Java 监控直播流rtsp协议转rtmp、hls、httpflv协议返回浏览器

Java 监控直播流rtsp协议转rtmp、hls、httpflv协议返回浏览器

需求背景:

在做之前的项目的时候有一个对接摄像头实时播放的需求,由于我们摄像头的购买量不是很多,海康威视不给我们提供流媒体云服务器,所以需要我们自己去 一个去满足我们能在浏览器看到监控画面。项目源代码在以前公司没有拷贝就不能复习,最近又在准备面试,所以写了这个博客来复盘和扩展一下,由于我现在没有Liunx,我就用Windows来演示,生产环境还是要使用Liunx,下面这些操作在Liunx也是一样的流程,大家自行百度。

一:了解音视频流协议:

媒体流协议对比
协议HttpFlvRTMPHLSDash
全称FLASH VIDEO over HTTPReal Time Message ProtocolHTTP Living Streaming
传输方式HTTP长连接TCP长连接HTTP短连接HTTP短连接
视频封装格式FLV

FLV TAG

TS文件

Mp4

3gp

webm

原理

RTMP,使用HTTP协议(80端口)

每个时刻的数据收到后立刻转发

集合一段时间的数据,生成TS切片文件(三片),并更新m3u8索引

延时

1~3秒

1~3秒

5~20秒(依切片情况)

数据分段连续流连续流切片文件切片文件
Html5播放

可通过HTML5解封包播放

(flv.js)

不支持

可通过HTML5解封包播放

(hls.js)

如果dash文件列表是MP4,

webm文件,可直接播放

其它

需要Flash技术支持,不支持多音频流、多视频流,不便于seek(即拖进度条)

跨平台支持较差,需要Flash技术支持

播放时需要多次请求,对于网络质量要求高

二:方案一 rtsp 转rtmp

1、下载nginx + nginx-rtmp-module

nginx:下载地址:http://nginx-win.ecsds.eu/download/

nginx-rtmp-module:nginx 的扩展,安装后支持rtmp协议,下载地址:https://github.com/arut/nginx-rtmp-module

解压nginx-rtmp-module到nginx根目录下,并修改其文件夹名为nginx-rtmp-module(原名为nginx-rtmp-module-master)

2、nginx配置文件

到nginx根目录下的conf目录下复制一份nginx-win.conf 重命名 nginx-win-rtmp.conf

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nginx-win-rtmp.conf:

#user  nobody;
# multiple workers works !
worker_processes  2;

#error_log  logs/error.log;
#error_log  logs/error.log  notice;
#error_log  logs/error.log  info;

#pid        logs/nginx.pid;

events {
    worker_connections  8192;
    # max value 32768, nginx recycling connections+registry optimization = 
    #   this.value * 20 = max concurrent connections currently tested with one worker
    #   C1000K should be possible depending there is enough ram/cpu power
    # multi_accept on;
}

rtmp {
    server {
        listen 1935;
        chunk_size 4000;
		
        application live {
             live on;
             # 播放时进行回调,如果HttpRespone statusCode不等于200会断开
			 # on_play http://localhost:8081/auth;
        }
		
		application hls {
		     live on; 
		     # 开启hls切片
             hls on;
             # m3u8地址
			 hls_path html/hls;
			 # 一个切片多少秒
			 hls_fragment 8s;
			 # on_play http://localhost:8081/auth;
			 # on_publish http://localhost:8081/auth;
			 # on_done http://localhost:8081/auth;
        }
    }
}

http {
    #include      /nginx/conf/naxsi_core.rules;
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    #log_format  main  '$remote_addr:$remote_port - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
    #                  '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
    #                  '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    #access_log  logs/access.log  main;

#     # loadbalancing PHP
#     upstream myLoadBalancer {
#         server 127.0.0.1:9001 weight=1 fail_timeout=5;
#         server 127.0.0.1:9002 weight=1 fail_timeout=5;
#         server 127.0.0.1:9003 weight=1 fail_timeout=5;
#         server 127.0.0.1:9004 weight=1 fail_timeout=5;
#         server 127.0.0.1:9005 weight=1 fail_timeout=5;
#         server 127.0.0.1:9006 weight=1 fail_timeout=5;
#         server 127.0.0.1:9007 weight=1 fail_timeout=5;
#         server 127.0.0.1:9008 weight=1 fail_timeout=5;
#         server 127.0.0.1:9009 weight=1 fail_timeout=5;
#         server 127.0.0.1:9010 weight=1 fail_timeout=5;
#         least_conn;
#     }

    sendfile        off;
    #tcp_nopush     on;

    server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;

## Start: Timeouts ##
    client_body_timeout   10;
    client_header_timeout 10;
    keepalive_timeout     30;
    send_timeout          10;
    keepalive_requests    10;
## End: Timeouts ##

    #gzip  on;

    server {
        listen       5080;
        server_name  localhost;


        location /stat {
            rtmp_stat all;
            rtmp_stat_stylesheet stat.xsl;
        }
        location /stat.xsl {
            root nginx-rtmp-module/;
        }
        location /control {
            rtmp_control all;
        }
		
		location /hls {
            # Serve HLS fragments
            types {
                application/vnd.apple.mpegurl m3u8;
                video/mp2t ts;
            }
            expires -1;
            add_header Access-Control-Allow-Origin *;
        }

        #charset koi8-r;
        #access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;

        ## Caching Static Files, put before first location
        #location ~* \.(jpg|jpeg|png|gif|ico|css|js)$ {
        #    expires 14d;
        #    add_header Vary Accept-Encoding;
        #}

# For Naxsi remove the single # line for learn mode, or the ## lines for full WAF mode
        location / {
            #include    /nginx/conf/mysite.rules; # see also http block naxsi include line
            ##SecRulesEnabled;
         ##DeniedUrl "/RequestDenied";
         ##CheckRule "$SQL >= 8" BLOCK;
         ##CheckRule "$RFI >= 8" BLOCK;
         ##CheckRule "$TRAVERSAL >= 4" BLOCK;
         ##CheckRule "$XSS >= 8" BLOCK;
            root   html;
            index  index.html index.htm;
        }

# For Naxsi remove the ## lines for full WAF mode, redirect location block used by naxsi
        ##location /RequestDenied {
        ##    return 412;
        ##}

## Lua examples !
#         location /robots.txt {
#           rewrite_by_lua '
#             if ngx.var.http_host ~= "localhost" then
#               return ngx.exec("/robots_disallow.txt");
#             end
#           ';
#         }

        #error_page  404              /404.html;

        # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
        #
        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
            root   html;
        }

        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;
        #}

        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    root           html;
        #    fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000; # single backend process
        #    fastcgi_pass   myLoadBalancer; # or multiple, see example above
        #    fastcgi_index  index.php;
        #    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        #    include        fastcgi_params;
        #}

        # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
        # concurs with nginx's one
        #
        #location ~ /\.ht {
        #    deny  all;
        #}
    }

    # another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       8000;
    #    listen       somename:8080;
    #    server_name  somename  alias  another.alias;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}

    # HTTPS server
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       443 ssl spdy;
    #    server_name  localhost;

    #    ssl                  on;
    #    ssl_certificate      cert.pem;
    #    ssl_certificate_key  cert.key;
    #    ssl_session_timeout  5m;
    #    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers On;
    #    ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
    #    ssl_ciphers ECDH+AESGCM:ECDH+AES256:ECDH+AES128:ECDH+3DES:RSA+AESGCM:RSA+AES:RSA+3DES:!aNULL:!eNULL:!MD5:!DSS:!EXP:!ADH:!LOW:!MEDIUM;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}

}

3、cmd 到nginx根目录启动nginx

nginx.exe -c conf\nginx-win-rtmp.conf

测试:浏览器输入 http://localhost:5080/stat,看到

1662447230276

代表安装成功

4、下载ffmpeg安装

ffmpeg:一个处理音视频强大的库,我们需要用它来转协议,下载地址:https://www.gyan.dev/ffmpeg/builds/ ,这里可以下载essential和full版本,essential就是简版,只包含ffmpeg.exe、ffplay.exe、
ffprobe.exe, 而full版本就包含了动态库和相关头文件,方便我们在开发中调用。1662447683259

5、配置ffmpeg环境变量

将ffmpeg解压后里面的bin路径复制到Path里面去1662447882146

6、测试ffmpeg

cmd ffmpeg -version 命令看到代表成功
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7、下载VLC播放器

下载地址:https://www.videolan.org/vlc/
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8、查摄像头的rtsp协议格式

我这里截图是海康威视的

1662449507796

1662449600452

现在没有测试的流,我找了个点播的rtsp

rtsp://wowzaec2demo.streamlock.net/vod/mp4:BigBuckBunny_115k.mp4,用这个代替是一样的

9、执行ffmpeg命令

ffmpeg强大,命令也是复杂,我们cmd 执行

ffmpeg -re -rtsp_transport tcp -stimeout 20000000 -i "rtsp://wowzaec2demo.streamlock.net/vod/mp4:BigBuckBunny_115k.mp4" -buffer_size 1024000 -max_delay 500000 -codec:v libx264 -r 25 -rtbufsize 10M -s 1280x720 -map:v 0 -an -f flv rtmp://127.0.0.1:1935/live/test

rtsp://wowzaec2demo.streamlock.net/vod/mp4:BigBuckBunny_115k.mp4,是输入源头
rtmp://127.0.0.1:1935/live/test 是输出地址

如果没有报错的话,到现在rtsp就已经转换好了

ffmpeg命令学习:https://www.jianshu.com/p/df3216a52e59https://blog.csdn.net/fuhanghang/article/details/123565920

10、测试rtmp是否转换成功

我们打开VLC,媒体->打开网络串流->输入 rtmp://127.0.0.1:1935/live/test-> 播放

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11、测试是否成功

等待几秒钟看到有视频播放就是成功了

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12、为什么放弃了用rtmp

rtmp的优点是延迟低,效率高,但是在浏览器需要安装flash才能放,也就老版本的浏览器在用,rtmp可能会在别的地方支持,所以还是把他方式方法贴出来了。

三:方案二 rtsp转hls

1、nginx配置:

在前面已经贴出来了,其中这几个是针对hls的

1662453005569

1662453069930

2、执行ffmepg命令

ffmpeg -i "rtsp://wowzaec2demo.streamlock.net/vod/mp4:BigBuckBunny_115k.mp4" -vcodec libx264 -acodec aac -f flv rtmp://127.0.0.1:1935/hls/test

3、查看nginx根目录 -> hls -> test.m3u8 是否生成

生成了代表一切正常

1662453591008

4、m3u8在网页上播放

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="zh-CN">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>前端播放m3u8格式视频</title>
    <!--https://www.bootcdn.cn/video.js/-->
    <link href="https://cdn.bootcss.com/video.js/7.6.5/alt/video-js-cdn.min.css" rel="stylesheet">
    <script src="https://cdn.bootcss.com/video.js/6.6.2/video.js"></script>
    <!--https://www.bootcdn.cn/videojs-contrib-hls/-->
    <script src="https://cdn.bootcss.com/videojs-contrib-hls/5.15.0/videojs-contrib-hls.min.js"></script>
</head>
<body>
    <video id="myVideo" class="video-js vjs-default-skin vjs-big-play-centered" controls preload="auto" width="1080" height="708" data-setup='{}'>    
        <source id="source" src="http://127.0.0.1:5080/hls/test.m3u8"  type="application/x-mpegURL">
    </video>
</body>
<script>    
    // videojs 简单使用  
    var myVideo = videojs('myVideo',{
        bigPlayButton : true, 
        textTrackDisplay : false, 
        posterImage: false,
        errorDisplay : false,
    })
    myVideo.play() // 视频播放
    myVideo.pause() // 视频暂停
</script>
</html>

source标签的src属性:http://你的nginx ip:nginx http端口/hls/test.m3u8

1662453869453

rtsp转HLS成功!

5、认识一下m3u8格式

m3u8文件里面存储了一个索引,以文本格式打开是这样的

#EXTM3U
#EXT-X-VERSION:3
#EXT-X-MEDIA-SEQUENCE:56
#EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:13
#EXTINF:10.381,
test-56.ts
#EXTINF:10.422,
test-57.ts
#EXTINF:13.453,
test-58.ts

m3u8文件它不是视频源,源头是ts后缀文件
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6、为什么放弃了用HLS

转HLS协议及网页加载过程:

ffmepg收到rtsp的流时候,会等一个切片的时间,一个切片时间到了,切片ts会放到服务器中,同时m3u8文件中加一个索引,对应着新进入的切片。网页在加载m3u8的时候,就是读取m3u8中的的索引去加载ts文件,所以在不断的请求ts,对ts进行解析,不断的和TCP握手,这就是为什么HLS延迟高和对网速的要求高的原因,我们监控肯定是要延迟低的,HLS兼容性好,适合点播。

四:方案三rtsp 转httpflv(采用)

1、安装nginx-flv-module

这个插件需要编译,教程:https://blog.csdn.net/KayChanGEEK/article/details/105095844

我这里已经编译好了,直接下载启动:

https://gitee.com/isyuesen/nginx-flv-file

2、nginx配置

看我git里面的https://gitee.com/isyuesen/nginx-flv-file/blob/master/conf/nginx.conf,和默认的config差别主要是添加了这几个

rtmp {  
    server {  
        listen 1935;
        # 流复用的最大块大小
        chunk_size 4000;  
        application liveapp { 
            live on;
            # 推流开始
			on_publish http://localhost:8081/auth;
			# 推流关闭
			on_publish_done http://localhost:8081/auth;
			# 客户端开始播放
			on_play http://localhost:8081/auth;
			# 客户端结束播放
			on_play_done http://localhost:8081/auth;
        }  
    }  
}
location /live {
    flv_live on;
    chunked_transfer_encoding on;
    add_header 'Access-Control-Allow-Credentials' 'true'; #add additional HTTP header
    add_header 'Access-Control-Allow-Origin' '*'; #add additional HTTP header
    add_header Access-Control-Allow-Headers X-Requested-With;
    add_header Access-Control-Allow-Methods GET,POST,OPTIONS;
    add_header 'Cache-Control' 'no-cache';
}

3、做java权限认证

nginx rtmp配置中有配置on_publish钩子接口 http://localhost:8081/auth,这个回调HttpResponse stausCode如果不等于200会拒绝I/O,更多回调钩子看:https://github.com/arut/nginx-rtmp-module/wiki/Directives#on_connect

@PostMapping("/auth")
    public void getVideo(String token, HttpServletRequest httpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse httpServletResponse) throws Exception {
        if (token.equals("tokenValue")) {
            httpServletResponse.setStatus(200);
        } else {
            // 拒绝服务
            httpServletResponse.setStatus(500);
        }
    }

4、执行ffmepg命令:

ffmpeg -re  -rtsp_transport tcp -i "rtsp://wowzaec2demo.streamlock.net/vod/mp4:BigBuckBunny_115k.mp4" -f flv -vcodec h264 -vprofile baseline -acodec aac -ar 44100 -strict -2 -ac 1 -f flv -s 640*360 -q 10 "rtmp://127.0.0.1:1935/liveapp/test"

4.1 采用java代码去执行ffmepg命令

依赖 javaCV

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.bytedeco</groupId>
    <artifactId>javacv-platform</artifactId>
    <version>1.5.2</version>
</dependency>
public class App {
    public static void main( String[] args ) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
        String name = "test";
        // rtsp地址
        String rtspDir = "rtsp://wowzaec2demo.streamlock.net/vod/mp4:BigBuckBunny_115k.mp4";
        // rtmp地址
        String rtmpDir = "rtmp://192.168.0.140:1935/liveapp/" + name + "?token=tokenValue";

        String ffmpeg = Loader.load(org.bytedeco.ffmpeg.ffmpeg.class);
        ProcessBuilder pb = new ProcessBuilder(ffmpeg,
                "-re",
                "-rtsp_transport",
                "tcp",
                "-i",
                rtspDir,
                "-f",
                "flv",
                "-vcodec",
                "h264",
                "-vprofile",
                "baseline",
                "-acodec",
                "aac",
                "-ar",
                "44100",
                "-strict",
                "-2",
                "-ac",
                "1",
                "-f",
                "flv",
                "-s",
                "640*360",
                "-q",
                "10",
                rtmpDir
        );
        pb.inheritIO().start().waitFor();
    }
}

5、测试http-flv链接

如果你跟着我做的,那链接就是 http://127.0.0.1:18080/live?port=1935&app=liveapp&stream=test&token=tokenValue,在VLC播放器中点击媒体 -> 打开网络串流 -> 输入http://127.0.0.1:18080/live?port=1935&app=liveapp&stream=test&token=tokenValue -> 播放

有视频证明你离成功就差最后一步

6、前端使用flv.js播放:

<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta name="viewport"
        content="width=device-width, user-scalable=no, initial-scale=1.0, maximum-scale=1.0, minimum-scale=1.0">
  <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
  <title>播放http-flv</title>
</head>
<body>
<video id="videoElement"></video>
<script src="https://cdn.bootcdn.net/ajax/libs/flv.js/1.6.2/flv.min.js"></script>
<script>
  if (flvjs.isSupported()) {
      const videoElement = document.getElementById('videoElement');
      const flvPlayer = flvjs.createPlayer({
        type: 'flv',
        url: 'http://127.0.0.1:18080/live?port=1935&app=liveapp&stream=test&token=tokenValue'
      });
      flvPlayer.attachMediaElement(videoElement);
      flvPlayer.load();
      flvPlayer.play();
	}
</script>
</body>
</html>

7、大功告成

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posted @ 2022-09-07 01:17  yuesen  阅读(833)  评论(3编辑  收藏  举报