高效编程之互斥锁和自旋锁的一些知识

两种锁的加锁原理

互斥锁:线程会从sleep(加锁)——>running(解锁),过程中有上下文的切换,cpu的抢占,信号的发送等开销。

自旋锁:线程一直是running(加锁——>解锁),死循环检测锁的标志位,机制不复杂。

两种锁的区别

互斥锁的起始原始开销要高于自旋锁,但是基本是一劳永逸,临界区持锁时间的大小并不会对互斥锁的开销造成影响,而自旋锁是死循环检测,加锁全程消耗cpu,起始开销虽然低于互斥锁,但是随着持锁时间,加锁的开销是线性增长。

两种锁的应用

互斥锁用于临界区持锁时间比较长的操作,比如下面这些情况都可以考虑

1 临界区有IO操作

2 临界区代码复杂或者循环量大

3 临界区竞争非常激烈

4 单核处理器

至于自旋锁就主要用在临界区持锁时间非常短且CPU资源不紧张的情况下。

自旋-互斥锁

下面的英文介绍了混合互斥锁和混合自旋锁,但是不管是第一段说的先上非阻塞锁后上阻塞锁,还是第二段说的先自旋上锁后进行休眠,反正思路都是先自旋上锁一定时间后在上互斥锁,这种自旋-互斥锁适合各线程持锁时间间隔跨度比较大的情况。

A hybrid mutex behaves like a spinlock at first on a multi-core system. If a thread cannot lock the mutex, it won't be put to sleep immediately, since the mutex might get unlocked pretty soon, so instead the mutex will first behave exactly like a spinlock. Only if the lock has still not been obtained after a certain amount of time (or retries or any other measuring factor), the thread is really put to sleep. If the same system runs on a system with only a single core, the mutex will not spinlock, though, as, see above, that would not be beneficial.

A hybrid spinlock behaves like a normal spinlock at first, but to avoid wasting too much CPU time, it may have a back-off strategy. It will usually not put the thread to sleep (since you don't want that to happen when using a spinlock), but it may decide to stop the thread (either immediately or after a certain amount of time) and allow another thread to run, thus increasing chances that the spinlock is unlocked (a pure thread switch is usually less expensive than one that involves putting a thread to sleep and waking it up again later on, though not by far).

posted @ 2014-05-08 14:43  白帆mvp  阅读(8645)  评论(0编辑  收藏