代码改变世界

英文文法学习笔记(16)助动词

2022-01-12 22:12  AlfredZhao  阅读(29)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报

本篇为第16篇笔记:助动词。

一、经典例句

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

一、经典例句

1.1 助动词的特征

1. He can speak English.

2. He cannot speak English.

3. Can he speak English?

1.2 助动词的用法

4. He can speak Japanese, but he cannot write it.

5. She tried to tie the rope, but she couldn't.

6. I will be able to finish the paper and go out to see the exhibition tomorrow.

7. I haven't been able to recall his name.

8. It cannot be true.

9. This kind of thing can happen every now and then.

10. A quarrel can sometimes cause trouble.

11. The light in the sky could be a UFO!

12. You can come in if you have a ticket.

13. I'm afraid you can't park your car here.

14. Can I leave early because I'm not well today? - Certainly.

15. Can you do me a favor?
=> Could you do me a favor?

16. Could you repeat your cell phone number, please?

17. You may not chew gum in class.

18. May I interrupt you? - Sure.

19. You may be right but I am against your opinion.

20. His health may or may not turn for the better.

21. She might not know that you are here.

22. May I never see a sight like that again!

23. May you succeed.

24. You must return this book by next Tuesday.

25. You must not talk with your mouth full.

26. Must I really attend the meeting? - Yes, you must. - No, you need not. - No, you don't have to.

27. I had to go to see the doctor because I caught a cold.

28. You'll have to replace this light bulb.

29. We must stay here all the time because it's raining heavily outside.

30. You've got to be more patient, Mary.

31. You must be kidding.

32. That is an enormous animal; it must weigh a ton.

33. She's very young, she cannot be over twenty.

34. All men must die.

35. Mom will be downstairs now.

36. That will be his house.

37. The window will not open.

38. He will insist on his right.

39. Accidents will happen.

40. A drowning man will catch at a straw.

41. Will you bring me a ladder?

42. Will you have one more coffee?

43. Would you mind if I sit next to you?

44. Would you call me back later?

45. Before they had television, people would listen to the radio.

46. Susan would often chat with us at this coffee shop.

47. You wouldn't eat carrots when you were a boy.

48. The rusty screw wouldn't come loose.

49. John used to work part-time at a restaurant after school.

50. I used to go for a swim on my lunch break, but now I don't.

51. I used to go to the movies every Sunday.

52. I would often go to the movies when I was young.

53. He used not to drink.
=> He didn't use to drink.

54. Used he to go to school with you?
=> Did he use to go to school with you?

55. We used to talk about our future, didn't we?
=> We used to talk about our future, usedn't we?

56. There used to be an old temple here.

57. He isn't what he used to be three years ago.

58. The knife is used to cut bread.

59. I am used to keeping good hours.

60. You should exercise more and eat less.

61. The government should spend more money on education.

62. Our guests should be here within an hour.

63. I sent you e-mail yesterday, so you should know about the invitation.

64. Who should make such a foolish mistake?

65. How should I know it?

66. My bicycle ought to be here because I left it just beside the telegraph pole.

67. You oughtn't to do so.

68. Ought we (to) tell him about it.

69. You don't need to speak so loud, I hear you very well.
=> You need not speak so loud, I hear you very well.

70. Do I need to record the program on the tape? - No, you don't need to.
=> Need I record the program on tape? - No, you needn't.

71. She dare not tell the truth.
=> She doesn't dare to tell the truth.
=> She doesn't dare tell the truth.

72. I dared not laugh at him at that time.
=> I didn't dare to laugh at him at that time.
=> I didn't dare laugh at him at that time.

73. How dare you ask me for help?

74. I dare say he is right.

1.3 含助动词的惯用表现

75. You may have heard this joke before.

76. The keys might have fallen out of your pocket.

77. I must have been asleep, I didn't hear your footsteps.

78. He cannot have survived in the accident.

79. You should have applied for the job sooner.
=> You ought to have applied for the job sooner.

80. She need not have some so early.

81. I cannot help crying whenever I hear that song.

82. I cannot help but think so.

83. You cannot be too careful when you choose a husband.

84. He may well say so.

85. She may well be lost, she has a poor sense of direction.

86. You'll never solve that problem, you might as well give up.

87. You might as well threw your money into the sea as lend it to him.

88. It is natural that she should want to have children.

89. It's a pity that he should be sick in bed.

90. It is necessary that you (should) take this medicine right away.

91. It is important that you (should) remember this formula.
=>It is important that he (should) remember this formula. [省略should,也用VR]

92. I suggest that the meeting (should) be postponed.

93. Mother insists that my brother (should) get up at five every morning.

94. I would rather go today than yesterday.
=> I had rather go today than yesterday.

95. I would like to have a date with him.
=> I want to have a date with him.
=> I feel like having a date with him.

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

2.1 助动词的特征

所谓助动词,是和本动词合在一起,用来表现时态、语态、语气的动词。除此之外,助动词也能用来表示疑问、否定、强调等意思。

助动词的特征{
	1.其后接原形动词
	2.现在式中,主词为第三人称单数,字尾不加S
	3.形成否定句时,在助动词后加not
	4.形成疑问句时,将助动词放在主词前
	5.两个助动词不能连用
}

2.2 助动词的用法

助动词的用法{
	(1) can(could){
		1.表【能力】 = be able to 
		2.表【可能】
		3.表【许可】
		4.表【请求】
	}

	(2) may(might){
		1.表【许可】
		2.表【可能】
		3.表【祈愿】
	}

	(3) must{
		1.表【义务、命令】
			must=have to(必须)。但must只能用于现在式,其过去式用had to,未来式用will have to,完成式用have had to代替。
		2.表【推测】 
			表推测的must,其否定用cannnot代替。
		3.表【必然】
	}

	(4) will{
		1.表【未来】
		2.表【现在的推测】
		3.表【主词强烈的意志;固执】
		4.表【习惯;倾向】
		5.表【请求;劝诱】
	}

	(5) would{
		would为will的过去式,但其有独特的用法。
		1.表【客气的请求】
		2.表【过去的习惯】 - 常伴随着sometimes、often等频率副词。
		3.表【过去的意志】
	}

	(6) used to{
		1.表【过去习惯】- used to 表示过去相当长时期的习惯;would表示过去动作的重复,其习惯的意味较淡。
		2.表【过去持续的状态】
	}

	(7) should {
		1.表【义务】
		2.表【推测】
		3.表【强烈的惊奇】
	}

	(8) need {
		need(需要)一般作为动词使用。若当助动词,只能用于否定句或疑问句。
		美语中,need多用于动词用法。
	}

	(9) dare {
		助动词dare有【敢~】之意。现在式为dare,过去式为dared,但dare又有动词的用法,形成【dare + (to)远程支持】。
	}
}

2.3 含助动词的惯用表现

含助动词的惯用表现{
	1.助动词 + have + 过去分词
	2.含can的惯用表现
	3.含may(might)的惯用表现
	4.should用于that子句中{
		a.表【感情因素】
		b.表【当然、必要】
		c.表【提案】
		d.含would的惯用表现
	}
}

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

3.1 助动词的特征

  1. 他会说英语。

  2. 他不会说英语。

  3. 他会说英语吗?

3.2 助动词的用法

  1. 他会说日文,但不会写。

  2. 她设法绑这条绳子,结果绑不起来。

  3. 明天我将能完成报告并出去看展览。

  4. 我一直想不起他的名字。

  5. 那不可能是真的。

  6. 这种事随时可能会发生。

  7. 口角有时可能引发问题。

  8. 天空中的光线可能是飞碟。

  9. 如果你有门票就可以进来。

  10. 恐怕你不能把车停在这里。

  11. 因为我今天不舒服,我可以早点离开吗? - 可以。

  12. 你能帮我忙吗?

  13. 请你重复一遍你的手机号码好吗?

  14. 你不可以在课堂上嚼口香糖。

  15. 我可以打扰你一下吗? - 好的。

  16. 你可能是对的,但我还是反对你的意见。

  17. 他的健康状况可能会好转,也可能会恶化。

  18. 她或许不知道你在这里。

  19. 愿我不会再看见那样的景象。

  20. 祝你成功。

  21. 下周二前你必须归还这本书。

  22. 你不可以在嘴巴有东西时说话。

  23. 我真的必须参加那个会议吗?- 是的,你必须。 - 不,你不需要。 - 不,你不必。

  24. 因为我感冒了,我必须去看医生。

  25. 你将必须更换这个灯泡。

  26. 我们必须一直呆在这里,因为外面下着大雨。

  27. Mary,你必须更有耐心。

  28. 你一定是在开玩笑。

  29. 那是只巨大的动物;它可能重达一吨。

  30. 她非常年轻,她不会超过二十岁。

  31. 人一定会死。

  32. 妈妈现在应该在楼下吧。

  33. 那应该是他家吧。

  34. 窗户怎么也打不开。

  35. 他要坚持他的权利。

  36. 事故总是会发生。

  37. 溺水者攀草求援。

  38. 麻烦你拿个楼梯给我好吗?

  39. 你要不要再来杯咖啡。

  40. 你介意我坐在你旁边吗?

  41. 请你稍后再打给我好吗?

  42. 在没有电视之前,人们习惯听收音机。

  43. Susan以前经常和我们在这家咖啡馆聊天。

  44. 你小时候不肯吃胡萝卜。

  45. 这生锈的螺丝怎么也弄不开。

  46. John以前在下课后常到餐厅打工。

  47. 我以前常在午休时去游泳,但现在则不。

  48. 我以前每个星期天都会去看电影。

  49. 我年轻时常去看电影。

  50. 他以前不喝酒。

  51. 他以前常和你一起上学吗?

  52. 我们以前常谈到未来,不是吗?

  53. 从前这里有一座古庙。

  54. 他不再是三年前的他了。

  55. 这刀子是用来切面包的。

  56. 我习惯早睡早起。

  57. 你应该多运动并且少吃东西。

  58. 政府应该多花点钱在教育上。

  59. 我们的客人应该在一小时内会到吧。

  60. 我昨天寄电子邮件给你,所以你应该知道邀请函的事吧。

  61. 谁会犯如此愚蠢的错误呢?

  62. 我为什么知道那件事呢?

  63. 我的脚踏车应该在这里,因为我把他停在电线杆旁。

  64. 你不该这么做。

  65. 我们该告诉她那件事吗?

  66. 你不需要说这么大声,我听得很清楚。

  67. 我需要把节目录下来吗? - 不,你不需要。

  68. 她不敢说实话。

  69. 那时我不敢笑他。

  70. 你还敢向我求救?

  71. 我敢说他是对的。

3.3 含助动词的惯用表现

  1. 你以前可能听过这个笑话。

  2. 钥匙可能掉出口袋了。

  3. 我一定是睡着了,才会没听到你的脚步声。

  4. 他不可能在那意外中生存。

  5. 你应该早点去应征那份工作。 - 实际上并没有。

  6. 她不需要这么早来。 - 实际上很早来。

  7. 无论何时我听到那首歌都忍不住哭了。

  8. 我不能不如此想。

  9. 你选择丈夫时,无论再小心也不为过。

  10. 他大可这么说。

  11. 她恐怕迷路了 - 她的方向感很差。

  12. 你将无法解决那问题,不妨放弃吧。

  13. 与其借钱给她不如把它丢入海里。

  14. 她想要有小孩是很自然的事。

  15. 他竟然卧病在床,实在可惜。

  16. 你有立刻吃药的必要。

  17. 记住这个公式是重要的。

  18. 我建议会议延期。

  19. 妈妈坚持要哥哥每天早上五点起床。

  20. 我宁愿今天去而不愿昨天去。

  21. 我想要和他约会。