第十周 第十章 代码运行

  • 学习任务
代码阅读理解:
1. 编译运行代码
2. 使用man学习理解相关系统调用, 理解参数、返回值的含义
3. 会用grep -nr xxx  /usr/include 查宏定义
 
cp1.c
echostate.c
fileinfo.c
filesize.c
ls1.c
ls2.c
setecho.c
spwd.c
testioctl.c
who1.c
who2.c
  • 编译运行

cp1.c

代码

#include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <fcntl.h> define BUFFERSIZE 4096 #define COPYMODE 0644 void oops(char *, char *); int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int in_fd, out_fd, n_chars; char buf[BUFFERSIZE]; if (argc != 3) { fprintf(stderr, "usage: %s source destination\n", *argv); exit(1); } if ((in_fd = open(argv[1], O_RDONLY)) == -1) oops("Cannot open ", argv[1]); if ((out_fd = creat(argv[2], COPYMODE)) == -1) oops("Cannot creat", argv[2]); while ((n_chars = read(in_fd, buf, BUFFERSIZE)) > 0) if (write(out_fd, buf, n_chars) != n_chars) oops("Write error to ", argv[2]); if (n_chars == -1) oops("Read error from ", argv[1]); if (close(in_fd) == -1 || close(out_fd) == -1) oops("Error closing files", ""); } void oops(char *s1, char *s2) { fprintf(stderr, "Error: %s ", s1); perror(s2); exit(1); }

echostate.c
检验在命令行中输入命令时是否可见,如果可见,返回echo is on , since its bit is 1
代码
#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<termios.h>

int main()
{
struct termios info;
int rv;

rv = tcgetattr( 0, &info ); /* read values from driver  */

if ( rv == -1 ){
perror( "tcgetattr");
exit(1);
}
if ( info.c_lflag & ECHO )
printf(" echo is on , since its bit is 1\n");
else
printf(" echo is OFF, since its bit is 0\n");

		return 0;
}

fileinfo.c
代码
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>

void show_stat_info(char *, struct stat *);

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
struct stat info;

if (argc>1)
	{
	
if( stat(argv[1], &info) != -1 ){
show_stat_info( argv[1], &info );
return 0;
}
else
perror(argv[1]);  
	}
return 1;
}
void show_stat_info(char *fname, struct stat *buf)
{
printf("   mode: %o\n", buf->st_mode); 
printf("  links: %d\n", buf->st_nlink);
printf("   user: %d\n", buf->st_uid);  
printf("  group: %d\n", buf->st_gid);  
printf("   size: %d\n", (int)buf->st_size); 
printf("modtime: %d\n", (int)buf->st_mtime);
printf("   name: %s\n", fname );   
}


filesize.c
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>

int main()
{
	struct stat infobuf;   

	if ( stat( "/etc/passwd", &infobuf) == -1 )
		perror("/etc/passwd");
	else
		printf(" The size of /etc/passwd is %d\n", infobuf.st_size );
}
ls1.c
#include	<stdio.h>
#include	<sys/types.h>
#include	<dirent.h>

void do_ls(char []);

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
	if ( argc == 1 )
		do_ls( "." );
	else
		while ( --argc ){
			printf("%s:\n", *++argv );
			do_ls( *argv );
		}

	return 0;
}

void do_ls( char dirname[] )
{
	DIR		*dir_ptr;		
	struct dirent	*direntp;		

	if ( ( dir_ptr = opendir( dirname ) ) == NULL )
		fprintf(stderr,"ls1: cannot open %s\n", dirname);
	else
	{
		while ( ( direntp = readdir( dir_ptr ) ) != NULL )
			printf("%s\n", direntp->d_name );
		closedir(dir_ptr);
	}
}
ls2.c
#include	<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
#include	<sys/types.h>
#include	<dirent.h>
#include	<sys/stat.h>

void do_ls(char[]);
void dostat(char *);
void show_file_info( char *, struct stat *);
void mode_to_letters( int , char [] );
char *uid_to_name( uid_t );
char *gid_to_name( gid_t );

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
	if ( argc == 1 )
		do_ls( "." );
	else
		while ( --argc ){
			printf("%s:\n", *++argv );
			do_ls( *argv );
		}

	return 0;
}

void do_ls( char dirname[] )
{
	DIR		*dir_ptr;		
	struct dirent	*direntp;		

	if ( ( dir_ptr = opendir( dirname ) ) == NULL )
		fprintf(stderr,"ls1: cannot open %s\n", dirname);
	else
	{
		while ( ( direntp = readdir( dir_ptr ) ) != NULL )
			dostat( direntp->d_name );
		closedir(dir_ptr);
	}
}

void dostat( char *filename )
{
	struct stat info;

	if ( stat(filename, &info) == -1 )		
		perror( filename );			
	else					
		show_file_info( filename, &info );
}

void show_file_info( char *filename, struct stat *info_p )
{
	char	*uid_to_name(), *ctime(), *gid_to_name(), *filemode();
	void	mode_to_letters();
charmodestr[11];

	mode_to_letters( info_p->st_mode, modestr );

	printf( "%s", modestr );
	printf( "%4d "  , (int) info_p->st_nlink);	
	printf( "%-8s " , uid_to_name(info_p->st_uid) );
	printf( "%-8s " , gid_to_name(info_p->st_gid) );
	printf( "%8ld " , (long)info_p->st_size);
	printf( "%.12s ", 4+ctime(&info_p->st_mtime));
	printf( "%s\n"  , filename );

}

void mode_to_letters( int mode, char str[] )
{
strcpy( str, "----------" );   

if ( S_ISDIR(mode) )  str[0] = 'd';
if ( S_ISCHR(mode) )  str[0] = 'c';
if ( S_ISBLK(mode) )  str[0] = 'b';

if ( mode & S_IRUSR ) str[1] = 'r';
if ( mode & S_IWUSR ) str[2] = 'w';
if ( mode & S_IXUSR ) str[3] = 'x';

if ( mode & S_IRGRP ) str[4] = 'r';
if ( mode & S_IWGRP ) str[5] = 'w';
if ( mode & S_IXGRP ) str[6] = 'x';

if ( mode & S_IROTH ) str[7] = 'r';
if ( mode & S_IWOTH ) str[8] = 'w';
if ( mode & S_IXOTH ) str[9] = 'x';
}

#include	<pwd.h>

char *uid_to_name( uid_t uid )
{
	struct	passwd *getpwuid(), *pw_ptr;
	static  char numstr[10];

	if ( ( pw_ptr = getpwuid( uid ) ) == NULL ){
		sprintf(numstr,"%d", uid);
		return numstr;
	}
	else
		return pw_ptr->pw_name ;
}

#include	<grp.h>

char *gid_to_name( gid_t gid )
{
	struct group *getgrgid(), *grp_ptr;
	static  char numstr[10];

	if ( ( grp_ptr = getgrgid(gid) ) == NULL ){
		sprintf(numstr,"%d", gid);
		return numstr;
	}
	else
		return grp_ptr->gr_name;
}
setecho.c
#include<stdio.h>
#include 		<stdlib.h>
#include<termios.h>

#define  oops(s,x) { perror(s); exit(x); }

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
struct termios info;

if ( argc == 1 ) 
		exit(0);

if ( tcgetattr(0,&info) == -1 )  /* get attribs   */
			oops("tcgettattr", 1);

if ( argv[1][0] == 'y' )
info.c_lflag |= ECHO ;  /* turn on bit*/
else
info.c_lflag &= ~ECHO ; /* turn off bit   */

if ( tcsetattr(0,TCSANOW,&info) == -1 ) /* set attribs*/
   oops("tcsetattr",2);
	
		return 0;
}
spwd.c
#include	<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<string.h>
#include	<sys/types.h>
#include	<sys/stat.h>
#include	<dirent.h>

ino_t	get_inode(char *);
voidprintpathto(ino_t);
voidinum_to_name(ino_t , char *, int );

int main()
{
	printpathto( get_inode( "." ) );	
	putchar('\n');				
	return 0;
}

void printpathto( ino_t this_inode )
{
	ino_t	my_inode ;
	char	its_name[BUFSIZ];

	if ( get_inode("..") != this_inode )
	{
		chdir( ".." );				

		inum_to_name(this_inode,its_name,BUFSIZ);

		my_inode = get_inode( "." );		
		printpathto( my_inode );		
		printf("/%s", its_name );		
							
	}
}

void inum_to_name(ino_t inode_to_find , char *namebuf, int buflen)
{
	DIR		*dir_ptr;		
	struct dirent	*direntp;		

	dir_ptr = opendir( "." );
	if ( dir_ptr == NULL ){
		perror( "." );
		exit(1);
	}


	while ( ( direntp = readdir( dir_ptr ) ) != NULL )
		if ( direntp->d_ino == inode_to_find )
		{
			strncpy( namebuf, direntp->d_name, buflen);
			namebuf[buflen-1] = '\0';   
			closedir( dir_ptr );
			return;
		}
	fprintf(stderr, "error looking for inum %d\n", (int) inode_to_find);
	exit(1);
}

ino_t get_inode( char *fname )
{
	struct stat info;

	if ( stat( fname , &info ) == -1 ){
		fprintf(stderr, "Cannot stat ");
		perror(fname);
		exit(1);
	}
	return info.st_ino;
}
testioctl.c
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>

int main()
{
	struct winsize size;
	if( isatty(STDOUT_FILENO) == 0)
		exit(1);
	if (ioctl(STDOUT_FILENO, TIOCGWINSZ, &size) < 0) {
		perror("ioctl TIOCGWINSZ error");
		exit(1);
	}

	printf("%d rows %d columns\n", size.ws_row, size.ws_col);
	return 0;
}
who1.c
#include	<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include	<utmp.h>
#include	<fcntl.h>
#include	<unistd.h>

#define	SHOWHOST	

int show_info( struct utmp *utbufp )
{
	printf("%-8.8s", utbufp->ut_name);	
	printf(" ");				
	printf("%-8.8s", utbufp->ut_line);	
	printf(" ");				
	printf("%10ld", utbufp->ut_time);	
	printf(" ");				
#ifdef	SHOWHOST
	printf("(%s)", utbufp->ut_host);	
#endif
	printf("\n");				

	return 0;
}
int main()
{
	struct utmp	 current_record;	
	int		utmpfd;		
	int		reclen = sizeof(current_record);

	if ( (utmpfd = open(UTMP_FILE, O_RDONLY)) == -1 ){
		perror( UTMP_FILE );	
		exit(1);
	}
	while ( read(utmpfd, &current_record, reclen) == reclen )
		show_info(&current_record);
	close(utmpfd);
	return 0;			
}
who2.c
#include	<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include	<utmp.h>
#include	<fcntl.h>
#include	<unistd.h>

#define	SHOWHOST	

int show_info( struct utmp *utbufp )
{
	printf("%-8.8s", utbufp->ut_name);	
	printf(" ");				
	printf("%-8.8s", utbufp->ut_line);	
	printf(" ");				
	printf("%10ld", utbufp->ut_time);	
	printf(" ");				
#ifdef	SHOWHOST
	printf("(%s)", utbufp->ut_host);	
#endif
	printf("\n");				

	return 0;
}
int main()
{
	struct utmp	 current_record;	
	int		utmpfd;		
	int		reclen = sizeof(current_record);

	if ( (utmpfd = open(UTMP_FILE, O_RDONLY)) == -1 ){
		perror( UTMP_FILE );	
		exit(1);
	}
	while ( read(utmpfd, &current_record, reclen) == reclen )
		show_info(&current_record);
	close(utmpfd);
	return 0;			
}
  • 使用man学习理解相关系统调用, 理解参数、返回值的含义
  • 1是普通的命令  
    2是系统调用,如open,write之类的(通过这个,至少可以很方便的查到调用这个函数,需要加什么头文件)  
    3是库函数,如printf,fread4是特殊文件,也就是/dev下的各种设备文件  
    5是指文件的格式,比如passwd, 就会说明这个文件中各个字段的含义  
    6是给游戏留的,由各个游戏自己定义  
    7是附件还有一些变量,比如向environ这种全局变量在这里就有说明  
    8是系统管理用的命令,这些命令只能由root使用,如ifconfig  
  • man page大致分为一下部分:
    NAME:简单命令、数据名称说明
    SYNOPSIS:简短的命令语法(sysntax)简介
    DESCRIPTION:较为完整的说明,需要认真阅读
    OPTION:针对SYNOPSIS中列举的所有可用选项说明
    COMMANDS:当这个软件在执行的时候,可用在此软件中使用命令
    FILES:这个软件或数据所使用或参考或链接到的文件
    SEE ALSE:可以参考的,与这个命令有关的其他说明
    EXAMPLE:一些可以参考的范例,这个最好用
    BUGS:是否有相关的bug
  • man中的相关操作
    ctrl + F或者Page Down:向下翻页
    ctrl + B或者Page Up:向上翻页
    gg到第一行
    GG到最后一行
    /start:能在整手册中搜索start相关字符,使用n查找下一个,使用N查找上一个
    j,k与vi中一样使用,j向下一行,k向上一行
    d下翻半页
    u上翻半页
    h获取man使用帮助
    q退出man
  • 使用带有-k选项的man命令可以根据关键字搜索联机帮助。
    使用带有-f选项的man命令可以根据关键字在联机帮助中搜索完全匹配的条目。
  • 会用grep -nr xxx  /usr/include 查宏定义
posted on 2015-11-15 21:17  黑鬼仁西  阅读(216)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报