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英文文法学习笔记(14)分词

2021-12-06 22:12  AlfredZhao  阅读(272)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报

本篇为第14篇笔记:分词。

一、经典例句

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

一、经典例句

1.1 修饰名词的现在分词

1. A drowning man will catch at a straw.

2. I saw a lot of falling stars last night.

3. I know the girl talking to the teacher.
=> I know the girl who is talking to the teacher.

4. The woman waving from the window is my mom.
=> The woman who is waving from the window is my mom.

1.2 修饰名词的过去分词

5. A broken bottle lay on the floor.

6. The tired worker took a rest.

7. Shirts made of silk are rather expensive.
=> Shirts which are made of silk are rather expensive.

8. We keep a dog named Snoopy.
=> We keep a dog which is named Snoopy.

9. He looked very surprised at the news.

10. I am very satisfied with the result.

11. How pleased she will be to see you!

12. How learned he is!

1.3 S + V + C(=分词)

13. The children came running to meet their parents.

14. We stood looking at the monkeys.

15. The house appeared[/looked/seemed] deserted.

16. She sat surrounded by her grandchildren.

1.4 S + V + O + C(=分词)

17. He left the engine running.

18. We heard the rain beating against the window.

19. The smoke started her coughing.

20. I couldn't make myself understood in English.

21. I want this work finished by noon.

22. I can't have the children playing in my room.

23. She had the children laughing again.

24. I had my hair cut yesterday.

25. I had my money stolen.

1.5 分词构句

26. Opening the door, I heard a strange sound.
=> When I opened the door, I heard a strange sound.

27. Being ill, I couldn't go to school.
=> As I was ill, I couldn't go to school.

28. Seeing the accident, she began to cry.
=> When she saw the accident, she began to cry.

29. Keeping him waiting outside, she did her shopping.
=> While she kept him waiting outside, she did her shopping.

30. Being a kind man, he is loved by everyone.
=> Because he is a kind man, he is loved by everyone.

31. Not knowing what to say, I remained silent.
=> As I did not know what to say, I remained silent.

32. I ran all the way, arriving just in time.
=> I ran all the way, and I arrived just in time.

33. I washed the dished, listening to my favorite music.
=> I washed the dished as I listened to my favorite music.

34. If turning left after the bank, you will see our house on the right.
=> If you turn left after the bank, you will see our house on the frght.

35. If arriving earlier, you'll have to wait for a while.
=> If you arrive earlier, you'll have to wait for a while.

36. Admitting that you are right, I still don't agree with you.
=> Though I admit that you are right, I still don't agree with you.

37. Living near my house, he seldom comes to see me.
=> Though he lives near my house, he seldom comes to see me.

38. Hearing the news, he got angry.

39. Remeo believing that Juliet was died, decided to kill himself.

40. The teacher went out of the classroom, mumbling something.

1.6 分词构句的被动态、完成形、否定形

41. Exhausted by his hard work, he went to bed earlier than usual.
=> As he was exhausted by his hard work, he went to bed earlier than usual.

42. Written in easy English, this book is easy to read.
=> As it is written in easy English, this book is easy to read.

43. Having seen him before, I know him well.
=> Since I have seen him before, I know him well.

44. Having graduated from college, he became a journalist.
=> After he had graduated from college, he became a journalist.

45. Brought up in Paris, she speaks French very well.
=> Since she has been brought up in Paris, she speaks French very well.

46. Not hearing the bell, the teacher kept on teaching.
=> As the teacher didn't hear the bell, the teacher kept on teaching.

47. Not having done his homework, he felt uneasy.
=> Because he had not done his homework, he felt uneasy.

1.7 独立分词构句

48. The sun having set, we started for home.
=> When the sun had set, we started for home.

49. It being Sunday, the shops were all closed.
=> Because it was Sunday, the shops were all closed.

50. There being no bridge, we had to swim across the river.
=> Because there was no bridge, we had to swim across the river.

51. We'll go on a picnic, the weather permitting.
=> We'll go on a picnic if the weather permits.

1.8 with + (代)名词 + 分词

52. I stood there with my heart beating violently.

53. The table was rather disorderly with several magazines lying open on it.

54. He came in with his boots covered in mud.

55. He stood in front of us with his arms folded.

1.9 分词构句的惯用表现

56. Frankly speaking, I find the job boring.

57. Judging from the way she is dressed, she must be going to the party.

58. Talking of the radio, what program do you like?

59. According to the papers, there was a big fire in that hotel.

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

2.1 修饰名词的现在分词

分词分为现在分词(Ving)及过去分词(P.P.)。同时具有动词及形容词的功能。代表进行、完成或被动等概念。

现在分词前伴随着受词、补语或副词也可当形容词使用。一般在字典中查不到这类{
	令人悲伤的故事			a heartbreaking story			break my heart
	努力工作的人				a hardworking man 				work hard 
	吃人的老虎 				a man-eating tiger				eat man
	看起来健康的人 			a healthy-looking man 			
	好看的人					a good-looking man 
	说英语的民族 				an English-speaking people 		speak English
	救命的机器 				a life-saving machine 			save (my) life 
}

形容词化的现在分词。一般在字典中可以查到{
	刺激的比赛 				an exciting game
	有趣的表演 				an interesting performance
	有趣的笑话 				an amusing joke
	迷人的女士 				a charming lady
	前途看好的男孩			a promising boy
}

重点:有些现在分词在形容词前,可当副词使用(数量不多,记住就好){
	冻寒的					freezing cold 
	火红的洋装 				a burning red dress
	滚烫的					boiling hot 
	酷热的 					scorching hot
	湿淋淋的					dripping wet 

}

2.2 修饰名词的过去分词

形容词化的过去分词{
	The news was surprising to him.
	=> He was surprised at the news.
}

和形容词相同,the + 现在分词/过去分词,也可当名词用{
	the dead 		死人
	the dying	->	those who are dying		垂死的人
	the killed and the wounded		->	those who were killed and wounded		死伤者

	重点:此三者视为单数名词{
		the accused			被告
		the deceased		死者
		the unexpected		不可预期的事
	}
}

重点:现在分词或过去分词当形容词代表的意义不同{
	不及物动词的现在分词	->	表“进行”
	不及物动词的过去分词	->	表“完成”
	{
		falling leaves	->	leaves which are falling		正在掉落的叶子
		fallen leaves	->	leaves which have fallen		已掉落的叶子

		boiling water 	->	water which is boiling			正在开的水
		boiled water 	->	water which has boiled			已煮开的水
	}

	及物动词的现在分词	->	译为“令人~的”
	及物动词的过去分词	->	译为“感到~的”
	{
		a refreshing breeze			清爽的微风
		feel refreshed 				感到清爽的

		a frightening scene 		令人恐惧的画面
		a frightened child 			感到恐惧的小孩

		a disappointing matter		令人失望的事
		a disappointed look 		感到失望的表情
	}
}

2.3 S + V + C(=分词)

现在分词
	可作为go, come, keep, lie, sit, stand, walk 等动词之后的主词补语,用来表示伴随着的动作。

过去分词
	可放在appear, seem, look, become, feel, get, sit, lie, remain 等字的后面,用来表示动作所产生的结果。

2.4 S + V + O + C(=分词)

现在分词
	可作为感官动词及keep, leave, set, start, catch, find 等动词之后的受词补语。

过去分词
	可作为感官动词及let, like, make, want, would like, wish 等动词之后的受词补语。

重点:
have + O + 现在分词{
	表“允许” -> 用于否定句中
		I can't have the children playing in my room.
		对比:我叫小朋友在我房间玩。 I had the children play in my room.

	表“使~;让~”
		She had the children laughing again.	状态(笑了起来)
}

have + O + 过去分词{
	表“使得~“ -> 使役
		I had my hair cut yesterday.

	表“被~” -> 有被害之意
		I had my money stolen.
}

2.5 分词构句

分词构句,是以分词为首的句型。是与表示时间、条件、理由等的副词子句,具有相同的功能,可用来修饰主要子句。

分词构句的形成 
	原则上主要子句与分词构句的主词是一致的。

分词构句的含义
	表时间 -> 意指 when, while 等。 
	表原因,理由 -> 意指 because, since, as 等。 
	表附带状况
	表条件
	表让步 -> 意指 though, although 等。

重点:分词构句的位置,可根据句子的结构和句意,放在句首、句中或句尾。

2.6 分词构句的被动态、完成形、否定形

被动态 -> (being) + P.P.
完成形 -> having + P.P.
	完成形的被动 having been + P.P. 其having been 也可省略;
否定形 -> not/never + Ving  或者  not/never + having + P.P.

2.7 独立分词构句

独立分词构句,是分词构句本身就具有意义上的主词。也就是说,主要子句的主词和分词构句的主词不同。

主词不同,主词保留。
连接词省略,动词变化。

must没有过去式,要用had to表示。

2.8 with + (代)名词 + 分词

用来表示附带状况的独立分词构句,可用with + (代)名词 + 分词 
	伴随着(不用翻译)

重点:不及物V没有被动{
	I love you.
	I go with you.
}

几个容易混淆的动词三态{
	说谎:				lie -> lied ->  lied 
	躺/存在vi:			lie -> lay -> lain
	放置vt(母鸡下蛋):	lay -> laid -> laid
}

2.9 分词构句的惯用表现

generally speaking 			一般而言
strictly speaking 			严格来说			To be strict 
frankly speaking 			老实说 			To be frank
judging from ~ 				从~看来
speaking/talking of ~ 		谈到~
according to ~ 				根据~
considering ~ 				考虑到~

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

3.1 修饰名词的现在分词

  1. 快淹死的人连一根草也要抓。

  2. 昨晚我看见许多流星。

  3. 我认识那位正和老师聊天的女孩。

  4. 在窗户那边挥手的人是我妈。

3.2 修饰名词的过去分词

  1. 一个破了的瓶子在地板上。

  2. 这个疲倦的工人休息了。

  3. 丝质的衬衫很贵。

  4. 我们养了一只叫做Snoopy的狗。

  5. 这消息使他看起来很惊讶。

  6. 我对这结果非常满意。

  7. 看到你她将会多高兴啊!

  8. 他多博学啊!

3.3 S + V + C(=分词)

  1. 孩子们跑来迎接他们的父母亲。

  2. 我们站着看猴子。

  3. 那栋房子看起来像是荒废了的。

  4. 她被孙子们围坐着。

3.4 S + V + O + C(=分词)

  1. 他让引擎运转着。

  2. 我们听到雨声拍打着窗户。

  3. 那股烟使她开始咳嗽。

  4. 我无法用英语表达我的意思。

  5. 我要这工作在中午前完成。

  6. 我不允许孩子在我房间玩。

  7. 她又让孩子们笑了。

  8. 我昨天剪发了。

  9. 我的钱被偷了。

3.5 分词构句

  1. 打开门,我听到一个奇怪的声音。

  2. 因为生病,我无法上学。

  3. 看到意外,她开始哭了起来。

  4. 她在购物的时候,让他在外头等候。

  5. 因为亲切,他深受大家喜爱。

  6. 因为不知该说什么,所以我保持沉默。

  7. 我一路跑,而能及时到达。

  8. 我一边洗碗盘,一边听着我最喜爱的音乐。

  9. 过了银行之后左转,你就会在右手边看到我们的家。

  10. 如果你早到了,你必须等一会。

  11. 虽然承认你是对的,我仍然无法同意你。

  12. 虽然住得近,但他很少来看我。

  13. 一听到消息,他就生了气。

  14. 相信Juliet已死了,Romeo决定自杀。

  15. 老师走出教室,口中念念有词。

3.6 分词构句的被动态、完成形、否定形

  1. 因为努力工作而筋疲力尽,他比平常更早上床睡觉。

  2. 由于使用简单的英文写的,这本书很容易读懂。

  3. 由于以前看过他,所以知道他。

  4. 从大学毕业后,他成为一位新闻记者。

  5. 由于在巴黎长大,她会说流利的法语。

  6. 没有听到钟声,老师继续教课。

  7. 没有做功课,他觉得不安。

3.7 独立分词构句

  1. 当太阳下山后,我们启程回家。

  2. 因为星期天,所有的商店都打烊。

  3. 因为没有桥,我们必须游泳过河。

  4. 天气允许的话,我们要去野餐。

3.8 with + (代)名词 + 分词

  1. 我站在那里,心脏跳的很厉害。

  2. 桌子相当乱,因为有几份杂志摊开在上面。

  3. 他走进来,靴子上面尽是泥巴。

  4. 他双手交叉站在我们面前。

3.9 分词构句的惯用表现

  1. 老实说,我发现这工作很无趣。

  2. 从她的穿着来看,她一定是要去参加宴会。

  3. 谈到广播,你喜欢什么节目呢?

  4. 根据报道,那家饭店曾发生大火。