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MySQL 5.7忘记root密码如何修改?

2017-05-05 16:08  潇湘隐者  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏

一直以来,MySQL的应用和学习环境都是MySQL 5.6和之前的版本,也没有去关注新版本MySQL 5.7的变化和新特性。今天帮人处理忘记root密码的时时候,发现以前的方法不奏效了。具体情况如下所示:

 

案例环境如下:

        操作系统 : Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 6.6 (Santiago)

        数据库版本: 5.7.18 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

 

忘记密码,输入错误的密码时遇到下面错误信息:

 

[root@mytestlnx02 ~]# mysql -u root -p
Enter password: 
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost' (using password: YES)
[root@mytestlnx02 ~]#

 

检查MySQL服务是否启动,如果启动,关闭MySQL服务

 

[root@mytestlnx02 ~]# ps -ef | grep -i mysql
root     22972     1  0 14:18 pts/0    00:00:00 /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid --basedir=/usr --user=mysql
mysql    23166 22972  0 14:18 pts/0    00:00:00 /usr/sbin/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --plugin-dir=/usr/lib/mysql/plugin --user=mysql --log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log --pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid --socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
root     23237 21825  0 14:22 pts/0    00:00:00 grep -i mysql
[root@mytestlnx02 ~]# service mysqld stop
Stopping mysqld:  [  OK  ]
[root@mytestlnx02 ~]# 

 

 

找到MySQL的my.cnf配置文件,在/etc/my.cnf (有些版本是/etc/mysql/my.cnf)在里面增加下面一段信息:

[mysqld]

skip-grant-tables

然后启动MySQL,进入MySQL后,修改root密码,操作过程中遇到ERROR 1054 (42S22): Unknown column 'password' in 'field list',查了一下user表的表结构,发现原来MySQL 5.7下,user表已经没有Password字段。加密后的用户密码存储于authentication_string字段。具体操作过程如下所示:

 

[root@mytestlnx02 ~]# service mysqld start
Starting mysqld:  [  OK  ]
[root@mytestlnx02 ~]# mysql -u root 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.18 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
 
mysql> use mysql;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A
 
Database changed
mysql> update user set password=PASSWORD('Kd8k&dfdl023')
    -> where user='root';
ERROR 1054 (42S22): Unknown column 'password' in 'field list'
mysql> update mysql.user set authentication_string=password('Kd8k&dfdl023') where user='root';
Query OK, 1 row affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 1
 
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
 
mysql> exit

clip_image001

 

在my.cnf文件中,把刚才加入的那一行“skip-grant-tables”注释或删除掉。 然后重启MySQL服务后需要执行命令set password=password('newpassword');后,问题搞定。

[root@mytestlnx02 ~]# service mysqld start
Starting mysqld:  [  OK  ]
[root@mytestlnx02 ~]# mysql -u root -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.18
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
 
mysql> use mysql;
ERROR 1820 (HY000): You must reset your password using ALTER USER statement before executing this statement.
mysql> set password=password('Kd8k&dfdl023');
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

 

后面查询了一下相关资料,发现MySQL 5.7在安全方面有下一些新特性(参考MySQL 5.7版本新特性连载(三)

 

1. 用户表 mysql.user 的 plugin字段不允许为空, 默认值是 mysql_native_password,而不是 mysql_old_password,不再支持旧密码格式;

 

clip_image002

 

2. 增加密码过期机制,过期后需要修改密码,否则可能会被禁用,或者进入沙箱模式; 是否启用密码过期由参数default_password_lifetime控制。

 

mysql> show variables like 'default_password_lifetime';
+---------------------------+-------+
| Variable_name             | Value |
+---------------------------+-------+
| default_password_lifetime | 0     |
+---------------------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
 
mysql>

 

3:增加了密码安全等级以及密码复杂度设置。参数如下:

mysql> show variables like 'validate_password%';
+--------------------------------------+--------+
| Variable_name                        | Value  |
+--------------------------------------+--------+
| validate_password_check_user_name    | OFF    |
| validate_password_dictionary_file    |        |
| validate_password_length             | 8      |
| validate_password_mixed_case_count   | 1      |
| validate_password_number_count       | 1      |
| validate_password_policy             | MEDIUM |
| validate_password_special_char_count | 1      |
+--------------------------------------+--------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 

 

4. 使用 mysql_install_db 初始化时,默认会自动生成随机密码,随机密码放在/var/log/mysqld.log中,并且不创建除 root@localhost和mysql.sys@localhost 外的其他账号,也不创建 test 库;

[root@mytestlnx02 mysql]# yum localinstall mysql-community-{server,client,common,libs}-* 
[root@mytestlnx02 mysql]# rpm -qa | grep -i mysql
mysql-community-client-5.7.18-1.el6.i686
mysql-community-libs-5.7.18-1.el6.i686
perl-DBD-MySQL-4.013-3.el6.x86_64
mysql-community-server-5.7.18-1.el6.i686
mysql-community-common-5.7.18-1.el6.i686
mysql-community-libs-compat-5.7.18-1.el6.i686
[root@mytestlnx02 mysql]# service mysqld start
 
Initializing MySQL database:  [  OK  ]
Installing validate password plugin:  [  OK  ]
Starting mysqld:  [  OK  ]
[root@mytestlnx02 mysql]# 
[root@mytestlnx02 mysql]# grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log
2017-05-05T06:10:57.802143Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: w99s(m-q_ML:
 
mysql> select user ,host from user;
+-----------+-----------+
| user      | host      |
+-----------+-----------+
| mysql.sys | localhost |
| root      | localhost |
+-----------+-----------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 

参考资料:

http://imysql.com/2015/07/08/mysql-57-new-feature-part-3.shtml