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ngRx 官方示例分析 - 2. Action 管理

我们从 Action 名称开始。

解决 Action 名称冲突问题

ngRx 中,不同的 Action 需要一个 Action Type 进行区分,一般来说,这个 Action Type 是一个字符串,如何定义和使用这个字符串是需要首先考虑的问题。需要保证不同的 Action 名称不能冲突,使用的时候还需要方便,编码的时候,最好有提示等等。

首先处理命名冲突问题,示例使用 util 中定义的一个字典来检查是否已经定义了一个 Action

app/util.ts

/**
 * This function coerces a string into a string literal type.
 * Using tagged union types in TypeScript 2.0, this enables
 * powerful typechecking of our reducers.
 *
 * Since every action label passes through this function it
 * is a good place to ensure all of our action labels
 * are unique.
 */

const typeCache: { [label: string]: boolean } = {};
export function type<T>(label: T | ''): T {
  if (typeCache[<string>label]) {
    throw new Error(`Action type "${label}" is not unique"`);
  }

  typeCache[<string>label] = true;

  return <T>label;
}

使用 TypeScript 的 Playground 翻译一下,可以得到如下的结果:

var typeCache = {};
function type(label) {
    if (typeCache[label]) {
         throw new Error("Action type \"" + label + "\" is not unique\"");
    }
    typeCache[label] = true;
    return label;
}

可以更加直观地看到,这个 type 函数可以接收一个字符串,在类型缓存对象 typeCache 中检查是否已经设置过这个 Key, 如果已经设置过一次,抛出异常,这样可以避免命名冲突问题。如果没有,则将这个 Action Type 保存为缓存对象的键,值设置为 true. 最后返回这个 Action Type 的字符串。特别需要注意的是它已经被作为一个类型返回了。

使用 String Literal Type 实现 Action 名称的强类型化

具体的 Action Type 有哪些呢?它们分别定义在 /app/actions/books.ts/app/actions/layouts.ts 和 /app/actions/collection.ts 中。 

 实现 Action 接口

然后,我们再看看 Action 接口的定义,它来自 @ngrx/store

export interface Action {
  readonly type: string;
}

这里是对一个 Action 基本的要求,需要一个字符串类型的 Action 名称。

为了便于使用每一种 Action ,使用了 Action Creator。以后可以直接使用这些 class 来创建 Action,而不用直接创建对象。这里定义了每种 Action 所对应的 Action 实现。例如 SearchAction 的实现如下所示:

/**
 * Every action is comprised of at least a type and an optional
 * payload. Expressing actions as classes enables powerful
 * type checking in reducer functions.
 *
 * See Discriminated Unions: https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/advanced-types.html#discriminated-unions
 */
export class SearchAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.SEARCH;

  constructor(public payload: string) { }
}

可以看到它的 Action 类型使用 ActionTypes 来定义,值固定设置为了 "[Book] Search",可以通过构造函数传递这个 Action 所使用的附加数据。

ActionTypes 的定义如下所示,实际上是一个对象。我们通过属性来获取实际的值,这个值来自前面的 type 函数返回值。

/**
 * For each action type in an action group, make a simple
 * enum object for all of this group's action types.
 *
 * The 'type' utility function coerces strings into string
 * literal types and runs a simple check to guarantee all
 * action types in the application are unique.
 */
export const ActionTypes = {
  SEARCH:           type('[Book] Search'),
  SEARCH_COMPLETE:  type('[Book] Search Complete'),
  LOAD:             type('[Book] Load'),
  SELECT:           type('[Book] Select'),
};

其它三种的 Action 以此类推。

 我们先看看最后的 5 行。这里导出类型的别名。

这里使用了 TypeScript 中的 String Literal Types, 使得我们可以利用强类型的方式来使用字符串。

/**
 * Export a type alias of all actions in this action group
 * so that reducers can easily compose action types
 */
export type Actions
  = SearchAction
  | SearchCompleteAction
  | LoadAction
  | SelectAction;

代码实现

代码的全部内容如下所示。

import { Action } from '@ngrx/store';
import { Book } from '../models/book';
import { type } from '../util';

/**
 * For each action type in an action group, make a simple
 * enum object for all of this group's action types.
 *
 * The 'type' utility function coerces strings into string
 * literal types and runs a simple check to guarantee all
 * action types in the application are unique.
 */
export const ActionTypes = {
  SEARCH:           type('[Book] Search'),
  SEARCH_COMPLETE:  type('[Book] Search Complete'),
  LOAD:             type('[Book] Load'),
  SELECT:           type('[Book] Select'),
};


/**
 * Every action is comprised of at least a type and an optional
 * payload. Expressing actions as classes enables powerful
 * type checking in reducer functions.
 *
 * See Discriminated Unions: https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/advanced-types.html#discriminated-unions
 */
export class SearchAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.SEARCH;

  constructor(public payload: string) { }
}

export class SearchCompleteAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.SEARCH_COMPLETE;

  constructor(public payload: Book[]) { }
}

export class LoadAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.LOAD;

  constructor(public payload: Book) { }
}

export class SelectAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.SELECT;

  constructor(public payload: string) { }
}

/**
 * Export a type alias of all actions in this action group
 * so that reducers can easily compose action types
 */
export type Actions
  = SearchAction
  | SearchCompleteAction
  | LoadAction
  | SelectAction;

然后是 /app/actions/layouts.ts.

import { Action } from '@ngrx/store';
import { type } from '../util';

export const ActionTypes = {
  OPEN_SIDENAV:   type('[Layout] Open Sidenav'),
  CLOSE_SIDENAV:  type('[Layout] Close Sidenav')
};


export class OpenSidenavAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.OPEN_SIDENAV;
}

export class CloseSidenavAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.CLOSE_SIDENAV;
}


export type Actions
  = OpenSidenavAction
  | CloseSidenavAction;

以及 /app/actions/collection.ts 的定义。

import { Action } from '@ngrx/store';
import { Book } from '../models/book';
import { type } from '../util';

export const ActionTypes = {
  ADD_BOOK:             type('[Collection] Add Book'),
  ADD_BOOK_SUCCESS:     type('[Collection] Add Book Success'),
  ADD_BOOK_FAIL:        type('[Collection] Add Book Fail'),
  REMOVE_BOOK:          type('[Collection] Remove Book'),
  REMOVE_BOOK_SUCCESS:  type('[Collection] Remove Book Success'),
  REMOVE_BOOK_FAIL:     type('[Collection] Remove Book Fail'),
  LOAD:                 type('[Collection] Load'),
  LOAD_SUCCESS:         type('[Collection] Load Success'),
  LOAD_FAIL:            type('[Collection] Load Fail'),
};

/**
 * Add Book to Collection Actions
 */
export class AddBookAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.ADD_BOOK;

  constructor(public payload: Book) { }
}

export class AddBookSuccessAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.ADD_BOOK_SUCCESS;

  constructor(public payload: Book) { }
}

export class AddBookFailAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.ADD_BOOK_FAIL;

  constructor(public payload: Book) { }
}

/**
 * Remove Book from Collection Actions
 */
export class RemoveBookAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.REMOVE_BOOK;

  constructor(public payload: Book) { }
}

export class RemoveBookSuccessAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.REMOVE_BOOK_SUCCESS;

  constructor(public payload: Book) { }
}

export class RemoveBookFailAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.REMOVE_BOOK_FAIL;

  constructor(public payload: Book) { }
}

/**
 * Load Collection Actions
 */
export class LoadAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.LOAD;

  constructor() { }
}

export class LoadSuccessAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.LOAD_SUCCESS;

  constructor(public payload: Book[]) { }
}

export class LoadFailAction implements Action {
  type = ActionTypes.LOAD_FAIL;

  constructor(public payload: any) { }
}

export type Actions
  = AddBookAction
  | AddBookSuccessAction
  | AddBookFailAction
  | RemoveBookAction
  | RemoveBookSuccessAction
  | RemoveBookFailAction
  | LoadAction
  | LoadSuccessAction
  | LoadFailAction;

 总结

  • Action 的名称使用了 String Literal Type 来实现强类型支持
  • 针对每种 Action 实现了 Action 接口,其中固定了所对应的 Action 类型,使用中不必再提供这个 Action 串,实际上是 Action Creator。
  • 对于应用中常见的大量 Action 名称冲突问题,通过 type 函数解决,这个函数将会缓存已经定义的 Action 类型。 

 

参考资源:

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posted on 2017-03-14 11:20  冠军  阅读(2157)  评论(0编辑  收藏