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MySQL Backup mysqldump备份流程学习

2019-01-08 11:45  H_Johnny  阅读(411)  评论(0编辑  收藏

我们都知道MySQL逻辑备份工具mysqldump可以保证备份数据的一致性,但是它是怎么保持一致性的?

本文不讨论mysqldump具体的选项和用法,一直对mysqldump的工作机制梳理的不太清楚,这篇主要来分析下mysqldump的工作原理和工作步骤,了解它为什么可以获取一致性的备份。

关于mysqldump常用选项说明与用法参考另一篇博文:MySQL Backup mysqldump 常用选项与主要用法

通过打开general log的方法来记录mysqldump备份的过程。

前期准备

开启general log

(root@localhost) [(none)] > set global general_log = 1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

(root@localhost) [(none)] > show global variables like '%general%';
+------------------+---------------------------------+
| Variable_name    | Value                           |
+------------------+---------------------------------+
| general_log      | ON                              |
| general_log_file | /data/mysql/3306/data/dbabd.log |
+------------------+---------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysqldump执行全库备份

# mysqldump -uadmin -p -h192.168.58.3 -P3306 -E -R --triggers --single-transaction --master-data=2 -A > test_all.sql

分析general log日志

开头部分

53 Connect   admin@dbabd on  using TCP/IP
53 Query     /*!40100 SET @@SQL_MODE='' */
53 Query     /*!40103 SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' */
53 Query     FLUSH /*!40101 LOCAL */ TABLES
53 Query     FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK
53 Query     SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ
53 Query     START TRANSACTION /*!40100 WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT */
53 Query     SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'gtid\_mode'
53 Query     SHOW MASTER STATUS
53 Query     UNLOCK TABLES
53 Query     SELECT LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME, FILE_NAME, TOTAL_EXTENTS, INITIAL_SIZE, ENGINE, EXTRA FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES WHERE FILE_TYPE = 'UNDO LOG' AND FILE_NAME IS NOT NULL AND LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME IS NOT NULL GROUP BY LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME, FILE_NAME, ENGINE, TOTAL_EXTENTS, INITIAL_SIZE ORDER BY LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME
53 Query     SELECT DISTINCT TABLESPACE_NAME, FILE_NAME, LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME, EXTENT_SIZE, INITIAL_SIZE, ENGINE FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES WHERE FILE_TYPE = 'DATAFILE' ORDER BY TABLESPACE_NAME, LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME
53 Query     SHOW DATABASES
53 Query     SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'ndbinfo\_version'
  • 备份连接,设置sql_mode为'',设置time_zone
53 Connect   admin@dbabd on  using TCP/IP
53 Query     /*!40100 SET @@SQL_MODE='' */
53 Query     /*!40103 SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' */
  • FLUSH TABLES
53 Query     FLUSH /*!40101 LOCAL */ TABLES

关闭所有的表,并强制关闭所有正在使用的表,同时也会移除所有query cache结果。

详细说明可以参考官方文档:FLUSH TABLES

根据官文文档的描述:

FLUSH TABLES is not permitted when there is an active LOCK TABLES ... READ. To flush and lock tables, use FLUSH TABLES tbl_name ... WITH READ LOCK instead.

意思是如果有一个会话正在执行LOCK TABLES ... READ语句,另一个会话执行FLUSH TABLES语句是不允许的,会被阻塞。可以使用FLUSH TABLES ... WITH READ LOCK替代。

  • FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK
53 Query     FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK

关闭所有打开的表并且对所有数据库表加一个全局读锁。

详细说明可以参考官方文档:FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK

根据官方文档的描述

FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK acquires a global read lock rather than
table locks, so it is not subject to the same behavior as LOCK TABLES
and UNLOCK TABLES with respect to table locking and implicit commits:

UNLOCK TABLES implicitly commits any active transaction only if any
tables currently have been locked with LOCK TABLES. The commit does
not occur for UNLOCK TABLES following FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK
because the latter statement does not acquire table locks.

Beginning a transaction causes table locks acquired with LOCK TABLES
to be released, as though you had executed UNLOCK TABLES. Beginning a
transaction does not release a global read lock acquired with FLUSH
TABLES WITH READ LOCK.

  1. FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK语句获取的是一个全局读锁而不是进行锁表,不像LOCK TABLES和UNLOCK TABLES语句的行为;
  2. 只要任何表当前被LOCK TABLES锁住时,执行UNLOCK TABLES会隐式提交任何活动的事务,不过已执行FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK再执行UNLOCK TABLES并不会进行提交,因为后续的语句并不会获取表锁;
  3. 开始一个事务会造成LOCK TABLES获得的表锁释放,就像已经执行了UNLOCK TABLES。开始一个事务并不会造成FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK获取的全局读锁释放。
  • 设置会话隔离级别为REPEATABLE READ
53 Query     SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ
  • 开启一致性快照事务
53 Query     START TRANSACTION /*!40100 WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT */

因为要开启一致性快照事务,所以必须将务事务的隔离级别设置成REPEATABLE READ。所以便有了上面设置会话级隔离级别的语句。

A consistent read means that InnoDB uses multi-versioning to present to a query a snapshot of the database at a point in time. The query sees the changes made by transactions that committed before that point of time, and no changes made by later or uncommitted transactions.

根据官方文档的描述,这一步是为了确保该事务开启时之后读取的快照都是基于同一个时刻的,同时获取得到一个事务号,就是SELECT都能读取到一开始同一个的READ VIEW,不受之后其他事务修改或者未提交事务的影响。

详细说明可参考官方文档:innodb-consistent-read

  • 查看是否开启GTID模式
53 Query     SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'gtid\_mode'
  • 获取当前binlog的位置信息
53 Query     SHOW MASTER STATUS
  • 释放全局读锁
53 Query     UNLOCK TABLES
  • 查看所有数据库信息
53 Query     SHOW DATABASES

备份部分

来看下开始备份表的日志,这里选取test1为例说明:

53 Init DB   mysql
53 Query     SHOW CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `mysql`
53 Query     SAVEPOINT sp
53 Query     show tables
53 Query     show table status like 'columns\_priv'
53 Query     SET SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_CREATE=1
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
53 Query     show create table `columns_priv`
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
53 Query     show fields from `columns_priv`
53 Query     show fields from `columns_priv`
53 Query     SELECT /*!40001 SQL_NO_CACHE */ * FROM `columns_priv`
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
53 Query     use `mysql`
53 Query     select @@collation_database
53 Query     SHOW TRIGGERS LIKE 'columns\_priv'
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
53 Query     ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp
…………省略…………

53 Init DB   test1
53 Query     SHOW CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `test1`
53 Query     SAVEPOINT sp
53 Query     show tables
53 Query     show table status like 't1'
53 Query     SET SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_CREATE=1
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
53 Query     show create table `t1`
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
53 Query     show fields from `t1`
53 Query     show fields from `t1`
53 Query     SELECT /*!40001 SQL_NO_CACHE */ * FROM `t1`
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
53 Query     use `test1`
53 Query     select @@collation_database
53 Query     SHOW TRIGGERS LIKE 't1'
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
53 Query     ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp
53 Query     show events
53 Query     use `test1`
53 Query     select @@collation_database
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
53 Query     SHOW FUNCTION STATUS WHERE Db = 'test1'
53 Query     SHOW PROCEDURE STATUS WHERE Db = 'test1'
…………省略…………

53 Init DB   test2
53 Query     SHOW CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `test2`
53 Query     SAVEPOINT sp
53 Query     show tables
53 Query     show table status like 't1'
53 Query     SET SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_CREATE=1
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
53 Query     show create table `t1`
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
53 Query     show fields from `t1`
53 Query     show fields from `t1`
53 Query     SELECT /*!40001 SQL_NO_CACHE */ * FROM `t1`
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
53 Query     use `test2`
53 Query     select @@collation_database
53 Query     SHOW TRIGGERS LIKE 't1'
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
53 Query     ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp
53 Query     RELEASE SAVEPOINT sp
53 Query     show events
53 Query     use `test2`
53 Query     select @@collation_database
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
53 Query     SHOW FUNCTION STATUS WHERE Db = 'test2'
53 Query     SHOW PROCEDURE STATUS WHERE Db = 'test2'
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
53 Quit
  • 查看建库语句,所有数据库进行循环顺序备份
53 Init DB   test1
53 Query     SHOW CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `test1`
  • 创建检查点
53 Query     SAVEPOINT sp

创建一个检查点,检查点的作用是在一个事务中执行ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT语句之后能够将事务回滚到检查点位置而不中止事务。

详细说明可参考官方文档:SAVEPOINT

mysqldump备份是通过执行SELECT进行的,但是SELECT语句执行没结束同时会持有该对象的MDL锁,为了保证在备份期间不影响已经备份表的DDL操作被阻塞,所以就有了SAVEPOINT,每次备份完一张表就将事务回滚到SAVEPOINT的位置,同时这个操作会释放该表的MDL锁,但这并不会中止这个事务,其他事务可以对这张表进行DDL操作。

  • 获取表的状态信息
53 Query     show table status like 'columns\_priv'
  • 设置字符集为binary
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'

mysqldump为了更好的备份表结构,将字符集先设置成binary,避免出错。

  • 备份建表语句
53 Query     show tables
53 Query     show table status like 't1'
  • 设置字符集为utf8
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'

开始备份表数据时将字符集设置为数据库的字符集。

  • 获取表的字段信息
53 Query     show fields from `t1`
  • 开始备份表
53 Query     SELECT /*!40001 SQL_NO_CACHE */ * FROM `t1`
  • 开始备份触发器
53 Query     SHOW TRIGGERS LIKE 't1'
  • 回滚到检查点
53 Query     ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp

以上一张表就算备份完成,接下去就是循环上面步骤备份完该数据库下所有的表。

完成所有表的备份之后,最后备份的数据库中的事件、函数、存储过程:

53 Query     show events
53 Query     use `test1`
53 Query     select @@collation_database
53 Query     SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
53 Query     SHOW FUNCTION STATUS WHERE Db = 'test1'
53 Query     SHOW PROCEDURE STATUS WHERE Db = 'test1'

至此,一个数据库的备份完成,开始备份其他数据库。

结尾部分

来看下结尾部分的日志

53 Query     ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp
53 Query     RELEASE SAVEPOINT sp	

当备份完最后一个数据库的最后一张表后释放了检查点,再完成最后一个数据库事件、函数和存储过程的备份之后进行退出,退出默认会进行提交操作,所有备份结束。

总结

通过以上的日志分析,可以总结下mysqldump备份的主要流程:

  1. 一开始执行FLUSH TABLES关闭实例中所有的表;
  2. 执行语句FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK获取全局表的读锁,保证表一致性;
  3. 设置会话级别事务的隔离级别为REPEATABLE READ,保证事务期间数据的一致性;
  4. 执行语句START TRANSACTION /*!40100 WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT */创建一个一致性事务快照;
  5. 查看是否开启了GTID
  6. 获取当前状态下的binlog文件及位置信息(如有指定选项 --master-data);
  7. 执行UNLOCK TABLES释放全局表读锁;
  8. 开始备份第一个数据库数据,为事务创建一个检查点,备份完一张表之后还原至检查点再接着备份下一张表,直至该数据库所有的表备份完成,接着备份下一个数据库数据,直至所有数据库数据备份完成;
  9. 当备份完最后一个数据库数据后释放检查点,退出并中止事务。

参考

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/mysqldump.html
https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/flush.html
http://tencentdba.com/blog/mysqldump-backup-principle/
http://www.unixfbi.com/475.html

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