当然是每次写日志都会尝试去连kafka,但是失败,必然影响应用状态。
所以想到熔断的思路,假设kafka挂掉,可以通过熔断的方式降低对应用的影响。
这里就实现了一下熔断器的逻辑。

状态流转图:

熔断器:

/**
*   @desc    熔断器
 *          1,使用failureCount和consecutiveSuccessCount控制断路器状态的流转,两者都使用了AtomicInteger以确保并发场数量的精准
 *          2,successCount 没有使用AtomicInteger 不确保准确性
 *          3,failureThreshold,consecutiveSuccessThreshold,timeout参数非法赋默认值
*/
public class CircuitBreaker {

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(CircuitBreaker.class);

    private String name;

    /**
     * 熔断器状态
     */
    private CircuitBreakerState state;

    /**
     * 失败次数阀值
     */
    private int failureThreshold;

    /**
     * 熔断状态时间窗口
     */
    private long timeout;

    /**
     * 失败次数
     */
    private AtomicInteger failureCount;

    /**
     * 成功次数 (并发不准确)
     */
    private int successCount;

    /**
     * 半开时间窗口里连续成功的次数
     */
    private AtomicInteger consecutiveSuccessCount;

    /**
     * 半开时间窗口里连续成功的次数阀值
     */
    private int consecutiveSuccessThreshold;

    public CircuitBreaker(String name, int failureThreshold, int consecutiveSuccessThreshold, long timeout) {
        if(failureThreshold <= 0){
            failureThreshold = 1;
        }
        if(consecutiveSuccessThreshold <= 0){
            consecutiveSuccessThreshold = 1;
        }
        if(timeout <= 0){
            timeout = 10000;
        }
        this.name = name;
        this.failureThreshold = failureThreshold;
        this.consecutiveSuccessThreshold = consecutiveSuccessThreshold;
        this.timeout = timeout;
        this.failureCount = new AtomicInteger(0);
        this.consecutiveSuccessCount = new AtomicInteger(0);
        state = new CloseCircuitBreakerState(this);
    }

    public void increaseFailureCount(){
        failureCount.addAndGet(1);
    }

    public void increaseSuccessCount(){
        successCount++;
    }

    public void increaseConsecutiveSuccessCount(){
        consecutiveSuccessCount.addAndGet(1);
    }

    public boolean increaseFailureCountAndThresholdReached(){
        return failureCount.addAndGet(1) >= failureThreshold;
    }
    public boolean increaseConsecutiveSuccessCountAndThresholdReached(){
        return consecutiveSuccessCount.addAndGet(1) >= consecutiveSuccessThreshold;
    }

    public boolean isNotOpen(){
        return !isOpen();
    }

    /**
     * 熔断开启 关闭保护方法的调用
     * @return
     */
    public boolean isOpen(){
        return state instanceof OpenCircuitBreakerState;
    }

    /**
     * 熔断关闭 保护方法正常执行
     * @return
     */
    public boolean isClose(){
        return state instanceof CloseCircuitBreakerState;
    }

    /**
     * 熔断半开 保护方法允许测试调用
     * @return
     */
    public boolean isHalfClose(){
        return state instanceof HalfOpenCircuitBreakerState;
    }

    public void transformToCloseState(){
        state = new CloseCircuitBreakerState(this);
    }

    public void transformToHalfOpenState(){
        state = new HalfOpenCircuitBreakerState(this);
    }

    public void transformToOpenState(){
        state = new OpenCircuitBreakerState(this);
    }

    /**
     * 重置失败次数
     */
    public void resetFailureCount() {
        failureCount.set(0);
    }

    /**
     * 重置连续成功次数
     */
    public void resetConsecutiveSuccessCount() {
        consecutiveSuccessCount.set(0);
    }


    public long getTimeout() {
        return timeout;
    }

    /**
     * 判断是否到达失败阀值
     * @return
     */
    protected boolean failureThresholdReached() {
        return failureCount.get() >= failureThreshold;
    }

    /**
     * 判断连续成功次数是否达到阀值
     * @return
     */
    protected boolean consecutiveSuccessThresholdReached(){
        return consecutiveSuccessCount.get() >= consecutiveSuccessThreshold;
    }

    /**
     * 保护方法失败后操作
     */
    public void actFailed(){
        state.actFailed();
    }

    /**
     * 保护方法成功后操作
     */
    public void actSuccess(){
        state.actSuccess();
    }

    public static interface Executor {
        /**
         * 任务执行接口
         *
         */
        void execute();
    }

    public void execute(Executor executor){
        if(!isOpen()){
            try{
                executor.execute();
                this.actSuccess();
            }catch (Exception e){
                this.actFailed();
                logger.error("CircuitBreaker executor error", e);
            }
        }else{
            logger.error("CircuitBreaker named {} is open", this.name);
        }
    }

    public String show(){
        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();
        map.put("name:",name);
        map.put("state", isClose());
        map.put("failureThreshold:",failureThreshold);
        map.put("failureCount:",failureCount);
        map.put("consecutiveSuccessThreshold:",consecutiveSuccessThreshold);
        map.put("consecutiveSuccessCount:",consecutiveSuccessCount);
        map.put("successCount:",successCount);
        map.put("timeout:",timeout);
        map.put("state class",state.getClass());
        return JSONObject.toJSONString(map);
    }
}

状态机:

public interface CircuitBreakerState {

    /**
     * 保护方法失败后操作
     */
    void actFailed();

    /**
     * 保护方法成功后操作
     */
    void actSuccess();
}
public abstract class AbstractCircuitBreakerState implements CircuitBreakerState{

    protected CircuitBreaker circuitBreaker;

    public AbstractCircuitBreakerState(CircuitBreaker circuitBreaker) {
        this.circuitBreaker = circuitBreaker;
    }

    @Override
    public void actFailed() {
        circuitBreaker.increaseFailureCount();
    }

    @Override
    public void actSuccess() {
        circuitBreaker.increaseSuccessCount();
    }
}
public class CloseCircuitBreakerState extends AbstractCircuitBreakerState{

    public CloseCircuitBreakerState(CircuitBreaker circuitBreaker) {
        super(circuitBreaker);
        circuitBreaker.resetFailureCount();
        circuitBreaker.resetConsecutiveSuccessCount();
    }

    @Override
    public void actFailed() {

        // 进入开启状态
        if (circuitBreaker.increaseFailureCountAndThresholdReached()) {
            circuitBreaker.transformToOpenState();
        }
    }
}

public class HalfOpenCircuitBreakerState extends AbstractCircuitBreakerState{

    public HalfOpenCircuitBreakerState(CircuitBreaker circuitBreaker) {
        super(circuitBreaker);
        circuitBreaker.resetConsecutiveSuccessCount();
    }

    @Override
    public void actFailed() {
        super.actFailed();
        circuitBreaker.transformToOpenState();
    }

    @Override
    public void actSuccess() {
        super.actSuccess();
        // 达到成功次数的阀值 关闭熔断
        if(circuitBreaker.increaseFailureCountAndThresholdReached()){
            circuitBreaker.transformToCloseState();
        }
    }
}
public class OpenCircuitBreakerState extends AbstractCircuitBreakerState{

    public OpenCircuitBreakerState(CircuitBreaker circuitBreaker) {
        super(circuitBreaker);

        final Timer timer = new Timer();
        timer.schedule(new TimerTask() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                circuitBreaker.transformToHalfOpenState();
                timer.cancel();
            }
        }, circuitBreaker.getTimeout());
    }

}

/*   @desc    熔断器工厂 集中应用中的CircuitBreaker
 *          注意:这里一个熔断器一旦生产,生命周期和应用一样,不会被清除
*/
public class CircuitBreakerFactory {

    private static ConcurrentHashMap<String, CircuitBreaker> circuitBreakerMap = new ConcurrentHashMap();

    public CircuitBreaker getCircuitBreaker(String name){
        CircuitBreaker circuitBreaker = circuitBreakerMap.get(name);
        return circuitBreaker;
    }

    /**
     *
     * @param name 唯一名称
     * @param failureThreshold 失败次数阀值
     * @param consecutiveSuccessThreshold 时间窗内成功次数阀值
     * @param timeout 时间窗
     *          1,close状态时 失败次数>=failureThreshold,进入open状态
     *          2,open状态时每隔timeout时间会进入halfOpen状态
     *          3,halfOpen状态里需要连续成功次数达到consecutiveSuccessThreshold,
     *                即可进入close状态,出现失败则继续进入open状态
     * @return
     */
    public static CircuitBreaker buildCircuitBreaker(String name, int failureThreshold, int consecutiveSuccessThreshold, long timeout){
        CircuitBreaker circuitBreaker = new CircuitBreaker(name, failureThreshold, consecutiveSuccessThreshold, timeout);
        circuitBreakerMap.put(name, circuitBreaker);
        return circuitBreaker;
    }

}

发送kafka消息时使用熔断器:

/**
    * 因日志为非业务应用核心服务,防止kafka不稳定导致影响应用状态,这里使用使用熔断机制 失败3次开启熔断,每隔20秒半开熔断,连续成功两次关闭熔断。
    */
   CircuitBreaker circuitBreaker = CircuitBreakerFactory.buildCircuitBreaker("KafkaAppender-c", 3, 2, 20000);

   public <K, V, E> boolean send(Producer<K, V> producer, ProducerRecord<K, V> record, final E event,
                                 final FailedDeliveryCallback<E> failedDeliveryCallback) {
       if(circuitBreaker.isNotOpen()){
           try {
               producer.send(record, (metadata, exception) -> {
                   if (exception != null) {
                       circuitBreaker.actFailed();
                       failedDeliveryCallback.onFailedDelivery(event, exception);
                       logger.error("kafka producer send log error",exception);
                   }else{
                       circuitBreaker.actSuccess();
                   }
               });
               return true;
           } catch (KafkaException e) {
               circuitBreaker.actFailed();
               failedDeliveryCallback.onFailedDelivery(event, e);
               logger.error("kafka send log error",e);
               return false;
           }
       }else{
           logger.error("kafka log circuitBreaker open");
           return false;
       }
   }

总结

1,elk搭建时需特别注意各个版本的兼容,kafka client的版本需和kafka版本保持一致
2,方案容许kafka日志失败,而本地日志更加可靠,所以用熔断器方案,以应对万一。也可用于对其他第三方请求时使用。

posted on 2018-08-21 15:40 每当变幻时 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

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