从零开始openGL—— 二、 基本图形绘制

前言

这是从零开始openGL系列文章的第二篇,在上篇文章中介绍了基本的环境配置,这篇文章将介绍如何绘制基本图形(圆、三角形、立方体、圆柱、圆锥)。

基本框架

下面这里我先给出opengl的3D绘图的基本框架

#include <windows.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <gl\glui.h>
#include <math.h>
#include "common.h"

int g_xform_mode = TRANSFORM_NONE;
int   g_main_window;
double g_windows_width, g_windows_height;

CObj g_obj;
//the lighting
static GLfloat g_light0_ambient[] =  {0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f};//环境光
static GLfloat g_light0_diffuse[] =  {1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f};//散射光
static GLfloat g_light0_specular[] = {1.0f,1.0f,1.0f,1.0f}; //镜面光
static GLfloat g_light0_position[] = {0.0f, 0.0f, 100.0f, 0.0f};//光源的位置。第4个参数为1,表示点光源;第4个参数量为0,表示平行光束{0.0f, 0.0f, 10.0f, 0.0f}

static GLfloat g_material[] = {0.96f, 0.8f, 0.69f, 1.0f};//材质
static GLfloat g_rquad = 0;
static GLfloat g_rquad_x = 0;
static GLfloat g_rquad_y = 0;

static float g_x_offset   = 0.0;
static float g_y_offset   = 0.0;
static float g_z_offset   = 0.0;
static float g_scale_size = 1; 
static int  g_press_x; //鼠标按下时的x坐标
static int  g_press_y; //鼠标按下时的y坐标

const int n = 1000;
const GLfloat R = 0.5f;
const GLfloat Pi = 3.1415926536f;
int g_view_type = VIEW_FLAT;
int g_draw_content = SHAPE_TRIANGLE;

void DrawTriangle() 
{//绘制三角形
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    
    glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);
        glNormal3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);  //指定面法向
        glVertex3f( 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);                    // 上顶点
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f, 0.0f);                    // 左下
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f, 0.0f);                    // 右下
    glEnd();
    glFlush();
}

void DrawCube() 
{//绘制立方体
    glBegin(GL_QUADS);  
        glNormal3f( 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);  //指定面法向
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f);   //列举面顶点数据,逆时针顺序
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f); 
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f);  
    //前----------------------------  
        glNormal3f( 0.0f, 0.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f); 
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f);  
    //后----------------------------  
        glNormal3f( 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f); 
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);  
    //上----------------------------  
        glNormal3f( 0.0f,-1.0f, 0.0f);
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f);
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f);  
    //下----------------------------  
        glNormal3f( 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
    //右----------------------------  
        glNormal3f(-1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f); 
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
    //左----------------------------*/  
    glEnd();  
    glFlush();
}

void DrawCircle() 
{//绘制圆
    glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
        glNormal3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            glVertex2f(R*cos(2 * Pi / n * i), R*sin(2 * Pi / n * i));
        }
    glEnd();
}

void DrawCylinder()
{//绘制圆柱

}

void DrawTorus()
{

}void myInit()
{
    glClearColor(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);//用白色清屏

    glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_AMBIENT, g_light0_ambient);//设置场景的环境光
    glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_DIFFUSE, g_light0_diffuse);//设置场景的散射光
    glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0, GL_POSITION, g_light0_position);//设置场景的位置

    glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT, GL_DIFFUSE, g_material);//指定用于光照计算的当前材质属性
    glEnable(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
    glEnable(GL_LIGHTING);//开启灯光
    glEnable(GL_LIGHT0);//开启光照0

    glShadeModel(GL_SMOOTH); //设置着色模式为光滑着色
    glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);//启用深度测试

    glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); //指定当前矩阵为模型视景矩阵
    glLoadIdentity(); //将当前的用户坐标系的原点移到了屏幕中心:类似于一个复位操作
    gluLookAt(0.0, 0.0, 8.0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1.0, 0);//该函数定义一个视图矩阵,并与当前矩阵相乘.
    //第一组eyex, eyey,eyez 相机在世界坐标的位置;第二组centerx,centery,centerz 相机镜头对准的物体在世界坐标的位置;第三组upx,upy,upz 相机向上的方向在世界坐标中的方向
}void myGlutDisplay() //绘图函数, 操作系统在必要时刻就会对窗体进行重新绘制操作
{
    glClear( GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT ); //清除颜色缓冲以及深度缓冲
    glEnable(GL_NORMALIZE); //打开法线向量归一化,确保了法线的长度为1
    
    glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);//模型视图矩阵
    glPushMatrix(); //压入当前矩阵堆栈


    if (g_draw_content == SHAPE_MODEL)
    {//绘制模型
        
    }
    else if (g_draw_content == SHAPE_TRIANGLE)  //画三角形
    {
        glLoadIdentity();
        glTranslatef(0.0f, 0.0f, -6.0f);  
        DrawTriangle();
    }
    else if(g_draw_content == SHAPE_CUBE)  //画立方体
    {
        glLoadIdentity();
        glTranslatef(0.0f, 0.0f, -6.0f);  
        glRotatef(g_rquad, g_rquad, g_rquad, 1.0f);    // 在XYZ轴上旋转立方体
        DrawCube();
        g_rquad+=0.2f;// 增加旋转变量
    }
    else if (g_draw_content == SHAPE_CIRCLE) // 画圆
    {
        glLoadIdentity();
        glTranslatef(0.0f, 0.0f, -6.0f);  
        DrawCircle();
    }
    else if (g_draw_content == SHAPE_CYLINDER)  
    {//TODO: 添加画圆柱的代码

    }
    else if (g_draw_content == SHAPE_TORUS) 
    {//TODO:添加画圆环的代码

    }
    glPopMatrix();
    glutSwapBuffers(); //双缓冲
}

void myGlutReshape(int x,int y) //当改变窗口大小时的回调函数
{
    if (y == 0)
    {
        y = 1;
    }
    
    g_windows_width = x;
    g_windows_height = y;
    double xy_aspect = (float)x / (float)y;
    GLUI_Master.auto_set_viewport(); //自动设置视口大小

    glMatrixMode( GL_PROJECTION );//当前矩阵为投影矩阵
    glLoadIdentity();
    gluPerspective(60.0, xy_aspect, 0.01, 1000.0);//视景体

    glutPostRedisplay(); //标记当前窗口需要重新绘制
}

void myGlutKeyboard(unsigned char Key, int x, int y)
{//键盘时间回调函数

}

void myGlutMouse(int button, int state, int x, int y)
{
    if (state == GLUT_DOWN) //鼠标的状态为按下
    {
        g_press_x = x;
        g_press_y = y; 
        if (button == GLUT_LEFT_BUTTON) 
        {//按下鼠标的左键表示对模型进行旋转操作
            g_xform_mode = TRANSFORM_ROTATE;
        }
        else if (button == GLUT_RIGHT_BUTTON)
        {//按下鼠标的右键表示对模型进行平移操作
            g_xform_mode = TRANSFORM_TRANSLATE; 
        }
        else if (button == GLUT_MIDDLE_BUTTON)
        {//按下鼠标的滑轮表示按下鼠标的右键表示对模型进行缩放操作
            g_xform_mode = TRANSFORM_SCALE; 
        }
    }
    else if (state == GLUT_UP)  
    {//如果没有按鼠标,则不对模型进行任何操作
        g_xform_mode = TRANSFORM_NONE; 
    }
}

void myGlutMotion(int x, int y) //处理当鼠标键摁下时,鼠标拖动的事件
{
    if (g_xform_mode == TRANSFORM_ROTATE) //旋转
    {//TODO:添加鼠标移动控制模型旋转参数的代码

    }
    else if(g_xform_mode == TRANSFORM_SCALE) //缩放
    {//TODO:添加鼠标移动控制模型缩放参数的代码

    }
    else if(g_xform_mode == TRANSFORM_TRANSLATE) //平移
    {//TODO:添加鼠标移动控制模型平移参数的代码

    }

    // force the redraw function
    glutPostRedisplay(); 
}

void myGlutIdle(void) //空闲回调函数
{
    if ( glutGetWindow() != g_main_window ) 
        glutSetWindow(g_main_window);  

    glutPostRedisplay();
}

void glui_control(int control ) //处理控件的返回值
{
    switch(control)
    {
    case CRTL_LOAD://选择“open”控件
        loadObjFile();
        g_draw_content = SHAPE_MODEL;
        break;
    case CRTL_CHANGE://选择Type面板
        if (g_view_type == VIEW_POINT)  
        {
            glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_POINT); // 设置两面均为顶点绘制方式
        }
        else if (g_view_type == VIEW_WIRE)
        {
            glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_LINE); // 设置两面均为线段绘制方式
        }
        else
        {
            glPolygonMode(GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, GL_FILL); // 设置两面为填充方式
        }    
        break;
    case CRTL_TRIANGLE:
        g_draw_content = SHAPE_TRIANGLE;
        break;
    case CRTL_CUBE:
        g_draw_content = SHAPE_CUBE;
        break;
    case CRTL_CIRCLE:
        g_draw_content = SHAPE_CIRCLE;
        break;
    case CRTL_CYLINDER:
        g_draw_content = SHAPE_CYLINDER;
        break;
    case CRTL_CONE:
        g_draw_content = SHAPE_TORUS;
        break;
    case CRTL_MODEL:
        g_draw_content = SHAPE_MODEL;
        break;
    default:
        break;
    }
}

void myGlui()
{
    GLUI_Master.set_glutDisplayFunc( myGlutDisplay ); //注册渲染事件回调函数, 系统在需要对窗体进行重新绘制操作时调用
    GLUI_Master.set_glutReshapeFunc( myGlutReshape );  //注册窗口大小改变事件回调函数
    GLUI_Master.set_glutKeyboardFunc( myGlutKeyboard );//注册键盘输入事件回调函数
    glutMotionFunc( myGlutMotion);//注册鼠标移动事件回调函数
    GLUI_Master.set_glutMouseFunc( myGlutMouse );//注册鼠标点击事件回调函数
    GLUI_Master.set_glutIdleFunc(myGlutIdle); //为GLUI注册一个标准的GLUT空闲回调函数,当系统处于空闲时,就会调用该注册的函数

    //GLUI
    GLUI *glui = GLUI_Master.create_glui_subwindow( g_main_window, GLUI_SUBWINDOW_RIGHT); //新建子窗体,位于主窗体的右部 
    new GLUI_StaticText(glui, "GLUI" ); //在GLUI下新建一个静态文本框,输出内容为“GLUI”
    new GLUI_Separator(glui); //新建分隔符
    new GLUI_Button(glui,"Open", CRTL_LOAD, glui_control); //新建按钮控件,参数分别为:所属窗体、名字、ID、回调函数,当按钮被触发时,它会被调用.
    new GLUI_Button(glui, "Quit", 0,(GLUI_Update_CB)exit );//新建退出按钮,当按钮被触发时,退出程序

    GLUI_Panel *type_panel = glui->add_panel("Type" ); //在子窗体glui中新建面板,名字为“Type”
    GLUI_RadioGroup *radio = glui->add_radiogroup_to_panel(type_panel, &g_view_type, CRTL_CHANGE, glui_control); //在Type面板中添加一组单选按钮
    glui->add_radiobutton_to_group(radio, "points"); 
    glui->add_radiobutton_to_group(radio, "wire");
    glui->add_radiobutton_to_group(radio, "flat");

    GLUI_Panel *draw_panel = glui->add_panel("Draw" ); //在子窗体glui中新建面板,名字为“Draw”
    new GLUI_Button(draw_panel,"Triangle",CRTL_TRIANGLE,glui_control);
    new GLUI_Button(draw_panel,"Cube",CRTL_CUBE,glui_control);
    new GLUI_Button(draw_panel,"Circle",CRTL_CIRCLE,glui_control);
    new GLUI_Button(draw_panel,"Cylinder",CRTL_CYLINDER,glui_control);
    new GLUI_Button(draw_panel,"Torus",CRTL_CONE,glui_control);
    new GLUI_Button(draw_panel,"Model",CRTL_MODEL,glui_control);

    glui->set_main_gfx_window(g_main_window ); //将子窗体glui与主窗体main_window绑定,当窗体glui中的控件的值发生过改变,则该glui窗口被重绘
    GLUI_Master.set_glutIdleFunc( myGlutIdle ); 
}

int main(int argc, char* argv[]) //程序入口
{
    /****************************************/
    /*   Initialize GLUT and create window  */
    /****************************************/

    freopen("log.txt", "w", stdout);//重定位,将输出放入log.txt文件中
    glutInit(&argc, argv);//初始化glut
    glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGB | GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_DEPTH);//初始化渲染模式
    glutInitWindowPosition(200, 200); //初始化窗口位置
    glutInitWindowSize(800, 600); //初始化窗口大小

    g_main_window = glutCreateWindow("Model Viewer"); //创建主窗体Model Viewer

    myGlui();
    myInit();

    glutMainLoop();//进入glut消息循环

    return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
#ifndef COMMON
#define COMMON

#define VIEW_POINT            0x00
#define VIEW_WIRE            0x01
#define VIEW_FLAT            0x02

#define CRTL_LOAD            0x00
#define CRTL_CHANGE            0x01
#define CRTL_TRIANGLE        0x02
#define CRTL_CUBE            0x03
#define CRTL_CIRCLE            0x04
#define CRTL_CYLINDER        0x05
#define CRTL_CONE            0x06
#define CRTL_MODEL            0x07

#define SHAPE_TRIANGLE        0x00
#define SHAPE_CUBE            0x01
#define SHAPE_CIRCLE        0x02
#define SHAPE_CYLINDER        0x03
#define SHAPE_TORUS            0x04
#define SHAPE_MODEL            0x05

#define TRANSFORM_NONE      0x51 
#define TRANSFORM_ROTATE    0x52
#define TRANSFORM_SCALE     0x53 
#define TRANSFORM_TRANSLATE 0x54

#endif 
common.h

运行这段代码可以得到如下所示的结果

 

 

 图形绘制

在上面那段代码中,已经给出了三角形、圆、正方体的绘制代码,下面还将介绍圆柱与圆环的绘制

在opengl中并不能直接绘制圆,那么,此时想到了极限的方法,如果把圆分割成很多个扇形,这个扇形的角度足够小的话,那么曲线自然可以看作直线。有了这个思路,代码就很好写了。

void DrawCircle() 
{//绘制圆
    glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
        glNormal3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            glVertex2f(R*cos(2 * Pi / n * i), R*sin(2 * Pi / n * i));
        }
    glEnd();
}

三角形

三角形的绘制就十分的简单了,确定三个顶点,然后连线

void DrawTriangle() 
{//绘制三角形
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);
        glNormal3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);  //指定面法向
        glVertex3f( 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);                    // 上顶点
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f, 0.0f);                    // 左下
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f, 0.0f);                    // 右下
    glEnd();
    glFlush();
}

立方体

原理同三角形,确定八个顶点坐标,然后连线,不过这里要注意的是立方体为3D图形,要展示光照效果的话需要在绘制的时候确定各个面的法向量。

void DrawCube() 
{//绘制立方体
    glBegin(GL_QUADS);  
        glNormal3f( 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);  //指定面法向
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f,1.0f);   //列举面顶点数据,逆时针顺序
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f); 
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f);  
    //前----------------------------  
        glNormal3f( 0.0f, 0.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f); 
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f);  
    //后----------------------------  
        glNormal3f( 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f); 
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);  
    //上----------------------------  
        glNormal3f( 0.0f,-1.0f, 0.0f);
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f);
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f);  
    //下----------------------------  
        glNormal3f( 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f( 1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
    //右----------------------------  
        glNormal3f(-1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f,-1.0f);  
        glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f, 1.0f); 
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
        glVertex3f(-1.0f, 1.0f,-1.0f);  
    //左----------------------------*/  
    glEnd();  
    glFlush();
}

圆柱

对于圆柱的绘制,思想同圆十分相似,就是分割。不过需要注意的是上下两个圆面和一个侧面需要分开来绘制。这里需要思考的是这个侧面该如何绘制呢?想象以下,把圆柱侧面展开,我们得到的是一个矩形,那分割成小片段的话也就是矩形了,即绘制无数个矩形,然后拼接形成侧面。

注:绘制时注意法向量的选取

void DrawCylinder()
{//绘制圆柱
    //glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR_MIPMAP_LINEAR);
    glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    glNormal3f(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);
    for (int i = 1; i < n; i++) {
        glVertex3f(R*cos(2 * Pi / n * i), 1.0f, R*sin(2 * Pi / n * i));
    }
    glEnd();
    glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    glNormal3f(0.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f);
    for (int i = 1; i < n; i++) {
        glVertex3f(R*cos(2 * Pi / n * i), 0.0f, R*sin(2 * Pi / n * i));
    }
    glEnd();
    glBegin(GL_QUADS);
    for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
    {
        glNormal3f(R*cos(2 * Pi / n * i), 0.0f, R*sin(2 * Pi / n * i));
        glVertex3f(R*cos(2 * Pi / n * i), 1.0f, R*sin(2 * Pi / n * i));
        glVertex3f(R*cos(2 * Pi / n * i), 0.0f, R*sin(2 * Pi / n * i));
        glNormal3f(R*cos(2 * Pi / n * (i + 1)), 0.0f, R*sin(2 * Pi / n * (i + 1)));
        glVertex3f(R*cos(2 * Pi / n * (i + 1)), 0.0f, R*sin(2 * Pi / n * (i + 1)));
        glVertex3f(R*cos(2 * Pi / n * (i + 1)), 1.0f, R*sin(2 * Pi / n * (i + 1)));
    }
    glEnd();
}

圆环

圆环的绘制稍微有些麻烦,先来看看下面这个圆环的线图

 

这里的难点就是各点的坐标表示,首先我们需要做的是把圆环压缩成一个圆面

 

 压缩之后的表示为 R+r*cos(θ),然后再把压缩完后的点映射到x y轴上

 

X轴:(R+r*cos(θ))*cosα

Y轴:(R+r*cos(θ))*sinα

Z轴:r*sin(θ)

这样,我们的圆环就可以实现了

void DrawTorus()
{
    int num = n / 50;
    for (int i = 0; i < num; i++)
    {    
        glBegin(GL_QUAD_STRIP);
        for (int j = 0; j <= num; j++)
        {
            for (int k = 1; k >= 0; k--)
            {
                double s = (i + k) % num + 0.5;
                double t = j % num;
                glNormal3f(cos(2 * Pi / num * s) * cos(2 * Pi / num * t), cos(2 * Pi / num * s)*sin(2 * Pi / num * t), sin(2 * Pi / num * s));
                glVertex3f((1 + R*cos(2 * Pi / num * s))*cos(2 * Pi / num * t), (1 + R*cos(2 * Pi / num * s))*sin(2 * Pi / num * t), R*sin(2 * Pi / num * s));
            }
        }
        glEnd();
    }
}

小节

以上介绍了如何使用opengl绘制基本图形,下篇文章中将介绍如何使用opengl加载绘制模型,以及鼠标交互的实现。

posted @ 2019-12-08 16:05  ITryagain  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏
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