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【字源大挪移—读书笔记】 第一部分:字首

[1] 字首:[1.1]表示【否定】的字首、[1.2]表示【方位】的字首、[1.3]表示【程度】的字首、[1.4]表示【状态、现象】的字首、[1.5]表示【数字】的字首
 
[1.1] 表示【否定】的字首:
     a-          =     without(没有)
     an-        =     without(没有,后接元音时)
 
     anti-       =    against(反对)
     ant-       =    against(反对,后接元音时)
 
     contra-    =    against(反对)
     contro-    =    against(反对)
     counter-    =   against(反对)
 
     dis-        =    not,apart(不,分开)
     dif-        =    not,apart(不,分开,后接f时)
 
     in-         =    not(不)
     im-         =    not(不,后接轻辅音m、b、p)
     ir-         =    not(不,后接辅音r)
     il-         =    not(不,后接辅音l)
 
     un-         =    not(不)
{
atypical:a - typ - ical,[音:ˌeɪ'tɪpɪkl],(without - type - adj.),adj:非典型的;
amnesty:a - mne - sty,[音:'æmnəsti],(without - memory - n.),n:特赦,大赦;
apathetic:a - path - etic,[音:ˌæpə'θetɪk],(withou - feeling - adj.),adj:冷漠的,漠不关心的;
apolitical:a - polit - ical,[音:ˌeɪpə'lɪtɪkl],(without - government - adj.),adj:非政治的;
atheist:a - the - ist,(without - god - person),n:无神论者;
anonymous:an - onym- ous,[音:ə'nɑːnɪməs],(without - name - adj.),adj:匿名的;
 
antiamerican:anti - american,(against - America),adj:反美的;
antarctic:ant - arctic,(against - Arctic),n:南极洲;adj:南极的; {Arctic:adj:北极的,极寒的;n:北极圈,北极;}
antidote:anti - dote,[音:'æntidoʊt],(against - give),n:解毒剂,解药,对抗手段;
antipathy:anti - path - y,[音:æn'tɪpəθi],(against - feel - n.),n:反感;
 
contraty:contra - ty,(against - adj.),adj:相反的;
contradict:contra - dict,[音:ˌkɒntrə'dɪkt],(against - speak),v:反驳,造成矛盾;
controversial:contro - vers - ial,(against - turn - adj.),adj:有争议性的;
counterfeit:counter - feit,[音:'kaʊntərfɪt],(against - make),a:伪造的;n:伪钞;v:伪造;
 
dishonest:dis - honest,(not - honest),adj:不诚实的;
disinfectant:dis - in - fect - ant,[音:ˌdɪsɪn'fektənt],(not - in - do - n.),n:杀菌剂;
disinterested:dis - interest - ed,[音:dɪs'ɪntrəstɪd],(not - interest - adj),adj:无私欲的,不涉及本身利益的,不感兴趣的,公正的,公平的;
dissect:dis - sect,[音:[dɪ'sekt],(apart - cut),v:解剖,详细分析,详细研究;
dissonance:dis - son - ance,[音:'dɪsənəns],(apart - sound - n.),n:不和谐(音);
diffident:dif - fid - ent,[音:'dɪfɪdənt],(apart - faith - adj.),adj:缺乏自信的;
 
indirect:in - di - rect,(not - away - right),adj:不直接的;
insatiable:in - sat - iable,[音:ɪn'seɪʃəbl]],(not - fill - able),adj:无法满足的;
intrepid:in - trep - id,[音:ɪn'trepɪd],(not - fear - adj.),adj:无畏的;
illiterate:il - liter - ate,[音:ɪ'lɪtərət],(not - letter - adj.[n.]),adj:不识字的;n:文盲;
immemorial:im - memor - ial,[音:ˌɪmə'mɔːriəl],(not - remember - adj.),adj:久远的,古老的;
irrepressible:ir - re - press - ible,[音:ˌɪrɪ'presəbl],(not - back - press - able),adj:压抑不了的;
 
unhappy:un - happy,(not - happy),adj:不快乐的;
unequivocal:un - equi - voc - al,[音:ʌnɪ'kwɪvəkl],(not - equal - voice - adj.),adj:明确的;{equal:adj:相等的,同等的,相同的;}
untenable:un - ten - able,[音:ʌnɪ'kwɪvəkl],(not - hold - able),adj:行不通的;
}
 
[1.1] 本小节示例及练习
Amnesty International is a humanitarian organization that urges governments to pardon political prisoners. {Amnesty International:n:国际特赦组织,大赦国际;humanitarian:[音:hjuːˌmænɪ'teriən];n:人道主义者,博爱者,基督凡人论者;adj:人道主义的,博爱的,相信基督凡人的;urge:vt:驱策,鼓励,催促,力称;vi:极力主张;n:冲动,强烈愿望;}
The  apathetic look on his face shows that he's not interested.
AIDS should remain an apolitical issue. {remain:v:剩余,逗留,留下,依然,保持;n:剩余物,遗迹,残害;issue:n:议题,问题,期刊号,一次发行额,发行,<律>子女;v:发表,公布,正式发给,发行,流出;}
He never goes to church; he's an atheist.
The police chief sometimes gets anonymous phone calls. {chief:adj:首要的,主要的;n:首领;}
 
The Antarctic is the only continent without permanent inhabitants. {inhabitant:[音:ɪn'hæbɪtənt];n:居民;}
The serum is an effective antidote for the snakebite. {serum:[音:'sɪrəm];n:浆液,血清,乳浆;}
Americans traditionally have a strong antipathy against tyranny. {tyranny:[音:'tɪrəni];n:暴政,苛政,专制;}
 
Chinese students seldom contradict their teachers.
Nuclear power is a highly controversial issue.
The will  is invalid because the signature is counterfeit. {will:n:遗嘱;invalid:adj:无效的;}
 
You should apply some disinfectant to that wound to prevent inflammation. {apply:vt:应用,涂,使专心从事;vi:申请,有关联;inflammation:[音:ˌɪnflə'meɪʃn];n:发炎,炎症,燃烧,激动;}
Members of jury should remain disinterested throughout the proceedings. {jury:n:陪审团,评委会;throughout:prep:遍及,贯穿;adv:自始至终,到处;proceeding:n:行动,诉讼程序,会议记录;}
The students are going to dissect frogs in their biology class.
His objection strikes a chord of dissonance among general agreement. {翻译:他的反对在一片同意之声中显得额外刺耳。objection:n:反对,异议;chord:n:弦,和弦,情绪;a chrod of dissonance:不和谐的音符;}
The inexperienced speaker began in a diffident voice. {inexperienced:adj:无经验的,不熟练的;}
 
The market's demand for new video games is insatiable.
The intrepid mountaineers pushed on toward the summit, despite bad weather. {push on:推动,前进,加紧;summit:n:顶点,最高阶层;despite:prep:尽管,不管;n:憎恨,轻视;}
He can write his own name; beyond that, he's quite illiterate. {beyond that:除了那个以外,除此之外;}
Mankind has been using fire since time immemorial. {mankind:n:人类,男人;}
The desire for liberty is irrepressible. {liberty:n:自由,自由权,冒失;}
 
The UN spokesman's condemnation of the invasion is unequivocal. {condemnation:[音:ˌkɑːndem'neɪʃn];n:谴责,非难,定罪,宣布有罪;invasion:[音:ɪn'veɪʒn];n:侵略,侵入;}
To lose 20 pounds within a week is an untenable goal. {goal:n:球门,目标,得分;}
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[1.2] 表示【方位】的字首:
     ante-          =     before(前)
     anti-           =     before(前)
 
     pre-           =     before(前)
 
     ad-            =    to,toward(向前)
     at-             =    to,toward(向前)
     ac-             =    to,toward(向前)
     a··-           =    to,toward(向前,a开头后接两个辅音字母的变化)
 
     ob-            =    toward,against(向前,反对)
     obs-           =    toward,against(向前,反对)
     oc-            =    toward,against(向前,反对)
     of-            =    toward,against(向前,反对)
     op-            =    toward,against(向前,反对)
 
     pro-           =     forward,for(向前,支持)
 
     post-           =    after,for(后)
 
     re-             =    back,again(后,向后,再)
     retro-         =    backward(向后)
 
     epi-           =     upon(在……之上)
 
     super-        =    over(超越)
     sur-            =    over(超越)
 
     sub-            =    under(下)
     sug-            =    under(下)
     suc-            =    under(下,后接辅音)
     suf-            =    under(下,后接辅音)
     sup-            =    under(下,后接辅音)
     sus-            =    under(下,后接辅音)
 
     ambi-          =    around,both(周围,双)
     amphi-         =    around,both(周围,双)
 
     e-              =    out(外围,外面)
     ec-             =    out(外围,外面)
     ef-             =    out(外围,外面)
     ex-            =    out(外围,外面)
 
     peir-          =    around,near(周围,附近)
{
antecedent:ante - ced - ent,(before - go - n.),n:先行词;
antebellum:ante - bell - um,[音:ˌænti'beləm],(before - war - adj.),adj:战前的;
antemeridiem:ante - meri - diem,[音:æntɪmərɪ'diəm],(before - middle - day),adj:午前,缩写为A.M.;
anteroom:ante - room,[音:'æntiruːm],(before - room),n:会客室,接待室;{antechamber:[音:'æntitʃeɪmbər];n:前堂,前厅,接待室;}
anticipate:anti - cip - ate,(before - take - v.),v:预期,预料;
 
prevent:pre - vent,(before - come),v:防止;
preclude:pre - clude,(before - close),v:排除……的可能;
prescience:pre - sci - ence,[音:'presiəns],(before - know - n.),n:未卜先知的;
presentiment:pre - sent - iment,[音:prɪ'zentɪmənt],(before - feel - n.),n:预感;
unprecedented:un - pre - ced - ented,[音:ʌn'presɪdentɪd],(not - before - go - adj.),adj:空前的,史无前例的;
 
advance:ad - vance,(toward - front),v:前进;
admonish:ad - mon - ish,[音:əd'mɑːnɪʃ],(toward - warn - v.),v:警告,劝诫;
affectation:af - fect - ation,[音:ˌæfek'teɪʃn],(to - do - n.),n:做作,虚假;
alleviate:al - lev - iate,[音:ə'liːvieɪt],(to - light - v.),v:减轻,缓和;
 
oppose:op - pose,(against - place),v:反对;
obstinate:ob - stin - ate,[音:'ɑːbstɪnət],(against - hold - adj.),adj:顽固的;
obviate:ob - vi - ate,[音:'ɑːbvieɪt],(against - way - v.),v:免除,使不必要;
occident:oc - cid - ent,(toward - fall - n.),n:西方;
officiate:of - fic - iate,[音:ə'fɪʃieɪt],(toward- do - v.),v:主持;
 
progress:pro - gress,(forward - step),v:进步;
progenitor:pro - gen - itor,[音:proʊ'dʒenɪtər],(foward- birth - one who),n:(直系)祖先,先驱; {ancestor:n:(泛泛的)祖先;}
prognosis:pro - gnos - is,[音:prɑːɡ'noʊsɪs],(foward- know - n.),n:预测,预诊;
prolife:pro - life,(for- life),a:反堕胎的;
provoke:pro - voke,[音:prə'voʊk],(forward- call),v:挑战,激怒;
 
postpone:post - pone,[音:poʊ'spoʊn],(after - place),v:延期;
posterity:post - erity,[音:pɑː'sterəti],(after - n.),n:后代;
postmortem:post - mort - em,[音:ˌpoʊst'mɔːtəm],(after - death - n.[adj.]),n:验尸;ajd:死后的;
preposterous:pre - post - erous,[音:prɪ'pɑːstərəs],(before - after - adj.),adj:荒谬的,荒诞的;
 
return:re - turn,(back - turn),v:回来;
recuperate:re - cuper - ate,[音:rɪ'kuːpəreɪt],(again - cover - v.),v:康复,痊愈;
regenerate:re - gen - erate,(again - brith - v.),v:再生;
retrospect:retro - spect,[音:'retrəspekt],(backward - look),n:回顾;
 
epidemic:epi - dem - ic,[音:ˌepɪ'demɪk],(upon - people - adj.),n:疫情;adj:流行性(疾病)的;
epicenter:epi - center,[音:'epɪˌsentə],(upon - center),n:震央;
epigram:epi - gram,[音:'epɪɡræm],(upon - write),n:警句;
epilogue:epi - logue,(upon - speak),[美]epilog;n:尾声,终曲,收场白;
episode:epi - sode,[音:'epɪsoʊd],(upon - sing),n:事件,插曲,轶事;
epitaph:epi - taph,[音:'epɪtæf],(upon - tomb),n:墓志铭; {tomb:[音:tuːm];n:坟墓;vt:埋葬;}
 
supermarket:super - market,(over - market),n:超级市场;
supersede:super - sede,(over - sit),v:取代,淘汰;
supremacy:supr - emacy,[音:suː'preməsi],(over - n.),n:主导地位,优势,至高,主权,最高权利或地位;
surrealism:sur - real - ism,[音:sə'riːəlɪzəm],(over - real - n.),n:超现实主义;
survey:sur - vey,(over - view),v:调查,测量,导论;
insurmountable:in - sur - mount - able,[音:ˌɪnsər'maʊntəbl],(not - over - climb - able),adj:无法解决的,无法克服的;
 
suburb:sub - urb,[音:'sʌbɜːrb],(under - city),n:市郊;
subjugate:sub - jug - ate,[音:'sʌbdʒuɡeɪt],(under - yoke - v.),v:征服,使役; {yoke:[音:joʊk];n:轭,轭状物,共轭牛,束缚,纽带,(女)上衣抵肩、裙腰;vt:把……套上轭,使结合,使成配偶;vi:紧密结合;}
succor:suc - cor,[音:'sʌkə],(under - heart),v:援助;n:救援者;
suffocate:suf - foc - ate,[音:'sʌfəkeɪt],(under - throat - v.),v:窒息;
suppressant:sup - press - ant,[音:sə'presnt],(under - press - n.),n:抑制剂,抑爆剂,灭火剂;
susceptible:sus - cept - ible,[音:sə'septəbl],(under - take - able),a:易受影响的;
 
ambition:ambi - (i)t - ion,(around - go - n.),n:野心;
ambiance:ambi - ance,[音:'æmbɪəns],(around - n.),n:环境,气氛;
ambiguous:ambi - (i)g - uous,(both - act - adj.),adj:模棱两可的,语意双关的;
ambivalent:ambi - val - ent,[音:æm'bɪvələnt],(both - strong - adj.),adj:感觉矛盾的,不知如何取舍的;
amphibian:amphi - bi(o) - an,[音:æm'fɪbiən],(both - life - n.[adj.]),n:两栖类;adj:两栖的;
amphitheater:amphi - theater,[音:ˌæmfɪ'θɪətə],(around - theater]),n:圆形剧场的;
 
exit:ex - it,(out - go),n:出口;v:出去;
enumerate:e - number - ate,(bout - number - v.),v:列举,详述,枚举;
eccentric:ec - centr - ic,[音:ɪk'sentrɪk],(out - center - n.[adj.]),n:怪人,我行我素的人;adj:怪癖的;
effluent:ef - flu - ent,[音:'efluənt],(out - flow - n.[adj.]),n:排放物,污水,水流;adj:流出的;
exhale:ex - hale,[音:eks'heɪl],(out - breathe),v:呼出(气体),散发; {breath:[音:breθ];呼吸,气息;breathe:[音:briːð];vi:呼吸;vt:轻声说,流露(自信等感情),注入;}
expatriate:ex - patri - ate,[音:ˌeks'peɪtriət],(out - father(fatherland) - n.[v.,adj.]),n:流亡者,移居外国者;v:流亡;adj:流亡的;
exterminate:ex - termin - ate,(out - limit - v.),v:消减;
 
period:peri - od,(around - way),n:时期,句号。
perigee:peri - gee,[音:'perɪdʒiː],(near - earth),n:近地点,最近点;
perimeter:peri - meter,[音:pə'rɪmɪtər],(around - mesure),n:周长,周围;
peripheral:peri - pher - al,[音:pə'rɪfərəl],(around - bear - n.[adj.]),n:周边设备,外围设施;ajd:周边的,外围的;
periscope:peri - scope,[音:'perɪskoʊp],(around - look),n:潜望镜;
}
 
[1.2] 本小节示例及练习
Slavery provided labor on the plantations in the antebellum South. {slavery:n:奴役,奴隶制,努力身份;labor:n:工人,劳工;v:苦干,劳动;adj:劳工的,劳动的;plantation:[音:plæn'teɪʃn];n:种植园,造林地,殖民地;}
Classes begin at 9:30 A.M.
Visitors to the girls' dormitory must wait in the anteroom.
If you can anticipate the rise and fall of the stock market, you can make a lot of money.
 
The approaching typhoon precludes any chance of  a ball game tomorrow. {approaching:adj:侵入的,接近的;approach:v:靠近,接近,接洽,要求,达到,动手处理;n:途径,方法,接近,接洽,进场着陆;}
The investor demonstrated remarkable prescience by selling his stocks before the market crashed. {investor:n:投资者;remarkable:adj:非凡的,值得注意的,显著的,异常的,卓越的;}
The man had a presentiment that something might go wrong, so he chose not to  board the plane.
The president's proposal to visit Mainland China was unprecedented. {proposal:n:求婚,建议,提议;}
 
The travel guide admonishes visitors not to drink unboiled water in this country.
The author writes in a natural style, without any affectation.
An aspirin will alleviate the headache. {aspirin:n:阿司匹林;}
 
Don't be so obstinate - you know you're in the wrong!
His tendering a resignation has obviated the unpleasant task of firing him. {tender:adj:温柔的,脆弱的,敏感的,亲切的,嫩的,痛的;v:提出,投标;n:投标,照管人,补给船,煤水车;resignation:n:辞职,辞呈,顺从;firing:n:开发,解雇,生火,加热,燃料;}
The Occident is geographically opposed to the Orient. {geographical:adv:地理地,地理学地;Orient:n:东方;亚洲;adj:东方的;vt:使适应,使……朝向,定……的方位;}
The Pope officiated at the Christmas mass. {pope:[音:poʊp];n:罗马教皇;mass:n:大量,块,众多;adj:大规模的,群众的;v:集中;Mass:弥撒曲,弥撒;}
 
Homo erectus is a progenitor of Homo sapiens.
The panel of economists has made a favorable prognosis of the year to come.
The Republican Party has traditionally taken a pro-life stance toward abortion.
If provoked, a rhino can be dangerous.
 
We must protect the environment for posterity.
The coroner conducted a postmortem to decide the cause of death. {coroner:n:验尸官;conduct:[音:kən'dʌkt];n:行为,举动,品行;v:引导,指挥,管理;vt:导电,传热;}
No one believes his story because it's simply preposterous. {simply:adv:简单地,仅仅,简直;}
 
Within a few months, the Taiwan stock market has recuperated from the missile scare. {missile scare:n:导弹威胁;}
A lizard can regenerated a tail when the original one is broken off. {lizard:n:蜥蜴;tail:n:后部,尾巴,尾部,辫子,跟随者;vt:跟踪,盯……的梢,为……装尾巴;vi:尾随,附于其后,逐渐减少;tails:n:燕尾服,(硬币的)反面;break off:突然住口,折断,断绝(关系),暂停(工作),休息一会;}
In retrospect,the 20th century has eclipsed any other as the bloodiest century in human history. (原句:The 20th century (which) as the bloodiest century in human history has eclipsed any other (century).,移动过位置的关系从句。) {eclipse:n:日货月食,丧失,没落;vt:形成日或月食,使……黯然失色;}
 
The weather bureau said that the epicenter of yesterday's earthquake was 200 kilometers southeast of Hualian. {bureau:[音:'bjʊroʊ];n:局,办事处,(带抽屉的)写字台;}
Oscar Wilde wrote a famous epigram: experience is the name everyone gives to his mistake. {翻译:经验,就是人人为自己的错误所取的名称。}
In the epilogue of the play, the hero and the heroine come on stage as a happily married couple. {hero:n:男主人公;heroine:[音:'heroʊɪn];n:女主角,女英雄;}
The death of a Hong Kong activist was an unfortunate episode in the Chinese people's defense of Diaoyutai against Japanese invasion. {activist:[音:'æktɪvɪst];n:活动分子,积极分子,激进分子;defense:[音:dɪ'fens];n:防卫,防卫物,辩护;vt:防守;invasion:n:侵略,侵入;}
An epitaph is a terse and usually witty commemoration of the deceased person. {terse:adj:简洁的,简明的;witty:adj:机智的,诙谐的;commemoration:[音:kəˌmemə'reɪʃn];n:纪念,纪念物,庆典;decease:n:[律]:死亡;deceased:adj:已故的;}
 
Experts predict that the highly polluting, grossly inefficient internal combustion engine will be superseded by a more environmentally friendly energy converter within 50 years. {polluting:adj:污染的,玷污的;grossly:adv:非常,狠,下流地;inefficient:adj:无效率的,无能的,不称职的;combustion:[音:kəm'bʌstʃən];n:燃烧;converter:n:转换器,同(convertor);}
The former Soviet Union vied with the U.S. for global nuclear supremacy. {former:adj:前者的,前任的,以前的;n:创造者,<英>学校某一个年级的学生;soviet:[音:'soʊviet];adj:苏联的,苏维埃的;n:苏维埃;vie:[音:vaɪ];v:竞争;}
The Spanish artist Salvador Dali was a champion of surrealism.
In the latest survey conducted by the China Post, over 50% of marriages end in divorce. {conduct:[音:kən'dʌkt];n:行为,举动,品行;v:引导,指挥,管理;vt:导电,传热;}
Faced with insurmountable obstacles, the expedition leader had to call off the whole operation. {obstacle:[音:'ɑːbstəkl];n:障碍,绊脚石;expedition:[音:ˌekspə'dɪʃn];n:远征,探险队,迅速;call off:取消,把(注意力)转移开;}
 
The Baltic States were subjugated first by Czarist Russia and then by the former Soviet Union. {The Baltic States:波罗的海的国家;czarist:[音:'zɑːrɪst];adj:沙皇的,专制的;n:沙皇的拥护者; Czarist Russia:n:沙皇俄国;}
It is a stated purpose of the U.N. to succor countries in distress. {stated:adj:阐明的,定期的,规定的;purpose:n:目的,宗旨;distress:[音:dɪ'stres];n:不幸,危难,苦恼,痛苦;vt:使苦恼,使痛苦;}
Most victims of the fire were suffocated instead of being burned to death.
Many obesity-fighting drugs are merely appetite suppressants. {obesity:[音:əʊ'biːsəti];n:肥胖,肥大;obesity(-fighting) drugs:n:减肥药;appetite:[音:'æpɪtaɪt];n:食欲,嗜好,欲望;}
The tomato plant is susceptible to a number of diseases.
 
Paris is the favorite city for many, because they like the art, the language, and the ambiance in general.
This sentence looks ambiguous; you'd better change the phrasing to make it clear. {phrasing:[音:'freɪzɪŋ];n:语法,措辞,分节法;}
Some people in Taiwan are in favor of cross-straits reunification, others are against it, and still others feel ambivalent about it. {in favor of:adj:赞成,支持,有利于;cross-straits:adj:十字架海峡的,海峡两岸的;strait:[音:streɪt];海峡,困境;straight:[音:streɪt];adj:直的,坦率的;reunification:[音:ˌriːˌjuːnɪfɪ'keɪʃn];n:重新统一;}
Frogs are amphibians; they can live in water and on land.
Roman amphitheaters were so constructed that a visitor sitting in the last row could hear clearly the actors far below. {翻译:罗马圆形剧场的建筑能让最后一排的人清楚听到从远处下方传来的演员声音。}
 
The report enumerates the various health hazards of smoking. {various:[音:'veriəs];adj:各种各样的;hazard:n:危险,冒险,危害;vt:冒险,赌运气;}
Dr. Samuel Johnson was a delightful eccentric; he once entertained his admirers by rolling down a slope! {delight:n:高兴,快乐;v:(使)高兴,(使)欣喜;delightful:adj:令人愉快的,可喜的;entertain:v:娱乐,使有兴趣,招待,考虑,抱有,容纳;admire:vt:钦佩,赞美,羡慕,欣赏;admirer:n:钦佩者,仰慕者,求爱者;slope:n:倾斜,斜坡,斜面,斜率,斜线;vt:使倾斜;vi:倾斜,有坡度;}
The Environmental Protection Agency sent someone to take samples of the effluent from the factory for toxin analysis. {toxin:[音:'tɑːksɪn];n:毒素,毒质;}
The police officer checked the breath exhaled by the driver for its alcohol content. {content:n:内容,目录,含量;adj:满足的,满意的;vt:使……满足,使……安心;}
Nobel Laureate Solzhenitsyn, long-time Soviet expatriate in France, is now back in Russia and hosting a TV show. {laureate:[音:'lɔːriət];n:桂冠诗人,得奖人;host:n:主人,主持人,主办方,大量,寄主,主机;v:主办,主持,做东;hosting:n:群众或部队的集合,作战;}
In World War II, Adolf Hitler tried to exterminate the Jewish race with his "ultimate solution". {Jewish:['dʒuːɪʃ];adj:犹太的,犹太人的;race:n:赛跑,竞争,人种,种族,血统;v:赛跑,竞赛;}
 
In 1995, the perigee of the sun occurred at 11 A.M., Jan. 4, Greenwich mean time. {mean:adj:平均的,标准的;}
The perimeter of a square is four times the length of one side. {square:n:正方形,广场,街区,平方,直角尺,<俚>古板的人;adj:正方形的,规矩的,公正的,断然的;v:一致,结清,使……成方形,使……成平方;adv:成直角,直接地,正方形地;}
A computer may enhance its function through adding on such peripherals as a printer, scanner or CD-ROM drive.
A submarine just beneath the surface can observe ships through its periscope. {beneath:[音:bɪ'niːθ];prep:在……之下,被……覆盖,低于……,不值得;adv:在下方,在底下;observe:[音:əb'zɜːrv];v:观察,遵守,注意到,庆祝;}
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[1.3] 表示【程度】的字首:
     macro-          =     great(大)
 
     micro-          =     tiny(小)
 
     multi-            =     many(多)
 
     poly-            =     many(多)
 
     omni-            =     all(全)
 
{
macrograph:macro - graph,[音:'mækrəgrɑːf],(great - write),n:与实物同大或稍大之图;
macrocosm:macro - cosm,[音:'mækroʊkɑːzəm],(great - universe),n:大宇宙,宏观世界,整体;
macroeconomics:macro - eco - nom - ics,[音:ˌmækroʊˌekə'nɑːmɪks],(great - state - law - n.),n:总体经济学;
 
microscope:micro - scope,[音:'maɪkrəskoʊp],(small - look),n:显微镜;
microcosm:micro - cosm,[音:'maɪkroʊkɑːzəm],(small - universe),n:小宇宙,微观世界,缩影;
 
muliply:multi - pl - y,(many - fold - v.),v:乘,繁殖;{fold:vt:包,折叠,交叉,拥抱;vt:翻倍,屈服,倒闭;n:折层,折痕;}
multibillionaire:multi - billion - aire,(many - billion - person),n:亿万富翁;
multimedia:multi - med - ia,(many - middle - adj.[n.]),adj:多媒体的;n:多媒体;
multitude:multi - tude,(many - n.),n:大批,多数,群众;
 
polysyllabic:poly - syllab - ic,[音:ˌpɒlisɪ'læbɪk],(many - syllable - adj.),adj:多音节的;
polygamy:poly - gam - y,[音:pə'lɪɡəmi],(many - marriage - n.),n:一夫多妻制;
polyglot:poly - glot,[音:'pɑːliɡlɑːt],(many - tongue),n:通晓多种语言者; {tongue:[音:tʌŋ];n:舌头,语言,口才;v:舔,发音;}
polygraph:poly - graph,(many - write),n:测谎机;
 
omnipresent:omni - present,[音:ˌɑːmnɪ'preznt],(all - present),adj:无所不在的;
omnipotent:omni - potent,[音:ɑːm'nɪpətənt],(all - powerful),adj:全能的,无所不能的;
omniscient:omni - sci - ent,[音:ɑːm'nɪsiənt],(all - know - adj.),adj:全知的,无所不知的;
omnivorous:omni - vor - ous,[音:ɑːm'nɪvərəs],(all - swallow - adj.),adj:杂食性的,涉猎广泛的;
}
 
[1.3] 本小节示例及练习
Some sociologists view society as a macrocosm. {sociology:[音:ˌsoʊsi'ɑːlədʒi];n:社会学;sociologist:n:社会学家;}
The field of macroeconomics studies all the forces at work in an economy. {force:n:武力,力量,军队,武装力量;v:迫使,强迫,强制;}
 
A spoonful of pond water, with its countless microscopic organisms, is a microcosm of the larger pond ecosystem from which it is drawn. {spoonful:[音:'spuːnfʊl];n:一匙;pond:[音:pɑːnd];n:池塘;countless:[音:'kaʊntləs];adj:无数的,多的数不清的;microscopic:[音:ˌmaɪkrə'skɑːpɪk];adj:显微镜的,极小的,微观的;organism:[音:'ɔːrɡənɪzəm];n:有机体,生物体,有机组织;ecosystem:[音:'iːkoʊsɪstəm];n:生态系统;draw:v:拖,接近,画,提取,绘制;n:平局,抽签,拽,吸引人的事物;}
 
Y.C. Wong,owner of Taiwan Plastics,is a well-known multibillionaire. {Y.C. Wong:n:王永庆(台湾塑料的老板);}
Michael Jackson's concert in Taipei was a multimedia extravaganza. {concert:n:音乐会,一致,和谐;vt:协定,协同安排;vi:合作;extravaganza:[音:ɪkˌstrævə'ɡænzə];n:豪华的演出,内容狂妄的作品,狂妄的言行;}
Taipei's MRT system has suffered a multitude of ailments since its start. {MRT:abbr:大规模快速系统(Mass Rapid Transit);suffer:vt:遭受,忍受,融忍,听任;vi:受苦,患病,受损失;处于不利地位;ailment:[音:'eɪlmənt];n:小病,疾病;}
 
The American Mormons used to practice polygamy. {Mormon:n:摩门教(徒);adj:摩门教;}
He speaks five foreign languages fluently; he's a true polyglot.
The suspect has agreed to do a polygraph test to prove that he is innocent.
 
The Christians believe that God is omnipotent.
The writer employs the third-person omniscient narrator in his new novel. {employ:v:雇佣,使用;narrator:[音:[nə'reɪtər];n:叙述员,讲解员;the third-person omniscient narrator:第三人称全知的叙事手法;}
Cows are herbivorous, tigers are carnivorous, but man is omnivorous. {herbivorous:[音:hɜː'bɪvərəs];adj:食草的;carnivorous:[音:kɑː'nɪvərəs];adj:食肉的,肉食性的;}
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[1.4] 表示【状态、现象】的字首:
     bel-          =     good,beautiful(好,美丽)
     bell-         =     good,beautiful(好,美丽)
     bene-       =     good,beautiful(好,美丽)
     bon-        =     good,beautiful(好,美丽)
 
     eu-          =     good(好)
 
     mal-        =     bad(坏)
     male-       =     bad(坏)
 
     mis-        =     wrong(错误)
 
     ab-          =     away(分离)
     abs-        =     away(分离)
 
     de-         =     away,down,not(分离,往下,不)
 
     se-         =     apart(分离)
 
     tele-       =     far(远)
 
     con-       =     together,intensifier(共同,加强语气)
     com-       =     together,intensifier(共同,加强语气,后接双辅音时)
     co-         =     together,intensifier(共同,加强语气,后接元音时)
     col-       =     together,intensifier(共同,加强语气,后接辅音l)
     cor-       =     together,intensifier(共同,加强语气,后接辅音r)
 
     syn-       =     together,same(共同,相同)
     sym-       =     together,same(共同,相同,后接双辅音时)
     simil-      =     together,same(共同,相同,当字根时)
     simul-     =     together,same(共同,相同,当字根时)
 
     dia-       =     through(穿过)
 
     per-       =     through,thoroughly(穿过,彻底) {thoroughly:[音:'θɜːrəli];adv:彻底地,完全,非常;}
 
     trans-     =     across(穿过)
{
bonus:bon - us,[音:'boʊnəs],(good - n.),n:红利;
belle:belle,(beauty),n:(艳冠群芳的)美女;
embellish:em - bell - ish,[音:ɪm'belɪʃ],(make - beautiful - v.),v:美化;
benediction:bene - dict - ion,[音:ˌbenɪ'dɪkʃn],(good - speak - n.),n:(宗教的)祝福,恩赐;
beneficiary:bene - fic - iary,(good - do - n.),n:受益人;
 
euphony:eu - phon - y,[音:'juːfəni],(good - sound - n.),n:悦耳的声音;
eugenics:eu - gen - ics,[音:juː'dʒenɪks],(good - birth - n.),n:优生学;
eulogy:eu - log - y,[音:'juːlədʒi],(good - word - n.),n:正式的赞词;
euphemism:eu - phem - ism,[音:'juːfəmɪzəm],(good - speak - n.),n:委婉的说法;
euthanasia:eu - thanas - isa,[音:ˌjuːθə'neɪʒə],(good - death - n.),n:安乐死;
 
maladjusted:mal - ad - just -ed,[音:ˌmælə'dʒʌstɪd],(bad - to - right - adj.),adj:适应不良的;
malaria:mal - ar - ia,[音:mə'leriə],(bad -air - n.),n:疟疾;
malevolent:male - vol - ent,[音:mə'levələnt],(bad -wish - adj.),adj:恶意的,恶毒的,不友善的;
malfunction:mal - funct - ion,(bad - do - n.[v.]),n:故障;adj:故障;
malicious:mal - ic - ious,[音:mə'lɪʃəs],(bad -  - adj.),adj:恶意的;
malnutrition:mal - nutri - tion,[音:ˌmælnuː'trɪʃn],(bad - food - n.),n:营养不良;
 
 
mistake:mis - take,(wrong - take),n:错误;v:弄错;
misfit:mis - fit,(wrong - fit),n:适应不良者,不适任者;
misfortune:mis - fortune,[音:ˌmɪs'fɔːrtʃuːn],(wrong - change),n:不幸,灾祸;
mistrust:mis - trust,(wrong - trust),n:不信任;v:不信任;
 
absent:abs -ent,(away - adj.),a:缺席的,不在的;
abdicate:ab - dic - ate,[音:'æbdɪkeɪt],(away - speak - v.),v:退位,辞职,让位,正式放弃;
abhorrent:ab - hor - rent,[音:əb'hɔːrənt],(away - horror - adj.),adj:令人憎恶的; {horror:[音:'hɔːrər];n:恐怖,战栗,厌恶,震惊;adj:恐怖的;}
abstain:abs - tain,[音:əb'steɪn],(away - hold),v:戒绝,弃权,不碰,节制;
 
departure:de - part - ure,(away - part - n.),n:离开,出境;
declivity:de - cliv - ity,[音:dɪ'klɪvətɪ],(down - slope/cliff - n.),n:倾斜面,斜坡,下坡;
deconstruction:de - con - struct - ion,[音:ˌdiːkən'strʌkʃn],(not - altogether - build - n.),n:解构,拆析; {altogether:adv:总共,完全,总的来说;}
dehydrate:de - hydr - ate,[音:diː'haɪdreɪt],(away - water - v.),v:脱水;
depict:de - pict,(down - paint/picture),v:描述,描绘,画;
deprive:de - prive,[音:dɪ'praɪv],(away - private),v:剥夺;
desalination:de - salin - ation,[音:ˌdiːˌsælɪ'neɪʃn],(away - salt - n.),n:海水淡化,除去盐分,脱盐(作用);
 
select:se - lect,(apart - choose),v:挑选;
secession:se - cess - ion,[音:sɪ'seʃn],(apart - go - n.),n:脱离;
secluded:se - clud - ed,[音:sɪ'kluːdɪd],(apart - close - adj.),adj:与世隔绝的,隔绝的,隐退的,僻静的;
segregation:set - greg - ation,(apart - group - n.),n:(种族)隔离;
 
telephone:tele - phone,(far - sound),n:电话;
telecommunications:tele - commun - ications,(far - common - n.),n:电信,电信学; {telecommunication:n:电信,远程通信;}
telecommuting:tele - com - mut - ing,(far - altogether - change - n.),n:电传通信,远程联接,远程办公; {altogether:adv:总共,完全,总的来说;together:adv:共同,一起(常……with搭配);adj:有能力的,镇定的;}
telepathy:tele - path - y,[音:tə'lepəθi],(far - feeling - n.),n:心电感应,心灵感应;
 
contain:con - tain,(together - hold),v:包含;
congregation:con - greg - ation,(together - group - n.),n:人群,(物)群,集合,教堂会众;
conservation:con - serv - ation,(加强语气 - keep - n.),n:保护,保存,节约;
consolidate:con - sol - idate,[音:kən'sɒləˌdeɪt],(together - one - v.),v:巩固,合并;
collaborate:col - labor - ate,[音:kə'læbəreɪt],(together - work - v.),v:勾结,通敌,共同创作;
commensurate:com - mensur - ate,[音:kə'menʃərət],(together - measure - adj.),adj:相称的,成比例的,等量的,相符合的,适合的;
compatriot:com - patr - iot,(together - father/fatherland - n.),n:同胞;
coordination:co - ordin - ation,[音:koʊˌɔːrdɪ'neɪʃn],(together - order - n.),n:协调;
corrosive:cor - ros - ive,[音:kə'roʊsɪv],(加强语气 - bite - adj.),adj:有腐蚀性的;
 
synthesis:syn - the - sis,[音:'sɪnθəsɪs],(together - put - n.),n:综合;
synchronize:syn - chron - ize,(same - time - v.),v:使同步,对时;
synonym:syn - onym,[音:'sɪnənɪm],(same - name),n:近义词,同义词;
photosynthesis:photo - syn - the - sis,[音:ˌfoʊtoʊ'sɪnθəsɪs],(light - together - put - n.),n:光合作用;
symbiosis:sym - bio - sis,[音:ˌsɪmbaɪ'oʊsɪs],(together - life - n.),n:共生,共栖;
symposium:sym - pos - ium,[音:sɪm'poʊziəm],(together - drink - n.),n:讨论会,酒会,论文集,学术研讨会;
asymmetric:a - sym - metr - ic,[音:ˌeɪsɪ'metrɪk],(without - same - measure - adj.),adj:不对称的;
simulate:simul - ate,(same - v.),v:模拟;
simultaneously:simul - tan - eously,[音:ˌsaɪməl'teɪnjəsli],(same - time - adv.),adv:同时地;
 
dialogue:dia- logue,(through - word),n:对话;
diagnosis:dia - gno - sis,(through - know - n.),n:诊断;
diagonal:dia - (a)gno - al,[音:daɪ'æɡənl],(through - angle - adj.[n.]),adj:斜角的,斜纹的;n:对角线;
diagram:dia - gram,(through - write),n:解说图表,说明图;
diameter:dia - meter,[音:daɪ'æmɪtər],(through - measure),n:直径;
diaphanous:dia - phan - ous,[音:daɪ'æfənəs],(through - show - adj.),adj:透明的,模糊的,极薄的;
 
permit:per - mit,(through - send),n:许可证;v:允许;
perennial:per - enni - al,[音:pə'reniəl],(through - year - adj.[n.]),adj:全年的, 多年的,永恒的;n:多年生植物;
perforate:per - for - ate,[音:'pɜːrfəreɪt],(through - bore - v.),v:穿破,刺穿; {bore:v:使厌烦,开凿,钻孔,挖掘,盯着看;n:讨厌的人,麻烦事,(管道、枪炮的)孔;}
pernicious:per - nic - ious,[音:pər'nɪʃəs],(throughly - harm - adj.),adj:极有害的,致命的;
perpendicular:per - pend - icular,[音:ˌpɜːrpən'dɪkjələr],(through - hang - adj.),adj:垂直的,陡峭的;
impervious:im - per - vi(a) - ous,[音:ɪm'pɜːrviəs],(not - through - way - adj.),adj:穿不透的,通不过的,不能渗透的,不为所动的;
 
transform:trans - from,(across - form),v:转变;
transcend:trans - (s)cend,[音:træn'send],(across - climb),v:超越,胜过;
transcript:trans - (s)cript,[音:'trænskrɪpt],(across - write),n:成绩单,誉本,笔录,副本,抄本;
transgression:trans - gress - ion,[音:træns'ɡreʃn],(across - step - n.),n:违反,犯罪,逸出;
transit:trans - it,(across - go),n:运输,交通;
intransigent:in - trans - ig - ent,[音:ɪn'trænzɪdʒənt],(not - across - act - adj),v:不妥协的,顽抗的;
}
 
[1.4] 本小节示例及练习
Your sister was the belle of the ball last night. {ball:n:球,炮弹,误会;<口>胆量,胡说;(复)睾丸;}
The wall was embellished with several paintings. {paiting:n:画,油画,绘画;}
The priest gave his benedictions to the newly-wed couple. {priest:n:教士,神父,牧师,泰斗;newly-wed:adj:新婚夫妇;}
If you should die, the money will go to your son, the beneficiary of your insurance policy. {insurance:n:保险,保险费,安全保证;policy:n:政策,方针,保险单;}
 
I'm not a believer of eugenics, but I do think that healthy parents beget healthy babies. {beget:[音:bɪ'ɡet];v:产生,引起,生(子女);}
At the man's funeral, his best friend in life delivered a long eulogy. {deliver:v:递送,发表(演讲),交付,解救,生(孩子),节省,履行,投掷;}
"Remains" is a euphemism for "corpse". {corpse:n:尸体;}
Euthanasia still illegal in most countries.
 
Quinine is a potent cure for malaria. {quinine:[音:kwɪ'niːn];n:奎宁;potent:[音:'poʊtnt];adj:强有力的,有效的;cure:n:治疗,治愈;}
There are three malevolent witches in Shakespeare's Macbeth. {witch:n:女巫,巫婆;Macbeth:n:《马克白》,莎士比亚的文学作品;}
The plane crash was caused by a malfunctioning engine.
The Mayor says that the story that he's having an affair is a malicious rumor. {affair:[音:ə'fer];n:私通,事件,事务,事情;}
Many poor children in Africa suffer from malnutrition.
 
If you don't go to any parties, people may think you're a social misfit.
It's not fair to take advantage of other people's misfortunes. {advantage:n:优势,有利条件;vt:有利于;take advantage of:利用,占……的便宜;}
Many people mistrust politicians. {politican:[音:ˌpɑːlə'tɪʃn];n:政治家,政客;}
 
If the Queen abdicates, Prince Charles will become King of England.
The recent plane-hijacking that caused the death of over a hundred was an abhorrent crime. {crime:n:犯罪,罪行;}
He abstained from drinking altogether ever since he found out that he had liver disease. {altogether:adv:总共,完全,总的来说;ever since:从那时起,自那时以来;find out:发现,找出来,揭发;}
 
There's a declivity ahead; try the brakes.
In feminism, deconstruction means tearing down the myth of male dominance. {feminism:[音:'femənɪzəm];n:女权主义,争取女权运动;tear down:拆除,拆毁;myth:[音:mɪθ];n:神话,虚构的故事;dominance:[音:'dɒmɪnəns];n:支配,控制,统治,优势;[生物]优势度,显性;}
Dehydrated fruit, a common snack, was first developed as rations for spacemen. {ration:n:定额,定量,配给,口粮;vt:限量供应,配给;}
In The Moon and Sixpence, W. Somerset Maugham depicted Paul Gauguin as an artist consumed by a desire to paint. {The Moon and Sixpence:《月光与六便士》;consume:v:消耗,吃喝,毁灭;consumed:adj:耗尽的,用光的;}
Australian aborigines are used to roaming; put in prison, deprived of the freedom of motion, they sometimes die for no obvious reason. {aborigine:[音:ˌæbə'rɪdʒəni];n:土著居民,澳大利亚土著居民;roaming:n:漫游的;roam:n:闲逛,徜徉;motion:n:移动,动作,打手势,行动;}
Saudi Arabia gets part of its fresh water from desalination plants. {part of:n:部分;plant:n:植物花卉,工厂,设备,设施;v:种植,设立,建立,安插,栽赃;desalination plants:海水淡化工厂;}
 
The Secession in U.S. history means the separation of the Confederate States from the Union. {翻译:美国历史中的脱离一词指的Shiite南方各州脱离联邦独立一事。confederate:[音:kən'fedərət];n:同盟者,同盟国,同伙;Confederate:美国南部联盟;adj:同盟的,联合的;v:(使)结盟,(使)联合;}
The hermit lives a secluded life high in the mountains. {hermit:n:隐士,遁世者;}
South Africa's Parliament revoked the Population Registration Act in June, 1991, thereby removing the last legal pillar of segregation in that nation. {parliament:n:议会,国会,一届会的会期;revoke:vt:撤回,取消,废除;thereby:adv:因此,从而;pillar:[音:'pɪlər];n:柱子,支柱,核心(人物);vt:用柱子支持;the Population Registration Act:人口登记法案;}
 
Telstar was the first-ever telecommunications satellite. {Telstar:n:一种通讯卫星(商标名);first-ever:adj:第一例;satellite:[音:'sætəlaɪt];n:卫星,人造卫星;}
Telecommuting allows one to work at home with a computer linked to the Internet.
It was a case of telepathy when she felt irrationally that her father was in danger, it turned out that he committed suicide that very night. {irrational:[音:ɪ'ræʃənl];n:无理数;adj:不合理的,无理性的;turn out:v:结果是,生产,出现,关闭,翻转,证明是;commit:v:犯罪,承诺,委托,托付;suicide:n:自杀,自杀者;adj:自杀性的;that very night:强调就是那个晚上;}
 
The church always attracts a large congregation on Sundays.
Wild-life conservation is legally mandated but actually ignored in Taiwan. {mandate:[音:'mændeɪt];n:命令,指令,要求,授权;v:把(某一地区)置于委任管理下;legally mandate:强制法令要求;}
The newly elected President consolidated his power by inserting his men into key posts in the government. {post:n:职位;邮件,标竿;}
The man is a traitor because he collaborated with the enemy during the war. {traitor:n:叛徒,卖国贼,出卖朋友者;}
He resigned to find a new job more commensurate with his immense talents. {resign:v:辞职,放弃,顺从,听任;immense:[音:ɪ'mens];adj:巨大的,广大的,<口>非常好的;}
After years of exile,Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn finally returned to Russia to be with his compatriots. {exile:[音:'ekzaɪl];n:放逐,流放,被放逐者;vt:放逐,流放;}
The cerebellum is in charge of the coordination of the muscles. {cerebellum:[音:[ˌserə'beləm];n:<医>小脑;muscle:n:肌肉;v:硬挤,变硬实;}
Acid rain is corrosive and can damage buildings and outdoor sculptures. {acid:[音:'æsɪd];n:酸,酸性物质,<俚>迷幻药;adj:酸的,酸性的,尖酸的;sculpture:[音:'skʌlptʃər];n:雕塑,雕刻;v:雕刻,雕塑,刻蚀,当雕刻师;}
 
Let's synchronize our watches.
"Country" and "nation" are often used as synonyms.
Green plants produce carbohydrates and oxygen through photosynthesis. {carbohydrate:[音:ˌkɑːrboʊ'haɪdreɪt];n:碳水化合物,糖类;}
Some tropical fish have developed a form of symbiosis with sea anemones. {tropical:adj:热带的,炎热的,热带植物的;form:n:形式,表现状态,关系;anemone:[音:ə'neməni];n:银莲花属植物,海葵;}
Dr. David Ho delivered his famous report on AIDS at the Ottawa. {deliever:v:发表;Ottawa:[音:'ɑːtəwə];n:渥太华(加拿大首都);}
Asymmetric designs are often employed in postmodern architecture. {employ:v:雇佣,使用;postmodern:[音:ˌpoʊst'mɑːdərn];adj:后现代注意的;}
Meteorologists use supercomputers to simulate changes in the atmosphere. {meteorologist:[音:ˌmiːtiə'rɑːlədʒɪst];n:气象学家;atmosphere:n:大气,空气,气氛,气压;}
After waiting for an hour at the bus stop, the man saw three buses arrive simultaneously. 
 
The doctor's diagnosis is that the patient is suffering from terminal cancer. {suffer from:遭受,因……而受损害;}
On the flag of the United Kingdom, there is a diagonal cross underneath the big, central cross. {flag:n:旗,旗帜,信号旗;underneath:adv:在下面;n:下部,底部;perp:在……下面;}
The weatherman uses meteorological diagrams to forecast the weather.
The diameter of a circle is twice the length of its radius. {radius:[音:'reɪdiəs];n:半径范围,半径,辐射区;}
The cloth is so fine that it looks diaphanous. {fine:adj:优质的,精致的,细微的;}
 
Winter droughts in southern Taiwan are perennial problems; they occur year after year. {drought:[音:draʊt];n:干旱;}
The arrow is tipped with an iron arrowhead to perforate its target. {tip:n:小费,小建议,轻拍,尖端,顶端,倾斜,翻倒;v:给小费,装顶端,倾斜,翻倒;tipped:adj:镶齿的;arrowhead:n:箭头;}
Lung cancer has proven a pernicious disease despite years of research; so far there is no way to cure it. {lung:n:肺,呼吸器官;prove:v:证明,检验,结果是,发酵;}
Because of the rotation of the earth and the circulation of air currents, raindrops seldom fall in strictly perpendicular lines. {rotation:n:旋转,循环;circulation:n:流通,循环,发行量,消息传播;current:n:趋势,(水、气、电)流;adj:现在的,流通的;}
This plastic raincoat is impervious to water.
 
A smile is a universal language because it transcends national and ethnic barriers. {universal:adj:普遍的,全世界的,宇宙的,全体的,通用的;n:通用原理,普遍原则;ethnic:adj:种族的,民族的,有民族特色的;n:少数民族的一员;barrier:[音:'bæriər];n:栅栏,障碍物,屏障;}
You need an English copy of your academic transcript to apply to an American graduate institute. {academic:adj:学院的,学术的,理论的;n:大学教师,大学生,学者,学究;graduate institute:n:研究所;}
He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities. {bruise:[音:bruːz];n:淤青,擦伤,挫伤;vi:碰伤,擦伤;vt:使挫伤;iniquity:[音:ɪ'nɪkwəti];n:邪恶,不公正,罪行;}
The Mass Rapid Transit System of Taipei has taken many years to build. {The Mass Rapid Transit System of Taibei:n:台北大众捷运系统;}
Peace in the Middle East is a remote prospect because both Israel and the Islamic nations remain intransigent. {remote:adj:遥远的,偏僻的,远程的,(感情等)距离很大的;n:远程操作;prospect:[音:'prɑːspekt];n:希望,前景,景色;v:勘探,寻找;Islamic:[音:[ɪz'lɑːmɪk];adj:伊斯兰教的;}
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[1.5] 表示【数字】的字首:
     demi-        =     half(半)
     hemi-        =     half(半)
     semi-        =     half(半)
 
     mono-       =    one(一)
     mon-        =    one(一,后接元音时)
 
     sol-           =     alone(单一)
     
     uni-           =     one(一)
 
     bi-            =     two(二)
 
     di-            =     two(二)
     dicho-        =     two(二)
 
     du-             =     two(二)
     dou-           =   two(二,du的变形)
 
     tri-             =     three(三)
 
     quadr-        =     four(四)
     quadri-       =     four(四)
     quadru-       =     four(四)
     quart-         =     four(四)
 
 
     pent-         =     five(五)
     
     quinqu-     =      five(五)
     quint-        =      five(五)
 
     deca-         =      ten(十)
     deci-         =      tenth(十分之一)
 
     cent-         =      hundred(百)
     centi-        =     hundred,hundredth(百,百分之一)
 
     kilo-         =     thousand(千)
 
     mill-         =     thousand(千)
     milli-        =     thousandth(千分之一)
{
semiconductor:semi - con - duct - or,(half - 加强语气 - lead - n.),n:半导体;
demigod:demi - god,(half - god),n:半神半人;
hemisphere:hemi - sphere,(half - global),n:半球;
semiannual:semi - annu - al,(half - year - adj.),adj:半年一度的;
semifinal:semi - fin - al,(half - end - adj.[n.]),adj:半决赛的;n:半决赛;
semiprecious:semi - preci - ous,[音:ˌsemɪ'preʃəs],(half - price - adj.),adj:半贵重的,准宝石的;
 
monotonous:mono - ton - ous,[音:mə'nɑːtənəs],(one - tone -adj.),adj:单调的;
monogamy:mono - gam - y,[音:mə'nɑːɡəmi],(one - marriage -n.),n:一夫一妻制;
monolith:mono - lith,[音:'mɑːnəlɪθ],(one - rock),n:巨石,浑然一体之物,庞然大物;
monomania:mono - man - ia,[音:'mɑːnə'meɪniə],(one - mind - n.),n:对一事的狂热,[医]偏执狂;
monopoly:mono - pol - y,[音:mə'nɑːpəli],(one - sell - n.),n:垄断,专卖,独占,专利;
monotheistic:mono - the - istic,[音:ˌmɒnəʊθi'ɪstɪk],(one - god - adj.),adj:一神论的;
monarchy:mon - arch - y,[音:'mɑːnərki],(one - rule - n.),n:君主政体;
 
solo:sol - o,(alone - n.[v.]),n:单人演出;v:单人演出;
sole:sole,(alone),n:单一的,唯一的;
solely:sole - ly,(alone - adv),adv:唯一地;
solitude:sol - itude,[音:'sɑːlətuːd],(alone - n.),n:孤独,独居,荒僻之地,幽静的地方;
 
uniform:uni - form,(one - form),n:制服;adj:统一的;
unilateral:uni - later - al,[音:ˌjuːnɪ'lætrəl],(one - side - adj.),adj:单方的,单边的;
unisex:uni - sex,(one - sex),adj:不分性别的,男女通用的;
unison:uni - son,[音:'juːnɪsn],(one - sound),n:异口同声,(歌唱或演奏)齐声,(做事、说话)一起,一致行动;
unanimous:un(i) - anim - ous,[音:ju'nænɪməs],(one - mind - adj.),adj:全体一致的,心意一致的;
 
bicycle:bi - cycle,(two - circle),n:自行车;
biennial:bi - enni - al,[音:baɪ'enɪəm],(two - year - n.[adj.]),n:两年一次;adj:两年一次的;
bigamy:bi - gam - y,[音:'bɪɡəmi],(two - marriage - n.),n:重婚;
bilingual:bi - lingu - al,[音:ˌbaɪ'lɪŋɡwəl],(two - tongue - adj.[n.]),adj:双语的,n:双语;
bipartisan:bi - parti - san,[音:ˌbaɪ'pɑːrtɪzn],(two - party - adj.),adj:跨党派的,两党的,代表两党的;
biped:bi - ped,[音:'baɪped],(two - foot),n:双足动物,两足动物;
 
dilemma:di - lemma,[音:dɪ'lemə],(two - proposition),n:两难;
dichotomy:dicho - tom - y,[音:daɪ'kɑːtəmi],(two - cut - n.),n:二分,分裂,二分法,经纬分明的分隔;
 
double:dou - ble,(two - fold),a:双重的;
dual:du - al,[音:'duːəl],(two - adj.),adj:双重的;
duet:du - et,[音:du'et],(two - n.),n:二重奏,二重唱;
duplicity:du - plic - ity,[音:duː'plɪsəti],(two - fold - n.),n:两面手法,欺诈;
 
triple:tri - ple,(three - fold),a:三重的;
tricolor:tri - color,[音:traɪˌkʌlə],(three - color),adj:三色的;
trident:tri - dent,[音:'traɪdnt],(three - tooth),n:三叉戟;
trinity:trin - ity,[音:'trɪnəti],(three - n.),n:三位一体;
triplet:tri - ple - t,[音:'trɪplət],(three - fold - n.),n:三胞胎,三连音符;
tripod:tri - pod,[音:'traɪpɑːd],(three - foot),n:鼎,三脚架;
 
quarter:quart - er,(four - n.),n:四分之一;
quadrant:quadr - ant,(four - n.),n:象限,四分之一圆周,(平面、圆、球等的)四分之一;
quadrilateral:quadri - later - al,[音:ˌkwɑːdrɪ'lætərəl],(four - side - n.[adj.]),n:四边形,四边的;
quadruped:quadru - ped,[音:'kwɑːdruped],(four - foot]),n:四足动物;
quartet:quart - et,[音:kwɔːr'tet],(four - small]),n:四重奏;
 
pentangle:pent - angle,[音:'penˌtæŋgl],(five - angle),n:五角星形;
pentagon:pent - agon,[音:'pentəɡɑːn],(five - angle),n:五边形;
pentathlon:pent - athl - on,[音:pen'tæθlən],(five - sports - n.),n:五项全能运动(跑步、骑马、游泳、击剑、射击);
 
quinquennial:quinqu - enni - al,[音:kwɪn'kwenɪəl],(five - year - adj.),adj:每五年的;
quintessential:quint - essent - ial,[音:ˌkwɪntɪ'senʃl],(five - essence - adj.),adj:最精华的,最重要的; {essence:[音:'esns];n:精髓,本质,要素,香精;}
quintet:quint - et,[音:kwɪn'tet],(five - small),n:五重奏;
 
decade:deca - (a)de,(ten - n.),n:十年;
decibel:deci - bel,[音:'desɪbel],(tenth - bel),n:分贝; {bel:n:贝尔(音量单位);}
decimal:deci - mal,(tenth - adj.),adj:十进制的;
decimate:deci - mate,[音:'desɪmeɪt],(tenth - v.),v:摧残,杀戮,摧毁;
decimeter:deci - meter,(tenth - meter),n:公寸;
 
century:cent - ury,(hundred - n.),n:世纪;
centennial:cent - enni - al,[音:sen'teniəl],(hundred - year - adj.[n.]),adj:一百年的;n:一百年;
centimeter:centi - meter,(hundredth - meter),n:公分;
centipede:centi - pede,[音:'sentɪpiːd],(hundred - foot),n:蜈蚣;
 
kilogram:kilo - gram,(thousand - gram),n:千克,公斤;
kilowatt:kilo - watt,(thousand - watt),n:千瓦;
 
million:mill - ion,(thousand - n),n:百万;
millennium:mill - enni - um,[音:mɪ'leniəm],(thousand - year - n.),n:一千年,太平盛世,纪元;
millimeter:mill - meter,(thousandth - meter),n:公里;
}

[1.5] 本小节示例及练习
Kim II-Sung was revered as a demigod during his lifetime. {Kim II-Sung:金日成;rever:[音:'revər];n:翻领;revere:[音:rɪ'vɪr];n:里维尔(美国马萨诸塞州避暑胜地);v:尊敬,敬畏,崇敬;revered:adj:可敬的,尊敬的;lifetime:n:一生,终身,寿命,使用期限;}
Christmas in the Southern hemisphere comes in summer.
The company holds two semiannual conferences a year, one in June and the other in December. {conference:n:会议,讨论会,协商会,会谈;}
Michael Chang made it to the semifinals at the Australian Open but was unable to enter the finals.
Copper is a semiprecious metal. {Copper:[音:'kɑːpər];n:铜,铜币,警察,紫铜色;vt:镀铜;}
 
Monogamy has become the standard family system in most parts of the world.
The U.S. exercised a policy of containment toward world Communism, which was regarded as a monolith. {containment:[音:kən'teɪnmənt];n:控制,遏制政策,容积;Communism:[音:'kɑːmjunɪzəm];n:共产主义;regard:v:尊敬,视为,注释,留意,和……有关;n:关心,尊敬,注意,致意,考虑;regard as:把……看作;}
It is a sign of monomania when one demonstrates interest in one thing only, to the expense of all others. {expense:[音:ɪk'spens];n:费用,花费,代价;}
Taiwan's Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau is about to the privatized. {Taiwan's Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau:n:台湾烟酒公卖局;privatize:[音:'praɪvətaɪz];v:使归私有化,使私人化;}
Islam and Christianity are both monotheistic religions - both recognize only on God. {Christianity:[音:ˌkrɪsti'ænəti];n:基督教,基督教精神;religion:n:宗教,宗教信仰;}
Great Britain has a constitutional monarchy while Saudi Arabia has an absolute monarchy. {Britain:[音:'brɪtn];n:英国,不列颠;constitutional:[音:ˌkɒnstə'tjuːʃənəl];adj:宪法的,合乎宪法的,体质的,组成的;n:散布保健;}
 
The man is the sole survivor of  the plane crash. {survivor:n:幸存者;}
I am solely responsible for what happened.
I enjoy the solitude of the mountain cottage. {cottage:[音:'kɑːtɪdʒ];n:小屋,村舍;}
 
During the Cold War, the former USSR observed a unilateral ban on nuclear tests for some time while the U.S. went on with tests. {former:adj:前者的,前任的,以前的;n:创造者,<英>学校某一年级的学生;USSR:abbr:苏联(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics);observe:v:观察,遵守,注意到,庆祝;ban:v:禁止,剥夺权利;n:禁令,禁止;}
This kind of T-shirt is unisex - it is meant for men as well as for women.
The teacher asked a question and the students answered in unison.
The bill enjoyed unanimous approval in both Houses of the Congress. {approval:n:同意,批准,认可,赞同;Houses of the Congress:国会议院;congress:n:代表大会,议会,立法机关,国会<美>;}
 
The Venice Biennial is an important venue for contemporary art. {The Venice Biennial:威尼斯双年展;venue:[音:'venjuː];n:审判地,集合地,会场,场所,体育场馆,犯罪地点;contemporary:adj:同时代的,当代的;n:同时代的人,同龄人;}
Bigamy is a crime in most non-Islam countries.
TIME Express is a bilingual magazine. {TIME Express:n:《解读时代》;}
Many foreign-policy issues enjoy bipartisan support in Congress. {foreign-policy:n:外交政策;}
A man is anatomically like a duck in one way: both are bipeds. {anatomical:[音:ænə'tɒmɪkl];adj:结构上的,解剖(学)的;}
 
In children's literature, there is a simple dichotomy between good and evil: a character is either wholly good or wholly bad. {literature:[音:'lɪtrətʃər];n:文学,文献,<口>印刷品;evil:adj:邪恶的,有害的;n:邪恶,罪恶,灾祸;wholly:adv:完全,全部,一概;}
 
TIME Express servers the dual purpose of supplying information and aiding language acquisiton. {serve:v:服务,伺候,担任,可作……用,度过,对待;n:发球;purpose:[音:'pɜːrpəs];n:目的,决心,意图,议题;v:打算,决意;aid:[音:eɪd];n:援助,帮助,救援,助手,辅助物;v:辅助,援助,接济;acquisiton:n:获得,所获之物,采集;}
A duet requires two players or singers to perform.
The ticket agent sold the same ticket to five different customers; this is a clear case of duplicity.
 
Many nations have tricolor national flags.
In Roman mythology, Neptune the sea god uses a trident as a weapon. {roman:adj:罗马的,罗马帝国的;n:罗马人,罗马天主教;mythology:[音:mɪ'θɑːlədʒi];n:神话,神话学,神话集;Neptune:n:海王,海神,海王星;}
The Trinity means the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. {翻译:三位一体指的是圣父、圣子、圣灵。}
Triplets occur much less frequently than twins.
 
People who are right-quadrant dominant, or more "artistic", "emotional" and "spiritual", are very often left-handed. {翻译:右半脑发达的人,也就是比较"艺术性"、"情感性"和"精神性"的人,通常都是左撇子。 right-quadrant:n:右象限;dominant:[音:'dɑːmɪnənt];adj:主要的,占优势的,显性的;n:主宰者,显性基因;artistic:[音:ɑːr'tɪstɪk];adj:艺术性的;emotional:adj:感性的,情绪的;spiritual:[音:'spɪrɪtʃuəl];adj:精神的,心灵的,与上帝有关的;n:(尤指美国南部黑人的)圣歌;left-handed:n:左撇子;}
Square, oblongs and trapezoids are all quadrilaterals. {oblong:[音:ɑːblɔːŋ];n:长方形,椭圆形;adj:长方形的,椭圆形的;trapezoid:[音:'træpəzɔɪd]:n:梯形,不等边四边形;}
A majority of mammals are quadrupeds. {mammal:[音:'mæml];n:哺乳动物;}
A string quartet consists of two violins, a viola, and a cello. {string:n:线,弦,一串,字串;vt:串起,收紧,悬挂,系,扎,抽去筋;string quartet:n:弦乐四重奏;consist of:由……组成;viola:[音:vi'oʊlə];n:中提琴;cello:[音'tʃeloʊ];n:大提琴;}
 
The U.S. Department of Defense is housed in a building in the shape of a pentagon. {The U.S. Department of Defense:n:美国国防部;house:v:给……房子住;容纳;存储(某物);}
In the pentathlon, a contestant takes part in the long jump, the javelin throw, the 200-meter dash, the discus throw, and the 1,500-meter run. {contestant:n:竞争者,参赛者;take part in:v:参加;javelin:[音:'dʒævlɪn];n:标枪,标枪比赛;discus:[音:'dɪskəs];n:铁饼;}
 
"Love" is the quintessential Christian virtue. {virtue:[音:'vɜːrtʃuː];n:美德,德行,优点,贞操;}
He was a drummer in quintet. {drummer:n:鼓手,<美口>旅行推销员;}
 
A single crack of gunfire can hit 130 decibels or more, easily exceeding the danger level of 85 decibels. {crack:n:裂缝,猛击,爆裂声,俏皮话;exceed:vt:超越,超出,领先;}
Seconds, minutes, hours and months - none of these are based on the decimal system.
The earthquake of 1989 decimated large stretches of the San Francisco area. {stretch:[音:stretʃ];v:伸展,延伸,张开,夸大;n:伸展,张开,弹性,一段时间,<俚>刑期;}
A decimeter equals 10 centimeters.
 
Many people are looking forward to the centennial anniversary of the country. {look forward to:v:展望,期待(to是介词,后接Ving形式);anniversary:n:周年纪念,周年纪念日;}
Thirty centimeters of snow covered the ground.
A centipede does not really have 100 feet.
 
The nuclear reactor is capable of generating millions of kilowatts of power. {reactor:n;反应者,反应堆;be capable of:v:有能力,能够;}
 
The beginning of a new millennium is an occasion worthy of celebration. {occasion:n:场合,时机,理由,机会,盛大场面;vt:引起,致使;}
A newly hatched silkworm is only a few millimeters long. {hatch:[音:hætʃ];n:孵化,舱口,舱口盖;v:孵,孵,策划;silkworm:n:蚕;}
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posted on 2015-01-21 16:46  RJ  阅读(...)  评论(... 编辑 收藏

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