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英文文法学习笔记(10)介系词

2021-10-31 23:24  AlfredZhao  阅读(168)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报

本篇为第10篇笔记:介系词。

一、经典例句

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

一、经典例句

1. The book on the desk is mine.

2. Put the book on the desk.

1.1 介系词的受词

3. I went shopping with Mary yesterday.

4. I met Mary by chance, and I went shopping with her.

5. Things went rapidly from bad to worse.

6. How far is it from here to the bus stop?

7. I haven't seen her since then.

8. My brother used my computer without asking for my permission.

9. I'm looking forward to seeing you.

10. They did nothing but play cards all day.

11. I would rather stay at home than go out.

12. The future of this planet depends on whether we can protect the environment.

13. Men differ from animals in that they can use fire.

1.2 介系词的位置

14. Who(m) are you going with?
=> With whom are you going?

15. What are you talking about?

16. This is the river which I used to swim in.
=> This is the river in which I used to swim.

17. The young lady whom Mom is talking to is our music teacher.
=> The young lady to whom Mom is talking is our music teacher.

18. He has many friends to rely on.

19. She had something particular to write about.

20. His success is looked forward to by all of us.

21. The baby has to be taken care of.
=> We have to take care of the baby.

1.3 群体介系词

22. We must stay indoors all day because of the storm.

23. Thanks to your advice, I was able to win the game.

24. He sent his brother instead of going himself.

25. He saved the child at the risk of his life.

26. We express our thoughts by means of words.

27. I did my best with a view to pleasing my father.

1.4 双重介系词

28. He was chosen from among the volunteers.

29. She took a box from under the counter.

1.5 常见的介系词用法

30. in 1988、in August、in spring.

31. on Sunday、on the morning of October 10.

32. at nine o'clock、at dawn、at sunset、at midnight.

33. I'm going to work till seven tonight.

34. I'll finish the work by noon.

35. I began to work before eight this morning.

36. The work should take us from four to five hours.

37. He said the floods were the worst since 1968.

38. He came home after a few hours.

39. I have never seen snow in my life.

40. He will be back within a week.

41. I have learned English for five years.

42. I worked at the shop during the holidays.

43. I had to work through the night.

44. They are taking a stroll in the park.

45. The players are practicing on the field.

46. He waited for the girl at the door.

47. They are leaving for New York tomorrow.

48. The dog went to the boy.

49. The dog went toward the boy.

50. We walked along the river.

51. We swam across the river.

52. We walked through the park.

53. She sat by the window.

54. I sat beside her.

55. He lives near my house.

56. At the party, there were several girls beside Kelly.

57. At the party, there were several girls besides Kelly.

58. At the party, there were several girls except Kelly.

59. Peter sat between Jane and me.

60. He disappeared among the people in the crowd.

61. The earth moves around the sun.

62. He glanced about and saw him in conversation with someone.

63. The children sat around the old man.
=> The children sat about the old man.

64. He walked in the room.

65. He walked into the room.

66. He walked out of the room.

67. The cat jumped onto the TV set.

68. He switched on the light.

69. He switched off the light.

70. "B" comes before "C" in the alphabet.

71. We met in front of the school.

72. I hate driving behind a bus.

73. Let's have a game of tennis after school.

74. There is a fly on the ceiling.

75. A plane is flying above the mountain.

76. The sun is shining over our heads.
=> The sun is shining above our heads.

77. A cat is sleeping under the table.

78. There is a waterfall above(below) the bridge.

79. He must be well over 50 years old.

🌟80. We talked over a cup of coffee.

81. Your score is above average.

82. I was disappointed at his failure.

83. The town is famous for its hot springs.

84. The town is famous as a hot-spring resort.

85. He died of cancer.

86. In some countries many people die from poverty.

87. He was trembling with cold.

88. He became ill through overwork.

89. They surrendered out of fear of being killed.

90. Because of the rain, the game was put off.
=> Owning to the rain, the game was put off.

91. He was very tired from his trip.

92. He is tired of his monotonous life.

93. The politicians are campaigning for the coming election.

94. Nobody trusts him after the way he lied.

95. Flour is made into bread.

96. Bread is made from flour.

97. This salad is made of lettuce, tomatoes and cucumber.

98. I made my bicycle out of four old ones.

99. He was frozen to death.

100. He goes to school by bus.

101. I watched the baseball game on televison.

102. Please write it down with a pencial.

103. The book is written in easy English.

104. He got his job through a friend.

105. America was discovered by Columbus.

106. She left without saying goodbye.

107. I have no doubt about his honesty.

108. He gave a lecture on agriculture.

109. This is the story of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.

110. There is something wrong with my bicycle.

111. He is taller than I by three inches.

112. They sell eggs by the dozen.

113. The boy is tall for his age.

114. The car was running at full speed.

115. He looked at me in surprise.

116. The lived like brothers.

117. He looked at his bank balance with satisfaction.

118. To our delight, he passed the examination.

119. She stood there with her hair waving in the breeze.

120. He is independent of his parents.

121. Some people cannot distinguish one color from another.

122. A button is off your coat.

123. What you say seems to be beside the point.

1.6 和形容词、动词结合的介系词

124. I am anxious about my son's safety.

125. I am anxious for fame.

126. I called on my uncle yesterday.

127. I called at his house yesterday.

128. He got to New York.

129. He got on the bus.

130. Get off the train at the next station.

131. I hear from her every month.
=> I get a letter from her every month.

132. I have never heard of such a thing.

133. I am waiting for his answer.

134. She did not like to wait on her husband.

135. We have to look into the cause.

136. What are you looking for?

137. She looked after the children.

138. He ran to catch up with his friend.

139. I am looking forward to the summer vacation.

140. Don't speak ill of others behind their backs.

141. He cannot get along with his boss.

142. Let's make up for lost time.

143. Cars took the place of horses.

144. Please take good care of yourself.

145. He paid no attention to my advice.

146. Try to make good use of your time.

147. She asked her mother for money.

148. I thanked my uncle for the present.

149. She spends too much money on clothes.

150. Can you tell a sheep from a goat?

151. I took hime for his brother.

152. He informed them of his mother's death.
=> He informed them about his mother's death.

153. They regard him as a fool.

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

介系词可以和名词或名词相等语结合,成为形容词片语或副词片语。
而除了单字形的片语外,还有两个字以上的群体介系词。

on the desk 身份:介词片语
任务1:修饰名词  -> 形容词片语;
任务2:指“地点” -> 副词片语。

2.1 介系词的受词

介系词的受词{
	(1)名词、代名词
	(2)形容词
	(3)副词
	(4)动名词
	(5)不定式
	(6)子句
}

to{
	(1)不定词的to;+ V
	I like to listen to music.

	(2)介系词的to:+ Ving
	I'm looking forward to seeing you.
}

ask for one's permission	征求某人的允许

子句{
	名词子句{
		that
		whether/if
		疑问词
	}
	形容词子句
	副词子句
}

2.2 介系词的位置

介系词的位置{
	(1)受词为疑问词时
	(2)受词为关系子句时
	(3)介系词及受词中有不定词时
	(4)被动语态时
}

你要和谁一起去?
Who are you going with?
=> Whom are you going with?
=> With whom are you going?

主动1,2,3;被动3,2,1.
All of us look forward to his success.

2.3 群体介系词

有两个以上的字结合,担任一个介系词的功能,即为群体介系词。

according to 			根据~
owing to 				由于~
because of 				因为~
due to 					由于~
as for 					至于~
as to 					关于~
thanks to 				幸亏~
but for 				若没有~的话
with for 				不管~
instead of 				代替~

at the risk of 			冒~的危险
in case of 				万一~
in front of 			在~前面
in spite of 			尽管~
by mean of 				通过~
in addition to 			除~之外
on account of 			因为~
with a view to 			为了~
for the purpose of 		为了~的目的
for the sake of 		由于~

2.4 双重介系词

两个介系词连用的情形,即为双重介系词。

从...之中	from among
从...之下	from under

2.5 常见的介系词用法

常见的介系词用法{
	(1)表时间				in、on、at
	(2)表地点				in、on、at
	(3)表原因、理由			
	(4)表目的、结果			
	(5)表手段、道具、行为等	
	(6)表关联、关系
	(7)表程度、单位、比例
	(8)表样态、状态
	(9)表去除、区别、分离
}

英文很多会区分:两者、三者或以上 两个情形。
between/among
both/all
either/any

一整年 all the year round

tell A from B
distinguish A from B
分辨是非:tell right from wrong

2.6 和形容词、动词结合的介系词

和形容词、动词结合的介系词{
	(1)be + 形容词 + 介系词 
	(2)动词 + 介系词
	(3)动词 + 副词 + 介系词 
	(4)动词 + 名词 + 介系词
	(5)动词 + 受词 + 介系词
}

be + 形容词 + 介系词 ,可以直接当作片语来记忆。
be afraid of 			害怕
be fond of 				喜欢
be full of 				充满
be proud of 			以~为傲
be sure of 				确信
be famous for 			以~闻名
be late for 			迟到
be ready for 			准备好了
be sorry for 			抱歉
be good at 				擅长
by absent from 			缺席
be different from 		不同
be similar to 			相似
be interested in 		感兴趣

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

  1. 餐桌上的书是我的。

  2. 把书放在餐桌上。

3.1 介系词的受词

  1. 我昨天和Mary去逛街。

  2. 我巧遇Mary,便和她一起去逛街。

  3. 事情迅速恶化了。

  4. 从这里到公车站有多远?

  5. 从那时起我就没见过她。

  6. 我哥哥没有得到我的允许就用了我的电脑。

  7. 我正盼望能见到你。

  8. 他们整天只玩牌。

  9. 我宁愿呆在家而不愿外出。

  10. 这星球的未来视我们能否保护环境而定。

  11. 人类和动物之所以不同在于人类会用火。

3.2 介系词的位置

  1. 你要和谁一起去?

  2. 你们在说什么?

  3. 这条就是我以前常游泳的河流。

  4. 正和妈妈聊天的年轻女子是我们的音乐老师。

  5. 他有许多可依赖的朋友。

  6. 她有一些特别的东西要写。

  7. 他的成功被我们所有人期待着。

  8. 这婴儿必须被照顾。

3.3 群体介系词

  1. 因为暴风雨,我们必须整天呆在室内。

  2. 由于你的忠告,我才能赢得比赛。

  3. 他自己没去,而改派他弟弟去。

  4. 他冒自己性命的危险救了那孩子。

  5. 我们用文字表达我们的思想。

  6. 为了使我父亲高兴,我尽了最大的努力。

3.4 双重介系词

  1. 他从这群志愿者中被挑选出来。

  2. 她从柜台下拿出一个盒子。

3.5 常见的介系词用法

  1. 在1988年、在八月、在春天。

  2. 在星期天、在十月十日早上。

  3. 在九点、在黎明、日落时、在半夜。

  4. 今晚我打算工作到七点。

  5. 我会在中午前完成工作。

  6. 我今天早上八点前开始工作。

  7. 这工作估计要我们四、五个小时。

  8. 他说这是1968年以来最严重的水灾。

  9. 他在几小时后回家。

  10. 我一生都没见过雪。

  11. 他将在一周内回来。

  12. 我英文学五年了。

  13. 在假期间我都在这间店工作。

  14. 我必须彻夜工作。

  15. 他们正在公园散步。

  16. 选手们正在场上练习。

  17. 他在门口等那女孩。

  18. 他们明天将前往纽约。

  19. 狗走到男孩那里。

  20. 狗朝着男孩的方向走去。

  21. 我们沿着河边走。

  22. 我们游过这条河。

  23. 我们穿越这条公园。

  24. 她坐在窗边。

  25. 我坐在她旁边。

  26. 他住在我家附近。

  27. 在派对中,有几个女孩在Kelly旁。

  28. 在派对中,除了Kelly之外还有几个女孩。

  29. 在派对中,除了Kelly没来之外,来了几位女孩。

  30. Peter坐在我和Jane之中。

  31. 他消失在人群之中。

  32. 地球绕着太阳转。

  33. 他向四处张望看见他和一个人说话。

  34. 孩子们坐在老人四周。

  35. 他在房间里走着。

  36. 他走进房间。

  37. 他走出房间。

  38. 那只猫跳到电视机上。

  39. 他打开电灯。

  40. 他关闭电灯。

  41. 字母B在C之前。

  42. 我们在学校前碰面。

  43. 我讨厌开车时跟在公车后。

  44. 放学后打场网球赛吧。

  45. 天花板上有只苍蝇。

  46. 飞机飞过那座山。

  47. 太阳在我们头顶闪耀。

  48. 猫在桌子底下睡觉。

  49. 桥的上游(下游)有一瀑布。

  50. 他的年纪必定是五十多岁了。

🌟80. 我们边喝咖啡边聊天。

  1. 你的分数在平均之上。

  2. 我因为他的失败感到失望。

  3. 这小镇因它的温泉而闻名。

  4. 这小镇以身为温泉圣地而闻名。

  5. 他死于癌症。

  6. 在某些国家,许多人因贫困而死亡。

  7. 他因为寒冷而发抖。

  8. 他因过度工作而生病。

  9. 他们因为害怕被杀而投降。

  10. 由于下雨,比赛延期了。

  11. 他旅行后觉得很累。

  12. 他对自己单调的生活感到厌倦。

  13. 政治人物为了即将到来的选举而造势。

  14. 由于他那样撒谎没人相信他。

  15. 面粉做成面包。

  16. 面包由面粉做成。

  17. 这份沙拉由莴苣、番茄和小黄瓜做成的。

  18. 我用四辆旧脚踏车组成我的脚踏车。

  19. 他冻死了。(不是真的死掉)

  20. 他搭公车上学。

  21. 我在电视上看到这场棒球赛。

  22. 请用铅笔把它写下来。

  23. 这本书是用简易英文写成的。

  24. 他通过朋友找到那份工作。

  25. 哥伦布发现美洲大陆。

  26. 她不告而别。

  27. 我不怀疑他的诚信。

  28. 他以农场为题作了一次演讲。

  29. 这是有关白雪公主和七个小矮人的故事。

  30. 我的脚踏车有点毛病。

  31. 他比我高三寸。

  32. 蛋以整打销售。

  33. 就那男孩的年纪来说,他算是高的。

  34. 那辆车全速前进。

  35. 他诧异的看着我。

  36. 他们像兄弟般一样生活。

  37. 他满意地看着他银行的收支情况。

  38. 我们高兴的是,他通过了考试。

  39. 她站在那里,头发迎风飘扬。

  40. 他离开父母独立。

  41. 有些人无法分辨颜色。

  42. 你的外套掉了一个扣子。

  43. 你所说的似乎离题了。

3.6 和形容词、动词结合的介系词

  1. 我担心儿子的安全。

  2. 我渴望成名。

  3. 我昨天去拜访我叔叔。

  4. 我昨天去参观他家。

  5. 他到达纽约。

  6. 他搭上公车。

  7. 在下一个火车站下车。

  8. 我每个月都收到她的信。

  9. 我从未听说这样的事。

  10. 我正在等待他的回答。

  11. 她不喜欢伺候她老公。

  12. 我们必须调查原因。

  13. 你在找什么?

  14. 她照顾那些孩子。

  15. 他跑着赶上他的朋友。

  16. 我期待这个暑假。

  17. 别在背后说人坏话。

  18. 他无法和他上司好好相处。

  19. 让我们弥补回损失的时间。

  20. 汽车取代马匹。

  21. 请好好照顾自己。

  22. 他没注意我的忠告。

  23. 努力好好地善用时间。

  24. 她向她母亲要钱。

  25. 我谢谢我叔叔送我礼物。

  26. 她花太多钱买衣服。

  27. 你会分辨绵羊和山羊的不同吗?

  28. 我把他当成他弟弟了。

  29. 他通知他们他母亲的死讯。

  30. 他们以为他是呆子。

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