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英文文法学习笔记(11)关系词

2021-11-07 22:22  AlfredZhao  阅读(214)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报

本篇为第11篇笔记:关系词。

一、经典例句

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

一、经典例句

1. We met a man. The man directed us to the factory.
=> We met a man and he directed us to the factory.
=> We met a man who directed us to the factory.

1.1 关系代名词的种类和格

2. I have a friend who likes music very much.

3. The student whose mother died yesterday is absent today.

4. This is the man whom I spoke of.
=> This is the man that I spoke of.
=> This is the man I spoke of.

1.2 关系代名词的用法

5. I don't like people who lose their tempers easily.
=> I don't like people. They lose their tempers easily.

6. I have a classmate whose mother is a famous singer.
=> I have a classmate. Her mother is a famous singer.

7. I met some friends whom I hadn't seen for ages.
=> I met some friends. I hadn't seen them for ages.

8. People who don't eat meat are called vegetarian.

9. All the children (whom) you take care of will enjoy swimming.

10. English is a language which is spoken all over the world.

🌟11. He looked for a car whose engine was in good condition.
=> He looked for a car the engine of which was in good condition.
=> He looked for a car of which the engine was in good condition.

12. Where is the parcel (which) we received this morning?

13. This is a statement which must be corrected.

14. He is in love with a girl who had red hair.
=> He's in love with a girl that had red hair.

15. Baseball is the sport which most boys like.
=> Baseball is the sport that most boys like.

16. Today is the coldest day (that) we have ever experienced.

17. The first thing you have to do is (to) study mathematics.

18. The driver and the car that had fallen into the sea were quickly recovered.

19. Who that has common sense could believe such a thing?

20. Which is the picture (that) Mary painted?

21. He is the only man (that) I love.

22. All (that) he said was not true. 

23. My brother fixed almost anything that needed repairing.

24. Is that the man whom you lent the money to?
=> Is that the man to whom you lent the money?

25. The train for which I am waiting is now half an hour late.

26. This is the man with whom I worked.

27. This is the habit (which) you must try to do with.

28. The lady (whom) we met on the street is our teacher.

29. She is not the cheerful girl that she was.

30. There is someone (who) wants to see you.

31. This is the only bow tie (that) there is in this store.
=> This is the only bow tie that is in this store.

32. What I want is peace of mind.
=> The thing which I want is peace of mind.

33. She told the detectives all (that) they wanted to know.

34. I don't know what they were talking about.

35. I don't know what they were talking about.

36. He is what is called a walking dictionary.
=> He is what we call a walking dictionary.

37. She is what is called a musical genius.
=> She is what we call a musical genius.

38. Air is to us what water is to fish.

39. Culture is to the mind what food is to the body.

40. She is not what she was ten years ago.

41. What has made China what she is.

42. He is a bright boy, (and) what is more, he is kindhearted.

43. They lost their way, and what was worse, night was comming on.

44. What with overwork and (what with) poor meals, she fell ill.

1.3 限定用法和非限定用法

45. We have two daughters who became nurses.

46. We have two daughters, who became nurses.

47. I called Brian, who had called me while I was out.
=> I called Brian because he had called me while I was out.

48. I bought a hat, which was too big for me.
=> I bought a hat but it was too big for me.

49. He bought some apples, two of which he gave her.
=> He bought some apples and he gave her two of them.

50. This poem, which everybody knows, is by Shelley.

51. My mother expects me to become a doctor, which is not easy.

52. He tore up my photo, which upset me.

1.4 关系副词

53. This is the place where I first met my wife.

54. Here is a map of the town where Aunt Sally lives. 

55. We found a restaurant where the food was delicious.

56. These are the cases where this rule does not apply.

57. Sunday is the day when I have no school.

58. That was the time when dinosaurs lived.

59. The day when we can live in outer space will come.
=> The day will come when we can live in outer space.

60. The reason why he was absent is not clear.

61. I really like sweets. That is the reason why my teeth are bad.

62. This is how the riot happened.

63. This is how he solved the problem.
=> This is the way (that) he solved the problem.

64. Tuesday is (the day) when garbage truck comes.

65. Late spring is (the time) when the rainy season begins here.

66. This is (the reason) why I left early.
=> This is the reason I left early.

🌟67. Little do I remember the day when I first met her.
=> Little do I remember the day (that) I first met her.

68. I don't like the way (that) he talks.

69. She moved to New York, where she opened a boutique.

70. I was taking a shower, when the lights went out!

1.5 复合关系词

71. He tried to help whoever was in need of help.
=> He tried to help anyone who was in need of help.

72. Help yourself to whichever you want.
=> Help yourself to any one that you want.

73. I'll treat you today. You can order whatever you like.
=> I'll treat you today. You can order anything that you like.

74. Whoever is calling, I don't want to answer the phone.
=> No matter who is calling , I don't want to answer the phone.

75. Whatever happens, I will always love you.
=> No matter what happens, I will always love you.

76. I'll be thinking of you wherever I am.
=> I'll be thinking of you no matter where I am.

77. However fast you may walk, you will not be able to arrive before dark. 
=> No matter how fast you may walk, you will not be able to arrive before dark.

1.6 关系形容词及as,but,than

78. I gave the child what little money I had then.
=> I gave the child all the little money I had then.

79. Nancy waited with what patience she could command.
=> Nancy waited with all the patience that she could command.

80. For ten days, during which time he kept indoors, nobody visited him.

81. We may miss the train, in which case we'll be late for the appointment.

82. Oil and water do not mix, as we all know.
=> Oil and water do not mix, and we all know that.

83. She wears the same earrings as I do.
=> She wears the same earrings that I wear.

84. As is often the case (with him), he came late for class today.
=> He came late for class today, and that is often the case.
=> He came late for class today, as is often the case.

85. Read such books as your teacher has recommended.

🌟86. There is no rule but has some exceptions.
=> There is no rule that doesn't have any exceptions.
=> Every rule has some exceptions.

87. You did more work than I had expected.

88. You have more clothing than is necessary.

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

2.1 关系代名词的种类和格

同时具有代名词和连接词功能的代名词称为关系代名词。

关系代名词的种类和格{
					主格			所有格			受格
	人				who 		        whose			whom
	事、物、动物 		which 		whose			which
								of which
	人、事物、动物 	        that 		        --				that 
	含先行词 			what 		-- 				what
}

主格 (+ 动词)
所有格 (+ 名词)
受格 (+ 主词 + 动词 <+介词>)
注意:关系代名词的受格在句子中可省略。

2.2 关系代名词的用法

下列情形只能以that作为关系代名词{
	1.先行词前有最高级、序数
	2.先行词同时有人和事物
	3.先行词中有疑问词who,which -> 避免重复
	4.先行词为the only, the very, the same等
	5.先行词为不定代名词或...thing 
}


关系代名词的省略{
	1.受格关代可省略
	2.当补语的主格关系代名词可省略
	3.There(Here)is(are)的句型中,关系代名词可省略
	4.关系代名词后有there(here)is(are)...时,关系代名词可省略
}


what = 先行词 + 关代
what = {
	the thing(s) which
	all that
	anything that 
}
eg: I don't know what they were talking about.
-> I don't know all that they were talking about.
-> I don't know the thing which they were talking about.


含有what的惯用表现{
	what is called / what we(you,they) call   ->   所谓的
	A is to ~ what B is to ~    			  ->   A 之于... 正如 B 之于...
	what A is(was / used to be) 			  ->   今日的A(昔日的A)
	what is + 比较级 						  ->   更...的是
	what with ... and (what with) ~ 		  ->   一则因...,一则因~  通常用于列举不太好的事情之原因:what常省略而只用, with ... and ...
}

2.3 限定用法和非限定用法

限定用法:对先行词的内容加以限定。
非限定用法:对先行词不加限定,只具有使句子连续的功能。
	关系代名词可用【and(but, because, for等) + 代名词】来替换。
	逗号之后的关系代名词不可用that。

重点:非限定用法,此时关系代名词所引导的子句,只用来说明前面的主要子句的部分或全部。

2.4 关系副词

关系副词兼具有连接词和副词的功能,和关系代名词一样,具有先行词{
	先行词			场所			时间			理由			无
	关系副词 			where 		when 		why 		how 
}


关系副词其他重点:{
	1.若先行词为case(场合,情况)、point(点)、situation(状况)等,也可用where。
	2.有时先行词前(the day)会与修饰的形容词子句分开。
	3.how:通常无明确的先行词时使用。
	4.关系副词的先行词,通常可省略。
	5.that有时可作为关系副词,来代替where,when,why等。通常代替when的情形较多。
	6.关系副词where及when也可用于非限定用法。
}

2.5 复合关系词

关系词who, which, what, where, when 加上“ever”,称为复合关系词。{
	关系代名词 + ever {
		whoever ~ = anyone who ~ 			不论是谁(主格)
		who(m)ever ~ = anyone who(m) ~ 		不论是谁(受格)
		whichever ~ = any one that ~ 		不论哪一个
		whatever ~ = anything that ~  		不论什么
	}

	关系副词 + ever {
		whenever ~ = at any time when ~ 	不论何时
		wherever ~ = at any place where ~ 	不论在哪里
	}
}


复合关系词可表示【让步】,即【无论...】之意。{
	whoever = no matter who 				无论是谁 
	whichever = no matter which 			无论哪一个
	whatever = no matter what 				无论是什么
	whenever = no matter when 				无论何时
	wherever = no matter where 				无论哪里
	however = no matter how 				无论如何
}

2.6 关系形容词及as,but,than

关系词中具有形容词作用的,称为关系形容词。{
	what + 名词 = all the + 名词 + that 
	介系词 + which + 名词
}


as, but, than也可扮演关系代名词的角色{
	the same ... as (that) 				和...相同
	as is often the case (with...) 		如...所示
	such ... as ... 					就如同~

	but - 用于否定句,形成双重否定。

	than - 用于比较句
}

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

  1. 我们遇到一位男士,他引导我们到工厂。

3.1 关系代名词的种类和格

  1. 我有一位非常爱好音乐的朋友。

  2. 昨天母亲过世的那位学生今天缺席。

  3. 这位就是我提到的人。

3.2 关系代名词的用法

  1. 我不喜欢容易发脾气的人。

  2. 我有一位同学,他母亲是位名歌手。

  3. 我遇到了一些很久没见面的朋友。

  4. 不吃肉类的人称为素食主义者。

  5. 所有你所照顾的孩子都会喜爱游泳。

  6. 英语是世界各地都在使用的语言。

🌟11. 他在找一部引擎状况良好的车子。

  1. 今天早上我们收到的包裹在哪里?

  2. 这是一份必须更正的声明。

  3. 他正和一位红发女孩谈恋爱。

  4. 棒球是大多数男孩喜欢的运动。

  5. 今天是我们经历的最寒冷的一天。

  6. 头一件你需要做的事就是学习数学。

  7. 掉到海里的司机和车子很快就被打捞起来了。

  8. 一个有常识的人能够相信这种事吗?

  9. 哪一幅是Mary画的画?

  10. 他是我唯一爱的人。

  11. 他所说的并非全是真的。

  12. 我哥哥几乎修理了任何一个需要修理的东西。

  13. 那位就是跟你借钱的人吗?

  14. 那班我正在等的火车现在已经晚了半个小时。

  15. 这位就是和我一起工作的人。

  16. 这是你必须改掉的习惯。

  17. 我们在街上遇见的女士是我们的老师。

  18. 她现在不像以往般充满朝气。

  19. 有人想要见你。

  20. 这是这家商店里唯一的一个蝴蝶领结。

  21. 我所要的是心灵的平静。

  22. 她告诉侦探们他们想要知道的所有事情。

  23. 我不知道他们谈论的事情。

  24. 我不知道他们在谈论什么。

  25. 他是所谓的活字典。

  26. 她是所谓的音乐天才。

  27. 空气之于人犹如水之于鱼。

  28. 文化之于心犹如食物之于身体。

  29. 她不再是十年前的她。

  30. 什么使得中国变成今天这种样子。

  31. 他是个脑筋聪明的男孩子,而且心地善良。

  32. 他们迷路了,更糟的是,天色已经暗了。

  33. 一则因工作过劳,一则因三餐吃的不好,她病倒了。

3.3 限定用法和非限定用法

  1. 我们有两个当护士的女儿。

  2. 我们有两个女儿,她们都是护士。

  3. 我打电话给Brian,他在我外出时打电话找我。

  4. 我买了一顶帽子,但我戴太大了。

  5. 他买了一些苹果,给了她两个。

  6. 这首每个人都知道的诗是Shelley写的。

  7. 我母亲希望我成为医生,但这并不容易。

  8. 他撕了我的照片,让我很不舒服。

3.4 关系副词

  1. 这就是我和我太太第一次相遇的地方。

  2. 这里有一张Sally姑妈所住的小镇的地图。

  3. 我们发现一家餐厅,那儿的食物精美可口。

  4. 这个规则不适用于这些情形。

  5. 星期天是我不用上学的日子。

  6. 那是恐龙生存的时期。

  7. 我们可以住在外天空的日子不远了。

  8. 他缺席的原因不明。

  9. 我真的很喜欢甜食,那就是我牙齿不好的原因。

  10. 这就是发生暴动的原委。

  11. 他就是这样解决问题的。

  12. 星期二是垃圾车来的日子。

  13. 晚春是这里雨季开始的时期。

  14. 这是我早出发的理由。

🌟67. 我几乎不记得跟她头一次见面的日子。

  1. 我不喜欢他说话的样子。

  2. 她搬去纽约,在那里开了一家精品店。

  3. 我正在洗澡,就在那个时候灯灭了。

3.5 复合关系词

  1. 他设法帮助需要帮助的任何一个人。

  2. 自行取用任何你想要的东西。

  3. 今天我请客。你可以点任何你喜欢的菜。

  4. 无论是谁打电话过来,我都不想接。

  5. 无论发生什么事,我将永远爱你。

  6. 无论我在哪,我都会想起你。

  7. 无论你能走得多快,天黑前还是无法到达。

3.6 关系形容词及as,but,than

  1. 那是我给了那小孩身上所有的零钱。

  2. Nancy尽其最大的忍耐在等候。

  3. 有十天之久,在这段期间他一直待在家,没人来造访。

  4. 我们可能会错过火车,如此一来我们的约会就会迟到。

  5. 就如我们大家所知,油和水不能混合。

  6. 她带着和我相同的耳环。

  7. 一如往常,他今天上课又迟到了。

  8. 阅读你们老师所推荐的书。

🌟86. 凡事都有例外。

  1. 你所做的比我期待的多。

  2. 你的衣服比所需要的多。

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