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【英语魔法俱乐部——读书笔记】 3 高级句型-简化从句&倒装句(Reduced Clauses、Inverted Sentences) 【完结】

【英语魔法俱乐部——读书笔记】 3 高级句型-简化从句&倒装句(Reduced Clauses、Inverted Sentences):(3.1)从属从句简化的通则、(3.2)形容词从句简化、(3.3)名词从句简化、(3.4)副词从句简化、(3.5)简化从句练习、(3.6)倒装句

 

 

3.1 从属从句简化的通则(Generally Reduction Rules of Dependent Clause)
3.1.1 简化从句:英语语法以句子为研究对象,而其句型也分为简单句、复句和合句之分,其中简单句只有5种基本句型变化(sv、svc、svo、svoo、svoc),而复句(名词从句、形容词从句、副词从句)、合句(对等从句)均由2个以上的从句组成,并且这些从句中往往有重复的元素,因而可以有进一步的精简空间,经过精简后的复句、合句的内容更加精炼,又不失清楚,这就是简化从句。如果说简单句是初级句型,那么复句、合句就是中级句型,而简化从句就是高级句型。由于简化从句浓缩若干句子的意思于一句,同时也符合修辞学上清楚与简洁的要求,是讲究修辞的TIME大量使用的句型。
合句的简化方式:删除对等从句间相对应位置(主语与主语、动词与动词等)的重复部分。
复句的简化方式:包含名词从句、形容词从句、副词从句这3种
从句的简化。传统语法将这三种从句的简化称为"非限定从句(Nonfinite Clause)",并将其中的Ving(动名词或现在分词)、Ven(过去分词)、toV(不定式)称为"非限定动词(Nonfinite Verbs)",本文提出"简化从句(Reduced Caluse)"而不主张传统语法的"非限定从句"的概念,因为:a. "非限定从句"的概念,尤其各种非限定的由来,不易让人理解。 b. 非限定从句往往与非限定动词划上等号,而忽略了除toV、Ving、Ven以外的其他的变化。而简化从句这个观念回溯到修辞的根源,以修辞的两个要求,即:清楚(Clear)与简介(concise)作为出发点,讨论完整成句到简化从句(非限定从句)的过程,了解举行变化的道理。
{Nonfinite:[音:'nɒn'faɪnaɪt];adj:非限定的,非定式的;concise:[音:[kən'saɪs];adj:简明的,简要的;}
 
3.1.2 从属从句的简化通则:省略主语与be动词(动词的改变均视为be动词的省略),只保留补语部分。而"省略从属从句的主语后造成主语不清楚"、"补语部分的此类与原从属从句此类不一致"、"连接词是否一并省略"等问题的处理方式不尽相同,需分别讨论,但总体简化通则是一致的。
省略主语的原因:从属从句的主语若是空洞的字眼(比如:one、everybody、people等),或者从属从句主语在主要从句中重复出现时,从修辞的角度出发有违精简的原则,因此省略后会更简洁。
省略be动词的原因:be动词没有意义,省略后不会影响原句的句意。一个句子的主要部分有:主语部分(Subject)和动词引导的部分(Predicate),其中动词是最重要的叙述对象。在5种基本句型中,sv、svo、svoo、svoc都依靠动词来叙述主语的行为,但是svc句型却不然,其动词没有意义(尤其是be动词),反而要考补语来做全部的叙述,be动词只有串联主语和补语的功能(所以称为Linking Verb,连缀动词)。因此,如果svc句型是主要从句,那么be动词不可或缺,但是如果其是依附在主要从句上的是从属从句,并且从属从句的主语与主要从句的主语重复出现,那么从属从句的svc结构需要保留的就只有补语而已,因为重复的主语和无意义的be动词都是多余的,当去掉这两部分后,已经不是完整的从属从句了,也就不再需要连接词,结果,剩下的补语部分的词类若与原来的从属从句没有冲突就可以直接保留下来以取代原先的从属从句,如此便成为简化从句。
没有be动词的从属从句:和上述情况类似,如果从属从句中没有be动词可以省略时,则分为两种情况处理:a. 有助动词时,变为不定式。 b. 无助动词时,变为Ving的形式。助动词变为不定式的原因是:所有的助动词都可以改写为be动词+不定式的形式,虽然改写后表达的意思不如原来的精确,但这是为简洁所作的牺牲,况且也可以用going to、willing to、able to、likely to、in order to、so as to、free to、bound to等等形式来补充,而且依附于主要从句中又可以靠上下文来暗示,所以不会偏离原意。无助动词时,变为Ving的原因是:当没有be动词,也无助动词时,可以这样考虑,即"先加个be动词进去,将原来的动词加上-ing,使之成为进行时态",如此一来就有了be动词,然后就能省略主语和be动词,将Ving之后的部分视为补语而保留下来。
{predicate:[音:'predɪkət];n:[语法]谓语,述语;v:断定,意味,宣城,基于;adj:谓语的;bound to:必然,不得不,必须,束缚于;so as to:为的是,以便;in order to:prep:为了;free to:v:自由,免费;}
 
3.1.3 从属从句的简化是了解复杂句型的关键,也是进入高级巨星的阶梯。其简化通则是:"把主语和be动词(动词的改变)省略,而留下补语",另外后续的名词从句简化、形容词从句简化、副词从句简化会分别介绍这些词类的从属从句简化时的一些细节变化。
 
3.1 本小节示例及练习:
It is common courtesy to wear black while attending a funeral. (从属从句中的主语是空洞的字眼[one、everybody、people等]或者已在主要从句中出现,则有违修辞上的精简原则,需省略主语,以及无意义的be动词。原句是:It is common courtesy that one should wear black while one attends a funeral. (svc),本句的主句是it is common courtesy + 连接词that引导的名词从句that one shoule wear black + 连接词while引导的副词从句while one attends a funeral组成,省略两个从属从句中的one这个空洞字眼,即成本句。) {courtesy:n:礼貌,好意;funeral:adj:葬礼(的);n:葬礼;grave:n:坟墓,死亡;adj:严肃的,严重的,庄重的;v:雕刻,铭记;coffin:n:棺材;}
Whether insured or not, your house, a wooden building, needs a fire alarm. (省略从属从句中空洞、与主要从句重复的主语,以及无意义的be动词。原句是:Whether it is insured or not, your house, which is wooden building, needs a fire alarm. (svo),其由whether引导的副词从句whetehr it is insured or not + 主要从句your house needs a fire alarm + which引导的形容词从句which is a wooden building组成,省略掉重复的代名词主语it、which,成为本句,句意未改变且结构简明成为优雅的句子。)
Birds fly. (sv,依靠动词来叙述主语的行为)
Birds eat worms. (svo,依靠动词来叙述主语的行为)
Birds give us songs. (svoo,依靠动词来叙述主语的行为)
Birds make the morning beautiful. (svoc,依靠动词来叙述主语的行为)
Birds are lovely. (svc,无意义的be动词用来串联主语和补语,所以其称为连缀动词。be动词无意义,且不需要翻译,具体的叙述功能由补语来表达。如果svc结构是主要从句则be动词不可省略,若是从属从句则可以省略be动词以及重复的主语。)
You must go at once. → You are to go at once.
The train will leave in 10 minutes. → The train is to leave in 10 minutes.
He should do as I say. → He is to do as I say.
You may call me "Sir". → You are to call me "Sir".
Children can't watch this movie. → Children are not to watch this movie.
He studied hard so that he could get a scholarship. {so taht:为了;}
He studied hard to get a scholarship. (从属从句中,没有be动词,但有助动词的可以改成不定式的形式,虽然修改后的意思不如原来精确,但这是为精简所作的牺牲,况且可以依附于主要从句的上下文暗示来保证原意不会被改变。)
He studied hard so as to get a scholarship. (上句改为不定式而带来的句意不精确的问题,可以用going to、willing to、able to、likely to、in order to、so as to、free to、bound to来补充。)
He studied hard in order to get a scholarship. (同上)
John remembers that he say the lady before. (s+v+conjunction+o,本句中重复的he可以省略,但是动词say不是be动词,又没有助动词,无法省略,此时可以将动词变为Ving形态,成为:John remembers that he was seeing the lady before,虽然此句中使用进行式并不恰当,但是省略he was之后就可以避免该问题。)
John remembers seeing the lady before. (svo,从属从句中,没有be动词,也没有助动词时,可以"先加个be动词进去,将原来的动词加上-ing,使之成为进行时态",然后就能省略主语和be动词了。原句的that he say the lady before是名词从句,省略后变成seeing the lady before的动名词形式,依然是名词类,同样作宾语,符合词类要求,又保留原句意思,所以是合理的简化从句)
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3.2 名词从句简化(Reduction of Noun Clause)
3.2.1 名词从句的简化与其他词类的从属从句(形容词从句、副词从句)的简化手法相同,都是省略主语、be动词,只留下补语。省略主语的原因是:从属从句中的主语与主要从句中的元素重复或者主语是空洞的内容(如:someone、people等),所以可以将主语省略。省略be动词的原因是:be动词只是无意义的连缀动词,只是来连接主语和补语的。省略连接词的原因:当名词从句中,省略了主语、be动词后,就不在需要连接词了,所以连接词that也可以一并省略,但是若名词从句是由疑问句演变而来,其疑问词(who、what、where等)又充当连接词时,那么就不能再省略连接词,因为连接词是具有意义的字眼。
 
3.2.2 名词从句简化后剩下的2种常见的补语形态:Ving(动名词)、to V(不定式),这两种形态都可以当名词使用,所以可以取代简化前的名词从句,不会有词类上的冲突。但是另一种常见的补语形式:Ven(过去分词)却不能取代名词从句,因为其是形容词,词类上有冲突,所以名词从句中如果是被动态(be+Ven),简化时不能省略be动词而只留下Ven,其需要做词类改造成为:being+Ven的形式。另外,介词短语的介词后不能直接跟名词从句形式的宾语,所以一定要先简化名词从句,然后在能放在介词后做宾语,简化方法同上。
简化后剩下Ving形态的补语:如果名词从句是进行式(be+Ving),则简化后会留下动名词形式的补语部分,其属于名词类,而原来的从句也是名词类,所以词类不冲突,并意思不变,也是成功的简化从句。Ving形态的补语需要注意以下4个方面:a. 注意名词从句无助动词又无be动词的情况:需要把be动词加入原句中,将其改为有be动词的形态(be+Ving),然后也可以用同样的方法简化。b. 省略名词从句的主语而引起的句意改变或不清楚时的处理:若省略主语后会造成意思不清楚,则可以采用"改造为s+v+o+c的句型"(名词从句必须处于宾语位置,且主要从句的动词适用于svoc结构)、"改造为所有格的形式"(名词从句简化为Ving形态,但不能省略主语时,大多可以用所有格来处理)、"改造为介词短语的形式"(只适合s+v+c+noun clause句型,按理说svc后面并没有名词从句存在的空间,但这类型的svc结构往往是主要从句(s+v+c+prep+o[介词短语的宾语]的结构)和形容词从句(which is + noun clause的结构)组成的复句,做了2次简化的结果(第一次:形容词从句简化掉关系词which和be动词,此时的名词从句做先行词[介词短语中的宾语]的同位语;第二次:第一次简化的结果是:名词从句替又代了先行词的位置,即成为s+v+c+noun clause句型,此时进行第二次简化处理:将名词从句简化并通过介词来附加到主要从句上即可),这三种方法处理。c. 被动态的处理:被动态(be+Ven)中,省略主语和be动词后剩下的Ven形式的补语,其是形容词无法取代名词从句,所以需要修改为:being+Ven的形式,并仍以名词的形式保留下来。 d. 名词从句的动词是单纯的be动词时:其后一般接名词或形容词作补语,则简化时需将be改为being的形式。
简化后剩下to V形态的补语:如果名词从句的动词有助动词存在,则其表示一种"不确定"的语气,简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分,其属于"不一定"什么词类(名词、形容词、副词皆可),而原来的从句是名词类,所以词类不冲突,虽然意思不是非常精确但也很接近句意,所以也是成功的简化从句。to V形态的补语需要注意以下2个方面:a. 省略名词从句主语而引起的句意改变或不清楚的处理:名词从句的主语如果和主要从句不重复,且不是空泛的字眼时,不能省略主语,强制省略会造成意思不清楚,所以可以采用"改造为s+v+o+c的句型"(名词从句处于宾语位置,且主要从句结构适用于svoc结构)、"将主语放到介词短语中以宾语形态出现"(最长用的介词是for),这两种方法处理。b. 疑问词引导的名词从句的简化:如果名词从句的是由疑问词引导,那么作为连接词的疑问词是有意的的字眼,应该予以保留,而对于Yest/No question,由于没有疑问词,则需要添加whether来制造名词从句。
 
3.2.3 to V和Ving的区别:不定式与动名词都可以当作名词类使用,但区别是:不定式表示"计划做但还没有做",是发生在将来的"不确定一定会发生"的事情,这和助动词表示的不确定性的意味相同,所以助动词可以简化为不定式;而动名词则表示"已经发生或就是具体的事",是确定的语气。注意:有时主要从句中虽然没有助动词,但是名词从句中可以判断出有不确定语气,或者能看出原来就有助动词时,那么,简化时,自然就会成为不定式的形式。
 
3.2 本小节示例及练习:
Drinking good wine with friends is my greatest enjoyment. (Reduction of Noun Clause,做主语的名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当名词从句中无助动词又无be动词时,需要把be动词加入原句中,将其改为有be动词的形态(be+Ving),然后在通过省略主语、be动词、连接词的方式来简化。原句为:That I drink good wine with friends is my greatest enjoyment. (s[noun clause]+v+c),然后改为be+Ving的形式:That I am drinking good wine with friends is my greatest enjoyment.,省略重复的主语、be动词、连接此后成为本句。)
Many husbands enjoy doing the cooking. (Reduction of Noun Clause,做宾语的名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当名词从句中无助动词又无be动词时,需要把be动词加入原句中,将其改为有be动词的形态(be+Ving),然后在通过省略主语、be动词、连接词的方式来简化。原句为:Many husbands enjoy that they do the cooking. (s+v+o[noun clause]),改为be+Ving的形式后,在省略成为本句。)
He got used to working late into the night. (Reduction of Noun Clause,介词短语的介词后不能直接跟名词从句形式的宾语,所以一定要先简化名词从句,然后在能放在介词后做宾语,简化方法同上。原句是由He got used to something. (s+v+c+prep+o)和He worked late into the night.组合而成,省略方式同样是先改为be+Ving的形式,然后省略成本本句。)
His favorite pastime is going fishing on weekends. (Reduction of Noun Clause,做补语的名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当名词从句中无助动词又无be动词时,需要把be动词加入原句中,将其改为有be动词的形态(be+Ving),然后在通过省略主语、be动词、连接词的方式来简化。原句为:His favorite pastime is that he goes fishing on weekends. (s+v+c[noun clause]),改为be+Ving的形式后,在省略成为本句。)
{pastime:[音:'pæstaɪm];n:消遣,娱乐;}
I imagined a beautiful girl singing to me. (svoc,名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,改成s+v+o+c句型。原句是:I imagined that a beautiful girl was singing to me. (s+v+o[noun clause]),若直接省略主语、和be动词,则成为错误的句子:I imagined singing to myself. (X),所以改造成svoc句型(要求:名词从句做宾语,且主要从句适用于svoc句型),即:把名词从句的主语拿来做主要从句的宾语,把简化的名词从句当作补语,即成本句。)
His calling my girlfriend every day is too much for me. (s[Reduction of Noun Clause]+v+c,名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,改造成所有格的形式。原句是:That he calls my girlfriend every day is too much for me. (s[noun clause]+v+c),若直接省略主语、be动词则成错错误句意的句子:Calling my girlfriend every day is too much for me. (svc,X),所以改造成所有格的形式(大大多数主语不能省略的情况,都可以如此处理),即:保留名词从句的主语并改造成所有格形式,置于名词从句前面,即成本句。)
I am worried about my son's lying all the time. (s+v+c+prep+o[Reduction of Noun Clause],名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,改造成介词短语的形式。简化方法:只适合s+v+c+noun clause句型,按理说svc后面并没有名词从句存在的空间,但这类型的svc结构往往是主要从句(s+v+c+prep+o[介词短语的宾语]的结构)和形容词从句(which is + noun clause的结构)组成的复句,做了2次简化的结果(第一次:形容词从句简化掉关系词which和be动词,此时的名词从句做先行词[介词短语中的宾语]的同位语;第二次:第一次简化的结果是:名词从句替又代了先行词的位置,即成为s+v+c+noun clause句型,此时进行第二次简化处理:将名词从句简化并通过介词来附加到主要从句上即可。本句原是:I am worried that my son lies all the time. (s+v+c+noun clause),svc句型后,原本没有名词存在的空间,所以原句应解释为:I am worried about the fact (which is) that my son lies all the time. (s+v+c+appositive[noun clause]),名词从句实际上是the fact的同位语(形容词从句which is that……的第一次简化后留下的补语,即是:同位语),然后that引导的名词从句又代替了先行词的位置。接着,进行第二次针对名词从句的简化(省略be动词、连接词,由于主语不同而采用所有格的主语形式)之后,即成为本句。) 
{appositive:adj:同位的,同格的;n:同位语;}
I am worried about my son lying all the time. (s+v+c+prep+o+c,名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,改造成s+v+o+c的形式也可以。但是上句的语意更合适,因为:原句关心的是"说谎这件事",而本句更倾向于关心的是"人",而事情则将为修饰语成分,所以语意稍有出入。)
Being called a liar is the greatest insult. (s[Reduction of Noun Clause]+v+c,名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,在被动态(be+Ven)中,省略主语和be动词后剩下的Ven形式的补语,其是形容词无法取代名词从句,所以需要修改为:being+Ven的形式,并仍以名词的形式保留下来。原句是:That anyone is called a liar is the greatest insult. (s[noun clause]+v+c),如果直接省略主语和be动词成为错误的句子:Called a liar is the greatest insult. (svc,X),所以应保留be动词并改为be+Ving的形式,即成本句。)
{insult:n:侮辱,辱骂,冒犯;vt:侮辱,辱骂,凌辱;}
I am looking forward to being invited to the party. (Reduction of Noun Clause,名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,在被动态(be+Ven)中,省略主语和be动词后剩下的Ven形式的补语,其是形容词无法取代名词从句,所以需要修改为:being+Ven的形式,并仍以名词的形式保留下来。原句是由:I am looking forward to something.和I am invited to the party.两句组成,若直接省略主语和be动词,则会成为错误句子(介词短语必须是名词类),I am looking forward to invited to the party. (adjective,X),所以改为be+Ving的形式再简化成本本句。)
I am looking forward to the invitation to the party. (noun,上句的简化过程中,如果将形容词补语改为名词类,就可以放在介词短语的宾语位置,即:将invited改为invitation,即成本句。)
{invitation:[音:[ˌɪnvɪ'teɪʃn];n:邀请,邀请函,招待,招致,引诱;}
Being a teacher requires a lot of patience. (Reduction of Noun Clause,名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当名词从句的动词是单纯的be动词,且其后一般接名词或形容词作补语时,则简化时需将be改为being的形式。原句为:That one is a teacher requires a lot of patience. (s[noun clause]+v+o),简化成为本句。若直接省略主语和be动词后:A teacher requires a lot of patience.,意思就有些不同了。)
{patience:n:耐心,忍耐,毅力;patient:n:病人;adj:有耐心的,能忍耐的;}
Being busy is no excuse for the negligence. (Reduction of Noun Clause,名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当名词从句的动词是单纯的be动词,且其后一般接名词或形容词作补语时,则简化时需将be改为being的形式。原句为:That he was busy is no excuse for the negligence. (s[noun clause]+v+c),若直接省略主语和be动词,则形容词busy无法挡主语,所以仍然需要改为be+Ving的形势后再次省略,即成本句)
{negligence:[音:'neɡlɪdʒəns];n:疏忽,不修边幅,渎职;}
The children expect to get presents for Christmas. (o[Reduction of Noun Clause],简化后剩下to V形态的补语:如果名词从句的动词有助动词存在,则其表示一种"不确定"的语气,简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分,其属于"不一定"什么词类(名词、形容词、副词皆可),而原来的从句是名词类,所以词类不冲突,虽然意思不是非常精确但也很接近句意,所以也是成功的简化从句。原句为:The children expect that they can get presents for Christmas. (s+v+o[noun clause]),将助动词改写为be to的形式,即:The children expect that they are to get presents for Christmas. (noun clause),然后在省略名词从句中的主语和be动词,即成为本句)
I think it strange to fear ghosts. (Reduction of Noun Clause,简化后剩下to V形态的补语:如果名词从句的动词有助动词存在,则其表示一种"不确定"的语气,简化后会留下不定式形式的补语。原句为:I think it strange that man should fear ghosts. (s+v+o+c+noun clause),其中的名词从句不能直接放入宾语位置,因为后面还有个补语,强行放入补语会造成断句困难,所以用虚词it代替宾语,将名词从句挪到最后,省略后即成本句)
I want you to go. (svoc,简化后剩下to V形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,改成s+v+o+c句型。原句是:I want that you should go. (s+v+o[名词从句]),将助动词改为be to的形式:I want that you are to go. (svo),简化后成为本句。)
For the Clippers to beat the Lakers was quite a marvelous feat. (Reduction of Noun Clause,简化后剩下to V形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,将主语放到介词短语中以宾语形态出现(最长用的介词是for)。原句是:That the Clippers should beat the Lakers was quite a marvelous feat. (s[noun clause]+v+c),将名词从句的主语改成介词短语的形式后,省略后即成本句。)
{clipper:n:修剪工,大剪刀,理发剪,(19世纪的)快速帆船,移动很快的人或物;Clippers:快船队;Lakers:湖人队;}
I don't know what to do. (s+v+o[Reduction of Noun Clause],简化后剩下to V形态的补语,由疑问词引导的名词从句,作为连接词的疑问词是有意的的字眼,应该予以保留,除此之外,简化手法不便。原句是:I don't know what I should do. (s+v+o[noun clause]),其是由:What should I do?和I don't know the question. (svo)两句组成,保留连接词并简化后成为本句。)
I can't decide whether to vote for Mary. (Reduction of Noun Clause,简化后剩下to V形态的补语,由疑问词引导的名词从句中,对于Yest/No question,由于没有疑问词,则需要添加whether来制造名词从句。原句是:I can't decide whether I should vote for Mary (or not). (s+v+o[noun clause]),其是由:Should I vote for Mary?和I can't decide the question.组成,whether是由which+either……nor组成,保留连接词并简化后成为本句)
He forgot to see his dentist that day. (Reduction of Noun Clause,to V和Ving的区别:不定式表示"计划做但还没做",是发生在将来的"不确定一定会发生"的事情。原句是:He forgot that he should see his dentist that day. (s+v+o[noun clause]),省略后即成本句。)
He forgot seeing the man before. (Reduction of Noun Clause,to V和Ving的区别:表示"已经发生或就是具体的事",是确定的语气。原句是:He forgot that he saw the man before. (s+v+o[noun clause]),简化后即成此句)
I love driving on the freeway. (s+v+o[Reduction of Noun Clause],to V和Ving的区别:表示"已经发生或就是具体的事",是确定的语气。原句可还原为:I love that I drive on the freeway.或I love that I am driving on the freeway.均可,简化后即成此句。) 
{freeway:高速公路,也做highway;}
I would love to drive to work in my own car. (s+v+o[Reduction of Noun Clause],to V和Ving的区别:不定式表示"计划做但还没做",是发生在将来的"不确定一定会发生"的事情。本句有强烈的"希望能够"的暗示,但目前不行,这种不确定的语气符合不定式的语气,其可还原成:I would love that I can drive to work in my own car. (s+v+o[noun clause]),简化后即成本句。)
I avoid being late to any appointment. (s+v+o[Reduction of Noun Clause],主要从句中虽然没有助动词,但是名词从句中可以判断出有不确定语气,或者能看出原来就有助动词时,那么,简化时,自然就会成为不定式的形式。原句为:I avoid that I am late to any appointment. (s+v+o[noun clause]),本句中,把"迟到"看做"一件事",并没有"将要迟到或能够迟到"的语气,简化后即成本句。)
I hope to get to the concert on time. (s+v+o[Reduction of Noun Clause],主要从句中虽然没有助动词,但是名词从句中可以判断出有不确定语气,或者能看出原来就有助动词时,那么,简化时,自然就会成为不定式的形式。原句为:I hope that I can get to the concert on time. (s+v+o[noun clause]),本句中"赶不赶的上"并不确定,但是由浓厚的"希望能够"的语气,因此设计到助动词can,简化后成为本句。)


That he sends flowers to his girlfriend every day is the only way he can think of to gain her favor.
简化为:Sending flowers to his girlfriend every day is the only way he can think of to gain her favor. {gain:[音:ɡeɪn];n:获得,收益,增益;v:获得,到达,增加,获利,(钟、表等)走得快;}
■That the legislator was involved in the fraud is rather obvious. (名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,改造成所有格的形式。)
简化为:The legislator's being involved in the fraud is rather obvious.  或  The legislator's involvement in the fraud is rather obvious. {legislator:[音:'ledʒɪsleɪtər];n:立法者;involve:vt:包含,使忙于,牵涉,使卷入,使陷入;fraud:n:欺骗,诈骗,骗子;obvious:[音:'ɑːbviəs];adj:明显的,显然的;}
The student denied that he had cheated in the exam.
简化为:The student denied having cheated in the exam. {cheat:vt:欺骗,骗取;vi:作弊,行骗;n:骗子,欺骗;}
■The researcher is certain that he has found a solution. (名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,改造成介词短语的形式。)
简化为:The researcher is certain  about having found a solution. {researcher:n:研究人员;}
■The residents were not aware that they were being exposed to radiation. (名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,改造成所有格的形式。)
简化为:The residents were not aware of being exposed to radiation.  或  The residents were not aware of their exposure to radiation.  {resident:n:居民,住客,住院医生;adj:居住的;aware:ajd:知道的,意识到的;expose:vt:揭露,事曝光,使面临,事暴露;radiation:n:辐射,放射线;exposure:n:暴露,揭露,胶片,曝光时间,(在电视、报纸等媒体上的)亮相;}
■I consider that this is a most unfortunate incident. (名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,改成s+v+o+c句型。)
简化为:I consider this a most unfortunate incident. {incident:n:事变,事件,插曲;adj:难免的,附带的;}
That John comes to school late every day cannot g on much longer.
简化为:John's coming to school late every day cannot g on much longer.
■That he was named the new CEO came as a surprise to everybody. (名词从句简化后剩下Ving形态的补语,当主语不能省略时,改造成所有格的形式。)
简化为:His being named the new CEO came as a surprise to everybody.
I would like that you can look after the kids for me this evening.
简化为:I would like you to look after the kids for me this evening.
It is a privilege that one can live in these monumental times.
简化为:It is a privilege to live in these monumental times.
{privilege:n:特权,荣幸,特别恩典,基本人权;vt:给特权,免除;monumental:[音:ˌmɑːnju'mentl];adj:纪念碑的,作为纪念的,不朽的;}
 
Don't worry; I'll show you B.
[A] that you should do     [B] what to do     [C] what to do it     [D] that to do
注释:空格部分还原为名词从句what you should do,简化为B。
■Ministers are used to C with respect.
[A] treated     [B] treating     [C] being treated     [D] treat
注释:空格部分还原为They are treated with respect,简化为C以维持被动态,并以动名词形状至于介词后。 {minister:n:外交使节,部长,大臣,牧师;v:照顾,给予帮助;}
■B is one thing I cannot stand.
[A] Being lied     [B] Being lied to     [C] To being lied     [D] To be lied
注释:lie(说谎)是不及物动词,"别人对我说谎"应表示为:people lie to me,改为被动态:I am lied to (by people),然后简化为动名词就是B。
■The boy is worried B.
[A] that will fail in the exam     [B] about failing in the exam     [C] failing in the exam     [D] about being failed in the exam
注释:空格部分还原为:about the possibility that he will fail in the exam,简化为B。
You mustn't forget A before you leave for London.
[A] to give me a call     [B] giving me a call     [C] give me a call     [D] given me a call
注释:原名词从句还原为:that you must give me a call. 简化为A。
They intend A this coming Christmas.
[A] to get married     [B] getting married     [C] get married     [D] got married
注释:原名词从句还原为:that they will get married,简化为A。 {intend:vt:想要,打算;}
■To say you don't remember is B you didn't pay any attention at the time.
[A] saying     [B] to say     [C] say     [D] said
注释:选择不定词to say以求和前面的to say对称,两个to say都可以看做是名词从句that you should say的简化,故选B。
The decision to emigrate does not necessarily mean A in the country.
[A] cutting off all ties     [B] that cuts off all ties     [C] that ties cut off     [D] cut off all ties
注释:原名词从句还原为:that one cuts off all ties……,简化为A。  {emigrate:[音:'emɪɡreɪt];n:移民,移居;cut off:vt:切断,使隔绝,剪下;vi:停止运转;}
■You can count on A the election even before all the results are in.
[A] winning     [B] to win     [C] won     [D] that you will win
注释:原名词从句还原为D,可是阶段短语后不能跟名词从句,所以简化为A,并放在介词短语后。因为介词后面不能跟不定式,所以助动词will可以省略掉。
I never expected C in this mess.
[A] involving     [B] involved     [C] to be involved     [D] involve
注释:原名词从句还原为that I would be involved……,简化为C。 {mess:n:混乱,混杂,脏乱,一份食品,粪便,(军队的)食堂;v:弄糟,弄乱,妨碍;}
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3.3 形容词从句简化(Reduction of Adjective Clause)
3.3.1 形容词从句又称为关系从句,主要从句和从属从句之间一定有重复的元素以建立关系。既然有重复,就可以省略:如果重复的元素(关系词)是关系从句的宾语,则一般性的省略通常是只省略关系词本身,这种一般性的省略后,关系从句中仍有主语、动词,严格来讲这种省略不算是正真的简化从句;而如果重复的元素(关系词)是关系从句的主语,那么简化时,省略主语也就势必要省略be动词,这才是典型的形容词简化从句。
 
3.3.2 根据形容词从句简化后所留下的补语的性质,可以有以下5种分类:补语为Ven、补语为Ving、补语为to V、补语为一般形容词、补语为名词。
补语为Ven:如果关系从句是被动态(be+Ven),则简化后会留下过去分词形式的补语部分,其属于形容词类,而原来的从句也是形容词类,所以词类不冲突,并且意思不变,这就是成功的简化从句。对于具有"补充说明作用"的括弧性质的逗号来括起来的形容词从句也适用于上述简化方式。
补语为Ving:如果关系从句是进行式(be+Ving),则简化后会留下现在分词形式的补语部分,其属于形容词类,而原来的从句也是形容词类,所以词类不冲突,并意思不变,也是成功的简化从句。注意关系从句无助动词又无be动词的情况:需要把be动词加入原句中,将其改为有be动词的形态(be+Ving),然后也可以用同样的方法简化,并留下现在分词形式的补语部分。
补语为to V:如果关系从句的动词有助动词存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分,其属于"不一定"什么词类(名词、形容词、副词皆可),而原来的从句是形容词类,所以词类不冲突,虽然意思不是非常精确但也很接近句意,所以也是成功的简化从句。不定词补语to V需要注意以下4个方面:a. 不定词的主动、被动的判断:不定词是主动态还是被动态,需要根据上下文还原成关系从句来判断,不可一概而论。b. 不定词有无宾语的判断:不定词中如果是及物动词(vt),其后是否有宾语则需要还原成关系从句来判断,之所以不定词后会没有宾语,是因为宾语就是关系词,省略后而不见宾语。c. 不定词后有无介词的判断:之所以不定式后面会有介词,是因为介词后面的宾语就是关系词,省略以后就只剩介词而不见宾语。d. 不定词主语不清楚时的处理:若省略主语后会造成意思不清楚,则可以将主语放到介词短语中以宾语形态出现,最常用的介词是for。
补语为一般形容词:如果关系从句的动词为be动词,并且其后面是单纯的形容词类的补语,则可以直接省略主语(关系词)和be动词,只留下形容词补语部分。所以,形容词只有两种位置:名词短语中、补语位置,如果初看一下两个位置都不是,那么多半是简化形容词从句的残留补语。
补语为名词:虽然关系从句是形容词类,但如果简化主语和be动词后,剩下的是名词补语,则虽然词类与原来的关系从句冲突,但仍然可以使用,这在传统语法中称为"同位语",以避开词类冲突的问题。
 
3.3 本小节示例及练习:
The man you asked about is here. (relative clause,重复元素(关系词)是关系从句的宾语时,通常只省略关系词。原句是:The man whom you asked about is here. (relative clause),其由The man is here. (svc)和You asked about him. (sv+prep+o)两句组成。)
Beer chilled to 6 ℃ is most delicious. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,重复元素(关系词)是关系从句的主语时,且关系从句是被动态,简化后只留下过去分词的补语部分。原句是:Beer which is chilled to 6 ℃ is most delicious. (relative clause),其由Beer is most delicious. (s)和It is chilled to 6 ℃. (s)两句组成)
{chill:v:使变冷,使扫兴,[]冷淬;n:寒冷,扫兴,寒心,着凉;adj:冷淡的,寒冷的;}
You brother John, wounded in war, will soon be sent home. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,重复元素(关系词)是关系从句的主语时,且关系从句是被动态,简化后只留下过去分词的补语部分,具有"补充说明作用"的括弧性质的逗号括起来的形容词从句也是适用的。原句是:Your brother John, who as wounded in war, will soon be sent home. (antecedent+relative clause),本句中的先行词your brother John是专有名词,后面的内容为补充说明性质,简化方式不变。)
The ship coming to shore is from Gaoxiong. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,重复元素(关系词)是关系从句的主语时,且关系从句是进行式,简化后只留下现在分词形式的补语部分。原句是:The ship which is coming to shore is from Gaoxiong. (antecedent+relative clause)。)
{shore:n:岸,滨;}
My old car, breaking down every other week, won't last much longer. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,重复元素(关系词)是关系从句的主语时,但是关系从句中既没有助动词也没有be动词,因此需要加入be动词而改为Ving形式,然后再简化,只留下现在分词形式的补语部分。原句是:My old car, which breaks down every other week, won't last much longer. (antecedent+relative clause))
{break down:分解,发生故障,失败,毁掉,将……分类,衰弱,体力不支,制服,镇压;every other week:每隔一个星期;}
John is the one to go this time. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,如果关系从句的动词有助动词存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分,其属于"不一定"什么词类(名词、形容词、副词皆可),而原来的从句是形容词类,所以词类不冲突。本句可还原为:John is the one who should go this time. (antecedent+relative clause))
John is not a man to trust. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,如果关系从句的动词有助动词存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分。不定词是主动态还是被动态,需要还原成关系从句来判断。本句可还原为:John is not a man (whom) one can trust. (antecedent+relative clause),其由John is not a man. (o)和One can trust the man. (svo)组成)
John is not a man to be trust. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,如果关系从句的动词有助动词存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分。不定词是主动态还是被动态,需要还原成关系从句来判断。本句可还原为:John is not a man who can be trusted. (antecedent+relative clause),其由John is not a man. (o)和The man can be trusted. (sv)组成)
This is exactly the thing to do. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,如果关系从句的动词有助动词存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分。不定词中如果是及物动词(vt),其后是否有宾语则需要还原成关系从句来判断。本句可还原为:The is exactly the thing which we should do. (antecedent+relative clause),其由This is exactly the thing. (o)和We should do the thing. (svo)两句组成,之所以本句中没有宾语的原因:关系词which就是宾语,在简化过程中被省略掉了。)
This is exactly the time to do it. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,如果关系从句的动词有助动词存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分。不定词中如果是及物动词(vt),其后是否有宾语则需要还原成关系从句来判断。本句可还原为:This is exactly the time (when) we should do it. (Reduced Clause of Adjective),其由This is exactly the time. (o)和We should do it at this time. (svo+ adverbial of time)两句组成,其中关系副词when可以径行省略。)
He will be the toughest guy to deal with. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,如果关系从句的动词有助动词存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分。之所以不定式后面会有介词,是因为介词后面的宾语就是关系词,省略以后就只剩介词而不见宾语。本句可还原为:He will be the toughest guy (whom) you must deal with. (Reduced Clause of Adjective),其是由He will be the toughest guy.和You must deal with the guy. (sv+prep+o)两句组成。)
{tough:adj:强硬的,棘手的,艰苦的,严厉的,牢固的,强壮的,坚韧的;adv:以强硬的态度,强硬地,顽强地;n:暴徒,恶棍;}
I have a job for your brother to do. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,如果关系从句的动词有助动词存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分。若省略主语后会造成意思不清楚,则可以将主语放到介词短语中以宾语形态出现,最常用的介词是for。本句可还原为:I have a job (that) your brother can do. (Reduced Clause of Adjective),因为具有明确的指示作用,所以关系词用that,并且句中的主语your brother不宜省略,省略后动作的主语就发生了变化,所以用介词短语for来解决省略后主语不清楚的问题。)
Hilary Clinton, pretty and intelligent, is a popular First Lady. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,如果关系从句的动词为be动词,并且其后面是单纯的形容词类的补语,则可以直接省略主语(关系词)和be动词,只留下形容词补语部分。所以,形容词即不是名词短语位置又不是补语位置,则多半是简化形容词从句的残留补语。本句可还原为:Hilary Clinton, who is pretty and intelligent, is a popular First Lady. (antecedent+relative clause))
{Hilarly Clinton:[音:i];希拉里·克林顿;intelligent:adj:聪明的,只能的;}
Bill Clinton, President of the U.S., is a Baby Boomer. (Reduced Clause of Adjective,虽然关系从句是形容词类,但如果简化主语和be动词后,剩下的是名词补语,但仍然可以使用,在传统语法中称为"同位语"。本句可还原为:Bill Clinton, who is President of the U.S., is a Baby Boomer. (Reduced Clause of Adjective) )
{Baby Boomer:生育高峰期出生的孩子;}
 
 
Medieval suits of armor, which were developed for protection during battle, are now placed in castles for decoration.
简化:Medieval suits of armor, developed for protection during battle, are now placed in castles for decoration.
{medieval:[音:ˌmedi'iːvl];adj:中世纪的;suit:n:套装,诉讼,请求;v:适合,方便,满足;armor:n:盔甲,装甲;develop:发展,发育,开发,冲洗(照片);decoration:n:装饰,装饰品;}
The change of style in these paintings should be obvious to anyone that is familiar with the artist's works.
简化:The change of style in these paintings should be obvious to anyone familiar with the artist's works.
{obvious:adj:明显的,显然的;}
Islands are actually tips of underwater mountain peaks that rise above water.
简化:Islands are actually tips of underwater mountain peaks rising above water.
{actually:adv:实际上,事实上,竟然(表示惊讶);tip:n:小费,小建议,轻拍,尖端,顶端,倾斜,翻倒;v:给小费,装顶端,倾斜,翻倒;peak:n:尖端,山顶,顶峰;v:达到顶峰,使处于顶点,vi:消瘦;}
John Milton, who was author of Paradise Lost, was a key member of Oliver Cromwell's cabinet.
简化:John Milton, author of Paradise Lost, was a key member of Oliver Cromwell's cabinet.
{Paradise Lost:n:《失乐园》;Oliver Cromwell:n:克伦威尔[];cabinet:[音:'kæbɪnət];n:橱柜,内阁;adj:内阁的,秘密的;}
The secretary thought that it might not be the best time that she should ask her boss for a raise.
简化:The secretary thought that it might not be the best time to ask her boss for a raise.
{secretary:n:部长,秘书,书记,大臣,写字台;raise:n:上升,增高,高地;vt:升起,举起,饲养,提出,引起,筹集,募集;}
Gold is one of the heaviest metals that are known to man.
简化:Gold is one of the heaviest metals known to man.
Here are some books that your brother can use.
简化:Here are some books for your brother to use.
Sexual harassment, which is a hotly debated issue in the work place, will be the topic of the intercollegiate debate next week.
简化:Sexual harassment, a hotly debated issue in the work place, will be the topic of the intercollegiate debate next week.
{sexual:adj:性的,性欲的,有性生殖的,性别的;harassment:n:骚扰,困扰;hotly:adv:发怒地,激烈地,坚定地;debate:n:辩论,讨论;vt:争论,思考;vi:辩论;issue:n:议题,问题,期刊号,一次发行额,发型,[]子女;v:发表,公布,正式发给,发行,流出;intercollegiate:[音:ˌɪntərkə'liːdʒiət];adj:大学间的,大学间联合的,大学间对抗的;}
There's nothing left that I can say now.
简化:There's nothing left to say now.
People that live along the waterfront must be evacuated before the storm hits.
简化:People living along the waterfront must be evacuated before the storm hits.
{waterfront:n:水边地,滨水区;evacuate:v:疏散,撤出,排泄;}
 
C often found in the fruit and vegetables.
[A] Vitamin C, a trace element that is     [B] For vitamin C, a trace element to be     [C] Vitamin C, a trace element, is     [D] Vitamin C, is that trace element
注释:选C,原句是Vitamin C, which is a trace element is often found in fruit and vegetables的简化,省略主语和be动词成为结果。
The most important fossil A in East Africa was that of an ancient female, dubbed Lucy.
[A] excavated     [B] was excavated     [C] to excavate    [D] excavating
注释:空格部分还原为关系从句:that was excavated in East Africa,简化后为A。 {fossil:[音:'fɑːsl];n:化石,食古不化的人,守旧的事物;ancient:adj:古老的,古代的;n:古人;dub:v:配音,轻点,起绰号,授予称号,打击;dubbed:adj:命名的,配音的,译制的;excavate:[音:'ekskəveɪt];v:挖掘,挖开,发掘(古物);}
■Steve Jobs vision of the personal computer greatly expanded the number of people C the computer for business and for pleasure.
[A] actively used     [B] were using actively     [C] actively using     [D] who actively using
注释:空格部分还原为关系从句:who were actively using the computer……,简化为C。 {vision:n:视力,视觉,幻觉,眼光,洞察力,想象力;v:幻想,设想;expand:v:使……膨胀,详述,扩张,增加,张开;actively:adv:积极地,活跃地,勤奋地;pleasure:n:愉快,高兴,快事,(用于回答对方的感谢)荣幸;vt:使高兴,vi:高兴,想收快乐;}
The Amazon rain forests, A the earth's lungs, convert carbon dioxide in the atmosphere back into oxygen.
[A] functioning as     [B] which functioning as     [C] functions as     [D] functioned as
注释:空格部分还原为关系从句:which functions as the earth's lungs,简化为A。 {lungs:[音:'lʌŋz];n:肺;carbon:n:碳,复写纸,复本,碳精棒;dioxide:n:二氧化物;oxygen:n:氧气;}
Through a process D coalescence, water droplets in clouds grow to a size large enough to fall to earth.
[A] calls     [B] to be called     [C] calling     [D] called
注释:空格部分还原为关系从句:that is called coalescence,简化为D。{coalescence:[音:ˌkəʊə'lesns];n:接合,结合,合并;droplet:小滴,微滴;}
■If you are looking for investment advice, I know just the place B.
[A] going     [B] to go     [C] you to go     [D] for you going
注释:空格部分还原为关系从句:where you can go,简化为B。 {investment:n:投资,投资额,投入;}
Penicillin, D in the early 20th century, brought in the golden age of chemotherapy.
[A] to be discovered     [B] discovering     [C] discovery was     [D] discovered
注释:空格部分还原为关系从句:which was discovered in the early 20th century,简化为D。 {penicillin:青霉素;chemotherapy:[音:ˌkiːmoʊ'θerəpi];化学疗法;bring in:介绍,带进,引入,赚取,判决;}
■Those are not words A.
[A] to be taken seriously     [B] to take them seriously     [C] taking seriously     [D] are taken seriously
注释:空格部分还原为关系从句:that should be taken seriously,简化为A。{seriously:adv:严肃地,认真地,严重地;}
The mouse, like the keyboard, is a control device A to a computer.
[A] connected     [B] to connect it     [C] and connect     [D] that connect
注释:空格部分还原为关系从句:that is connected to a computer,简化为A。
An amendment to the Constitution C in Harry Truman's tenure limits the US presidency to two terms.
[A] passing     [B] to pass     [C] passed     [D] was passed
注释:空格部分还原为关系从句:that was passed in Harry Truman's tenure,简化为C。 {amendment:n:修正,修正案,改进;constitution:n:宪法,组织,体质; tenure:[音:'tenjər];n:终身职位,任期,保有;presidency:n:总统(总裁、主席等)的职位或任期;}
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3.4 副词从句简化(Reduction of Adverbial Clause)
3.4.1 简化从句的通则:所有从句的简化原则都是:省略从属从句中的主语、be动词,只留下补语。省略主语为的是避免重复,但省略后若会造成句意模糊的,则主语要另行处理;省略be动词是因为其本身无意义。传统语法将副词从句的简化称为"分词构句"、"独立短语"等,这些特定的名词无非是对无法解释的语法情况的"特殊标注",不但不够周延也不够深入。
 
3.4.2 从简化从句的角度出发,副词从句的简化可以分为:简化为Ving补语、简化为Ven补语、简化为to V补语、简化为介词短语4种情况。
补语为Ving:如果副词从句是进行式(be+Ving)的形式,那么省略主语、be动词后,即简化为现在分词形式的补语。若副词从句中,即没有可省略的be动词,也没有可改写的助动词,则需要先改写为进行式(be+Ving),然后再简化。副词从句简化为Ving补语时需要注意以下11个问题:a. 连接词是否保留:副词从句的连接词除了语法功能之外,还有词义的功能,所以其保留与否取决于修辞上的否清楚性,在句子足够清楚的情况下,副词从句的连接词可以省略。一般说来表示"当……之时"的连接词(while、when等)、表示"因为"的连接词(because、as、since等),省略后并不妨碍句子的清楚性,所以通常可以省略,但还是要看具体的句子来判断。 b. 所谓的"分词构句"只不过是副词从句的简化:其连接词是否省略看如何表达,若注重句子的清楚性就保留,若注重句子的简洁性就省略。 c. 副词从句中没有be动词、助动词(can、must、may)时,需要先改写为(be+Ving)的形式,然后再省略(有时改写为be+Ving形式,只是为了做词类变化,而不一定是进行式)。 d. 可以省略的连接词:当表示"原因"的连接词(because、as、since等)和表示"当……之时"的连接词(while、when等),由于这种简化句型本身就有强烈的因果关系的暗示,所以通常可以省略连接词,加上连接词反而显得累赘。 e. 应该保留的连接词:当省略后会造成句意不清(当读者看不到连接词,往往会联想到because或者when),则应该保留(如:although(表示一种"相反"的逻辑关系)、as if(表示一种"条件"的逻辑关系),虽然语法上可以省略,但为了表达其内在逻辑关系而需要保留,如果一定要省略,用别的方式来表示这种逻辑关系也未尝不可,如:用still来替代although表示的逻辑关系)。f. 副词从句中的动词是单纯的be动词时(主从句的主语相同):其简化后一般只剩下单纯的名词或形容词补语,则简化时,要么改为连接词+补语的形式,要么省略连接词并将be改为being的形式,否则就省略的过头了。 g. 兼作介词的连接词(before、after、since):身兼连接词与介词的双重词类,简化时,如果直接省略连接词,虽然语法上正确,但是句意上缺失了逻辑关系,但是保留连接词则需要注意到其会被视为介词,其后只能跟名词类,所以要么将before后面的内容改为名词类,要么借用无意义的be动词改为being形式来做词类变化。 h. 时态问题与与逻辑顺序问题:副词从句的连接词有时用来区分主要从句和从属从句的先后顺序(如:after),简化时省略主语、be动词后,要么保留连接词以维持原句的先后逻辑顺序关系,要么省略连接词,将顺序靠前的句子改成现在完成式(Having+Ven)的形式,来表达先后顺序(Having+Ven在前,Ved在后,其中had是时态助动词,而不是表示条件的不确定性的助动词,所以简化为Having+Ven)。 i. 悬荡修饰语(Dangling Modifier):主要从句与从属从句的主语相同时才能省略(如前面所述的7条规则,本条规则开始讲述主从句主语不同的情况),否则会产生语法、修辞的错误,即:Dangling Modifiers,其简化方法,要么是改变主要从句的结构,让主要从句和从属从句的主语形同,要么在副词从句中保留不同的主语。j. 所谓的"独立主语"也是副词从句的简化:副词从句简化时,若副词从句的主语和主要从句的主语不同,就不能随便省略,此时可以选择保留副词从句的主语,只省略be动词和连接词,造成在副词从句的主语后面跟着现在分词或过去分词的形式的补语(传统语法把副词从句的补语部分看做是形容词短语看待,来修饰副词从句的主语,但该主语却无法纳入主要从句中来诠释,于是创造了"独立主语"这个名词来与之对应),所以当副词从句的主语和主要从句主语相同时,简化时就可以省略主语,否则就要保留主语,只把be动词、连接词省略。 k. 副词从句简化时,主从句主语不同时,保留主语后的必须注意2点事项:"必须省略掉连接词"(若保留主语,又保留连接词,只省略be动词,并没有达到省略的效果,反而看起来像是写错了,漏掉了be动词),并且"副词从句的主语后必须配合现在分词或过去分词形式的补语"(只有副词从句的主语后面跟分词补语(必要时可以借助be动词),才能明显区分是省略be动词后留下的简化从句,这种保留主语和分词补语之间的关联性,也就是传统语法把"独立主语"视为"分词构句"的变化的原因)。
补语为Ven:如果副词从句是被动态(be+Ven)的形式,那么省略主语、be动词后,即简化为过去分词(Ven)形态的补语。副词从句简化为Ven补语时需要注意以下4个问题:a. 连接词是否保留:副词从句的连接词除了语法功能之外,还有词义的功能,所以其保留与否取决于修辞上的否清楚性,在句子足够清楚的情况下,副词从句的连接词可以省略(例如:表示"先后顺序"的连接词(after),由于Ven本身就有"已经、完成"的意思,所以可以省略,而表示"相反"关系的连接词(although),省略会意思会有出入,所以不能省略,如果一定要省略的话,可以用其他方式来表示句中的"相反"的逻辑关系,如still)。 b. 兼作介词的连接词(before、after、since):身兼连接词与介词的双重词类,简化时,如果直接省略连接词,虽然语法上正确,但是句意上缺失了逻辑关系,但是保留连接词则需要注意到其会被视为介词,其后只能跟名词类,所以要么将before后面的内容改为名词类,要么借用无意义的be动词改为being形式来做词类变化。c. have been的处理:当副词从句是have been的形式时,主语、连接词固然可以省略,但是been动词含有"已经……"的意味,因而需要保留下来,所以简化时,在主语和时态助动词(非不确定意味的助动词)have之间,需要加入be动词,改造为be+having的形式,此时省略主语、be动词后,成为having been的形式。如果having been后面的补语是表示"过去、已经"意味的过去分词,那么having been和过去分词补语都有"已经"的暗示,所以省略having been只留下过去分词的补语也是可以的。d. 副词从句中的动词是单纯的be动词时(主从句的主语相同):其简化后一般只剩下单纯的名词、形容词、介词短语形式的补语(当保留副词从句的连接词后,其是副词从句简化而成的特点明确,所以省略掉主语、be动词后,其后的名词、形容词、副词都可以保留下来),所以简化的规则是,要么改为连接词+补语的形式,要么省略连接词将be改为being的形式,否则就省略的过头了。e. 兼作介词的连接词(before、after、since):身兼连接词与介词的双重词类,简化时,如果直接省略连接词,虽然语法上正确,但是句意上缺失了逻辑关系,但是保留连接词则需要注意到其会被视为介词,其后只能跟名词类,所以要么将before后面的内容改为名词类,要么借用无意义的be动词改为being形式来做词类变化。f.  主语不同时(此前的规则描述主语相同情况,此条开始描述主语不同的情况):副词从句的主语和主要从句的主语不同时,要保留从句的主语,则"必须省略掉连接词"(若保留主语,又保留连接词,只省略be动词,并没有达到省略的效果,反而看起来像是写错了,漏掉了be动词),并且"副词从句的主语后必须配合现在分词或过去分词形式的补语"(只有副词从句的主语后面跟分词补语(必要时可以借助be动词),才能明显区分是省略be动词后留下的简化从句,这种保留主语和分词补语之间的关联性,也就是传统语法把"独立主语"视为"分词构句"的变化的原因)。
简化为to V:如果副词从句中有带有不确定语气的助动词(can、should、must等)存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分,其属于"不一定"什么词类(名词、形容词、副词皆可),而原来的从句是形容词类,所以词类不冲突,虽然意思不是非常精确但也很接近句意,所以也是成功的简化从句。
简化为介词短语:表示原因的连接词(because、since)简化时通常不能原样保留,需要把连接词改为意义近似的介词短语,而把整个从句简化为名词从句后作为介词短语中的宾语(如:有表示原因的连接词(because、since)简化为介词短语(because of、as a result of)、表示"当……时"的连接词(when)简化为(on/upon)、表示"虽然、尽管"的连接词(although)简化为(despite/in spite of)、表示"如果"的连接词if简化为(in case of),副词从句的动词通常可以改为Ving的动名词形式,而介词后只剩下一个名词空间来装下整个从句,所以要大量精简。若副词从句中原本就有宾语,则简化为介词短语时,需要把原来的宾语改为所有格的形式,因为简化为介词短语时,因为只有一个宾语的位置,所以要大刀阔斧的修改,副词从句中的虚词(it)、动词(have been)都可以省略,只保留有意义的名词。另外,当副词从句的主语和主要从句的主语不同时,可以将副词从句的主语改写为"介词+主语"的形式,而省略be动词后,简化后剩余的补语正好成为介词短语的补语,也是一种合乎逻辑的简化为介词的方法)。
{dangling:v:摇晃,悬垂,挂着,追求;n:摇摆,摇摆物;dangling modifier:没有明确对象的修饰语,悬荡修饰语;}
 
3.4 本小节示例及练习:
While lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,(be+Ving)形式的补语,省略主语、be动词后简化为Ving形式。原句为:While he was lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep. (adverbial clause+s+v+c),省略主语、be动词后,简化为本句)
{couch:n:长椅,睡椅,长沙发,兽穴;vt:表达,躺下;vi:埋伏,躺下;}
Lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ving补语时,连接词是否保留:副词从句的连接词是有表示逻辑关系的意义,所以其保留与否取决于修辞上的否清楚性,在句子足够清楚的情况下,副词从句的连接词可以省略。一般说来表示"当……之时"的连接词(while、when等)、表示"因为"的连接词(because、as、since等),省略后并不妨碍句子的清楚性,所以通常可以省略,但还是要看具体的句子来判断。上句中省略连接此后成为本句)
Having nothing to do here, we might as well go home. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ving补语时,副词从句中没有be动词、助动词(can、must、may)时:需要先改写为(be+Ving)的形式,然后再省略,原句为:Because we have nothing to do here, we might as well as go home. (adverbial clause+s+v),由于没有be动词、助动词(have是时态助动词,而非不确定意味的助动词),所以改为be having的形式后,再身省略主语、be动词、连接词后成为本句)
{as well:也,又,还不如;}
Although having nothing to do here, we can't leave early. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ving补语时,连接词应该保留的情况:当省略后会造成句意不清(当读者看不到连接词,往往会联想到because或者when),则应该保留(如:although(表示一种"相反"的逻辑关系)、as if(表示一种"条件"的逻辑关系),虽然语法上可以省略,但为了表达其内在逻辑关系而需要保留)。原句为:Although we have nothing to do here, we can't leave early. (adverbial clause+s+v),添加be动词并改为be+Ving的形式,省略主语、be动词后而保留逻辑关系的连接词although后成为本句。)
Having noting to do ere, we still can't leave early. (上句中,如果用别的方式来表示这种逻辑关系也未尝不可,如:用still来替代although表示的逻辑关系,成为本句。)
He raised his hand, as if trying to hit her. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ving补语时,连接词应该保留的情况:当省略后会造成句意不清(当读者看不到连接词,往往会联想到because或者when),则应该保留(如:although(表示一种"相反"的逻辑关系)、as if(表示一种"条件"的逻辑关系),虽然语法上可以省略,但为了表达其内在逻辑关系而需要保留)。原句为:He raised his hand, as if he was trying to hit her. (s+v+o+adverbial clause),省略主语、be动词成为本句,如果省略连接词,则成为He raised his hand, trying to hit her. (X,Reduction of Adverbial Clause),表示"因为要打她",与原文的"好像要打她"的意思不同,因为当缺乏连接词时,往往会联想到常见的because、when。)
As a student, I can't afford to get married. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ving补语时,副词从句中的动词是单纯的be动词时:其简化后一般只剩下单纯的名词或形容词补语,则简化时,要么改为连接词+补语的形式,要么省略连接词并将be改为being的形式,否则就省略的过头了。原句是:As I am a student, I can't afford to get married. (Adverbial Clause+s+v+o),省略主语、be动词,成为本句,如果连接词也省略,剩下的a student可能会被误认为是主语。)
Being a student, I can't afford to get married. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ving补语时,副词从句中的动词是单纯的be动词时:其简化后一般只剩下单纯的名词或形容词补语,则简化时,要么改为连接词+补语的形式,要么省略连接词并将be改为being的形式。)
Before being in school, he used to be a naughty child. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ving补语时, 兼作介词的连接词(before、after、since):身兼连接词与介词的双重词类,简化时,如果直接省略连接词,虽然语法上正确,但是句意上缺失了逻辑关系,但是保留连接词则需要注意到其会被视为介词,其后只能跟名词类,所以要么将before后面的内容改为名词类,要么借用无意义的be动词改为being形式来做词类变化。原句为:Before he was in school, he used to be a naughty child. (Adverbial Clause+s+v+c),本句若省略连接词、主语、be动词后,成为:In school, he used to be a naughty child,则句意上缺失了表示先后顺序的逻辑关系,但是留下连接词后却成为错误语法:Before in school, he used to be a naughty child. (X),所以要么在介词后跟名词类成为before school,但是意思有有所欠缺,要么改为being的形式来做词类变化,即成本句。)
After writing the letter, he put it to mail. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ving补语时,时态问题与与逻辑顺序问题:副词从句的连接词有时用来区分主要从句和从属从句的先后顺序(如:after),简化时省略主语、be动词后,要么保留连接词以维持原句的先后逻辑顺序关系,要么省略连接词,将顺序靠前的句子改成现在完成式(Having+Ven)的形式,来表达先后顺序(Having+Ven在前,Ved在后,其中had是时态助动词,而不是表示条件的不确定性的助动词,所以简化为Having+Ven)。原句为:After he wrote the letter, he put it to mail. (Adverbial Clause),省略主语、be动词,并以连接词来保持先后顺序的逻辑关系,成为本句。若直接省略连接词成为:Writing the letter, he put it to mail. (X),则会让读者联想到when,即"正在写信的时候,去寄"。)
Having written the letter, he put it to mail. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ving补语时,时态问题与与逻辑顺序问题:副词从句的连接词有时用来区分主要从句和从属从句的先后顺序(如:after),简化时省略主语、be动词后,要么保留连接词以维持原句的先后逻辑顺序关系,要么省略连接词,将顺序靠前的句子改成现在完成式(Having+Ven)的形式,来表达先后顺序(Having+Ven在前,Ved在后,其中had是时态助动词,而不是表示条件的不确定性的助动词,所以简化为Having+Ven)。本句中,使用完成时来表示前后顺序的逻辑关系,原子可还原为:When he had written the letter, he put it to mail. (Adverbial Clause),加入be动词改写为be+Ving的形式后,简化成为本句。)
Already sleeping soundly in bed, the child did not know it when her mother came to kiss her goodnight. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause+s+v,简化为Ving补语时,主要从句与从属从句的主语相同时才能省略,否则会产生语法、修辞的错误,即:Dangling Modifiers,所以当主从句的主语不同时,要么是改变主要从句的结构,让主要从句和从属从句的主语形同,要么在副词从句中保留不同的主语。本句还原为:When the child was already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight. (Adverbial Clause+s+v),若直接省略主语、be动词,则成为Already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight. (X,悬荡主语[Dangling Modifier]),从句缺失主语,会让读者以为副词从句的主语和主要从句的主语相同,都是her mother从而发生错误,因为副词从句时形容词类,却找不到被修饰对象,犹如"悬荡在空中",所以被称为"悬荡主语的错误"。本句改变主要从句的结构,使主从句的主语相同,从而成为本句。)
The child already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause+s+v,简化为Ving补语时,主要从句与从属从句的主语相同时才能省略,否则会产生语法、修辞的错误,即:Dangling Modifiers,所以当主从句的主语不同时,要么是改变主要从句的结构,让主要从句和从属从句的主语形同,要么在副词从句中保留不同的主语。本句中保留副词从句和主要从句的主语,而成为本句。)
When the child already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight. (X,副词从句简化时,保留主语后的必须注意2点事项:"必须省略掉连接词"(若保留主语,又保留连接词,只省略be动词,并没有达到省略的效果,反而看起来像是写错了,漏掉了be动词)、"副词从句的主语后必须配合现在分词或过去分词形式的补语"(只有副词从句的主语后面跟分词补语,才能明显区分是省略be动词后留下的简化从句,这种保留主语和分词补语之间的关联性,也就是传统语法把"独立主语"视为"分词构句"的变化的原因)。)
{soundly:adv:完全地,健全地,坚牢地,香甜地;}
 
Shot in the knee, he couldn't fight. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,被动态(be+Ven)的形式的补语,省略主语、be动词后,简化为过去分词(Ven)形式。副词从句的连接词有词义的功能,所以其保留与否取决于修辞上的否清楚性,在句子足够清楚的情况下,副词从句的连接词可以省略(例如:表示"先后顺序"的连接词(after),由于Ven本身就有"已经、完成"的意思,所以可以省略)。原句是:After he was shot in the knee, he couldn't fight. (Adverbial Clause),省略连接词、主语、be动词后成为本句。)
Although shot in the knee, he killed three more enemy soldiers. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ven补语时,主语是否省略:副词从句的连接词除了语法功能之外,还有词义的功能,所以其保留与否取决于修辞上的否清楚性,在句子足够清楚的情况下,副词从句的连接词可以省略(例如:表示"先后顺序"的连接词(after),由于Ven本身就有"已经、完成"的意思,所以可以省略,而表示"相反"关系的连接词(although),省略会意思会有出入,所以不能省略,如果一定要省略的话,可以用其他方式来表示句中的"相反"的逻辑关系,如still)。本句还原为:Although he was shot in the knee, he killed three more enemy soldiers. (Adverbial Clause),省略主语、be动词后成为本句。)
Shot in the knee, he still killed three more enemy soldiers. (上句中,若一定要省略连接词although,则可以改写为用still来表示这种"相反"的逻辑关系的形式。)
Before being redecorated, the house was in had shape. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ven补语时,兼作介词的连接词(before、after、since):身兼连接词与介词的双重词类,简化时,如果直接省略连接词,虽然语法上正确,但是句意上缺失了逻辑关系,但是保留连接词则需要注意到其会被视为介词,其后只能跟名词类,所以要么将before后面的内容改为名词类,要么借用无意义的be动词改为being形式来做词类变化。原句可还原为:Before it was redecorated, the house was in bad shape. (Adverbial Clause),若直接省略连接词、主语、be动词后成为:Redecorated, the house was in bad shape. (X),则剩下的具有"完成暗示"的过去分词就表示"在装修完后,很糟糕",不符合句意,若保留连接词成为Before redecorated则犯了介词短语后接形容词类的语法错误,所以本句中借用无意义的be动词做词类变换,即成为本句。)
Before redecoration, the house was in bad shape. (prepositional phrase,上句也可以把副词从句的内容改为名词类,即成本句。)
{decorate:v:装饰,布置,装修,授予某人奖章或奖状;redecorate:v:重新装饰;shape:n:形状,形式,身材,定形;vt:塑造,定形,使……成形;}
Having been warned, they proceeded carefully. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ven补语时, have been的处理:当副词从句是have been的形式时,主语、连接词固然可以省略,但是been动词含有"已经……"的意味,因而需要保留下来,所以简化时,在主语和时态助动词(非不确定意味的助动词)have之间,需要加入be动词,改造为be+having的形式,此时省略主语、be动词后,成为having been的形式。如果having been后面的补语是表示"过去、已经"意味的过去分词,那么having been和过去分词补语都有"已经"的暗示,所以省略having been只留下过去分词的补语也是可以的。原句为:Because they had been warned, they proceeded carefully. (Adverbial Clause),加入be动词并改造成be+Having的形态后,省略连接词、主语、be动词后成为本句。)
Warned, they proceeded carefully. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,上句中的过去分词warned已经表示"过去、已经"的意味,所以省略掉having been也是可以的。)
{proceed:vi:继续进行,开始,着手;}
The coffin (have been) interred, the minister said a few comforting words. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ven补语时,主语不同时:副词从句的主语和主要从句的主语不同时,要保留从句的主语,则"必须省略掉连接词"(若保留主语,又保留连接词,只省略be动词,并没有达到省略的效果,反而看起来像是写错了,漏掉了be动词)、"副词从句的主语后必须配合现在分词或过去分词形式的补语"(只有副词从句的主语后面跟分词补语,才能明显区分是省略be动词后留下的简化从句)。原句为:When the coffin had been interred, the minister said a few comforting words. (Adverbial Clause),若直接省略连接词、主语、be动词,成为:(Having been) interred, the minister said a few comforting words. (X),则会让读者误以为从属从句的主语和主要从句的相同,造成"牧师被埋葬后说了几句安慰的话"这种逻辑错误,所以需要保留主语,并且主语后配合现在分词或过去分词的补语,成为本句,因为have been的的已经包含在过去分词中了,所以可以省略。)
{inter:vt:埋葬;bury:vt:埋葬,隐匿,专心致志,抛弃;confort:n:舒适,安逸,安慰,慰藉;vt:安慰,使舒适;minister:n:外交使节,部长,大臣,牧师;v:照顾,给予帮助;}
When under attack, you must take cover immediately. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ven补语时,副词从句中的动词是单纯的be动词时:其简化后一般只剩下单纯的名词、形容词、介词短语形式的补语(当保留副词从句的连接词后,其是副词从句简化而成的特点明确,所以省略掉主语、be动词后,其后的名词、形容词、副词都可以保留下来),所以简化的规则是,要么改为连接词+补语的形式(若保留连接词,则主从句的主语需要一致),要么将be改为being的形式,否则就省略的过头了。原句为:When you are under attack, you must take cover immediately. (Adverbial Clause),简化为连接词+补语的形式,即成本句。)
{take cover:隐蔽;}
While small in size, the company is very competitive. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ven补语时,副词从句中的动词是单纯的be动词时:其简化后一般只剩下单纯的名词、形容词、介词短语形式的补语(当保留副词从句的连接词后,其是副词从句简化而成的特点明确,所以省略掉主语、be动词后,其后的名词、形容词、副词都可以保留下来),所以简化的规则是,要么改为连接词+补语的形式(若保留连接词,则主从句的主语需要一致),要么将be改为being的形式。原句为:While it is small in size, the company is very competitive. (Adverbial Clause),简化为连接词+补语的形式,即成本句。)
{competitive:adj:竞争的,有竞争力的,胜过或超过他人的;}
Although a doctor by training, Asimov became a writer. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为Ven补语时,副词从句中的动词是单纯的be动词时:其简化后一般只剩下单纯的名词、形容词、介词短语形式的补语(当保留副词从句的连接词后,其是副词从句简化而成的特点明确,所以省略掉主语、be动词后,其后的名词、形容词、副词都可以保留下来),所以简化的规则是,要么改为连接词+补语的形式(若保留连接词,则主从句的主语需要一致),要么将be改为being的形式。原句为:Although he was a doctor by training, Asimov became a writer. (Adverbial Clause),简化为连接词+补语的形式,即成本句。)
{Asimov:n:阿西莫夫;}
He studied hard in order to get a scholarship. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为to V:如果副词从句中有带有不确定语气的助动词(can、should、must等)存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分,其属于"不一定"什么词类(名词、形容词、副词皆可),而原来的从句是形容词类,所以词类不冲突,虽然意思不是非常精确但也很接近句意,所以也是成功的简化从句。原句是:He studied hard in order that he could get a scholarship. (Adverbial Clause),将助动词could改为be to的形式,然后省略连接词、be主语、be动词后成为本句。)
{scholarship:n:奖学金,学问,学识;}
I'll only be glad to help. (Reduction of Adverbial Clause,简化为to V:如果副词从句中有带有不确定语气的助动词(can、should、must等)存在,则简化后会留下不定式形式的补语部分。原句为:I'll only be too glad if I can help. (Adverbial Clause),将助动词can改为be to的形式后,省略连接词、主语、be动词后即成本句。)
Upon arriving at the party, she found all the people gone. (prepositional phrase,简化为介词短语:把连接词when改为意义近似的介词短语on/upon,而把整个从句简化为名词从句后作为介词短语中的宾语,副词从句的动词通常可以改为Ving的动名词形式,而介词后只剩下一个名词空间来装下整个从句,所以要大量精简。原句为:When she arrived at the party, she found all the people gone. (Adverbial Clause),将连接词when改为介词短语upon的形式,并把动词改为动名词形式,省略主语后,即成本句。)
Upon her arrival at the party, she found all the people gone. (prepositional phrase,上句也可以将副词从句动词改为名词形式的arrival,既符合词类要求且意思不变。)
Upon completing the project, she was promoted. (prepositional phrase,简化为介词短语:把连接词when改为意义近似的介词短语on/upon,而把整个从句简化为名词从句后作为介词短语中的宾语,副词从句的动词通常可以改为Ving的动名词形式,而介词后只剩下一个名词空间来装下整个从句,所以要大量精简。原句为:When she completed the project, she was promoted. (Adverbial Clause),即成本句。)
Upon completion of the project, she was promoted. (prepositional phrase,上句中,若副词从句中原本就有宾语,则简化为介词短语时,需要把原来的宾语改为所有格的形式,因为简化为介词短语时,因为只有一个宾语的位置,所以要大刀阔斧的修改,副词从句中的虚词(it)、动词(have been)都可以省略,只保留有意义的名词。若直接将介词短语后的动词改为名词completion后成为:Upon completion the project, she was promoted. (X),该句中宾语位置被completion占用,副词从句原来的宾语则找不到归宿,所以要为所有格的形式后,即成此句。)
The construction work was delayed because of raining. (prepositional phrase,简化为介词短语:把连接词because改为意义近似的介词短语because of,而把整个从句简化为名词从句后作为介词短语中的宾语,副词从句的动词通常可以改为Ving的动名词形式,而介词后只剩下一个名词空间来装下整个从句,所以要大量精简。若副词从句中原本就有宾语,则简化为介词短语时,需要把原来的宾语改为所有格的形式,因为简化为介词短语时,因为只有一个宾语的位置,所以要大刀阔斧的修改,副词从句中的虚词(it)、动词(have been)都可以省略,只保留有意义的名词。原句为:The construction work was delayed because it had been raining. (Adverbial Clause),将副词从句改为连接词改为"介词+主语"的形式后,虚词it、动词have been都可以省略掉。)
Despite his opposition, the plan was carried out. (prepositional phrase,简化为介词短语:把连接词although改为意义近似的介词短语despite/inspite of,而把整个从句简化为名词从句后作为介词短语中的宾语,副词从句的动词通常可以改为Ving的动名词形式,而介词后只剩下一个名词空间来装下整个从句,所以要大量精简。若副词从句中原本就有宾语,则简化为介词短语时,需要把原来的宾语改为所有格的形式,因为简化为介词短语时,因为只有一个宾语的位置,所以要大刀阔斧的修改,副词从句中的虚词(it)、动词(have been)都可以省略,只保留有意义的名词。原句为:Although he opposed it, the plan was carried out. (Adverbial Clause),连接词改为介词despite后,只能有一个宾语,里面要放下he oppose,且主从句主语不同,所以改为所有格的形式,即成本句。)
{despite:prep:尽管,不管;n:憎恨,轻视;carry out:vt:实施,实现;}
In case of a fire, the sprinkler will be started. (prepositional phrase,简化为介词短语:把连接词if改为意义近似的介词短语in case of,而把整个从句简化为名词从句后作为介词短语中的宾语,副词从句的动词通常可以改为Ving的动名词形式,而介词后只剩下一个名词空间来装下整个从句,所以要大量精简。若副词从句中原本就有宾语,则简化为介词短语时,需要把原来的宾语改为所有格的形式,因为简化为介词短语时,因为只有一个宾语的位置,所以要大刀阔斧的修改,副词从句中的虚词(it)、动词(have been)都可以省略,只保留有意义的名词。原句为:If there should be a fire, the sprinkler will be started. (Adverbial Clause),副词从句的连接词改为介词短语后,只剩下一个名词空间来装下整个从句,所以要大量精简,只保留主要的名词类内容fire,即成本句。)
{sprinkler:洒水装置,洒水车;}
With the exam only a week away, I have no time to waste. (prepositional phrase+o+c,简化为介词短语:另外,当副词从句的主语和主要从句的主语不同时,可以将副词从句的主语改写为"介词+主语"的形式,而省略be动词后,简化后剩余的补语正好成为介词短语的补语,也是一种合乎逻辑的简化为介词的方法)。原句为:Because the exam is only a week away, I have no time to waste. (Adverbial Clause[s+v+c]),将主语改为"介词+主语"的形式后,则副词从句简化后的补语正好成为介词短语的补语,即成本句。)
 
 
While he was watching TV, the boy heard a strange noise coming from the kitchen.
简化:省略重复的主语、be动词后(连接词省略不省略均可,省略更注重从属从句的简洁性,保留更注重从属从句的清楚性),成为:(While) watching TV, the boy heard a strange noise coming from the kitchen.
Because she lives with her parents, the girl can't stay out very late.
简化:将从句改为be+Ving形式后,省略连接词、主语、be动词,成为:Living with her parents, the girl can't stay out very late.
■If you have finished your work, you can help me with mine.
简化:省略重复的主语、be动词(连接词具有表示"条件"的逻辑关系,所以不能省略),成为:If having finished your work, you can help me with mine.
As he is a law-enforcement officer, he cannot drink on duty.
简化:当副词从句的动词是单纯的be动词时,省略重复的主语、be动词后,要么改为"连接词+补语"的形式,要么省略连接词将be动词改为"being"的形式,即:As/Being a law-enforcement officer, he cannot drink on duty. {enforcement:n:执行,强制,实施;law-enforcement:n:执法;}
■The actor has been in a state of excitement ever since he was nominated for the Oscar.
简化: 兼作介词的连接词(before、after、since):身兼连接词与介词的双重词类,其连接词表示"某种"逻辑关系,且其会被视为介词,其后只能跟名词类,所以要么将before后面的内容改为名词类,要么借用无意义的be动词改为being形式来做词类变化。本句中,借用be动词来做此类变化,成为:The actor has been in a state of excitement ever since being nominated for the Oscar. {excitement:n:激动,兴奋;nominate:vt:提名,指派,登记赛马参加比赛;nominated:adj:被提名的,被任命的;ever since:从那时起,自那时以来;}
■After he addressed the congregation, the minister left in a hurry.
简化:时态问题与与逻辑顺序问题:副词从句的连接词有时用来区分主要从句和从属从句的先后顺序(如:after),简化时省略主语、be动词后,要么保留连接词以维持原句的先后逻辑顺序关系(注意,此处的连接词兼作介词,其连接词表示"先后"的逻辑顺序关系,其后只能跟名词类),要么省略连接词,将顺序靠前的句子改成现在完成式(Having+Ven)的形式。 本句将after后面的内容改为名词类,成为:After addressing the congregation, the minister left in a hurry. 
          或  Having addressed the congregation, the minister left in a hurry.  {congregation:n:教堂会众,人群,(物)群,集合;}
■As it was rather warm, we decided to go for a swim.
简化:悬荡修饰语(Dangling Modifier):主要从句与从属从句的主语相同时才能省略,否则会产生语法、修辞的错误,即:Dangling Modifiers,其简化方法,要么是改变主要从句的结构,让主要从句和从属从句的主语形同,要么在副词从句中保留不同的主语。注意:副词从句是单纯的be动词,要么改为"连接词+补语",要么省略连接词,改为"being"的形式。本句中,保留不同主语,且留意到单纯be动词的问题,成为:It being rather warm, we decided to go for a swim.
When the students have all left, the teacher started looking over their examination sheets.
简化:时态问题与与逻辑顺序问题:副词从句的连接词有时用来区分主要从句和从属从句的先后顺序(如:after),简化时省略主语、be动词后,要么保留连接词以维持原句的先后逻辑顺序关系,要么省略连接词,将顺序靠前的句子改成现在完成式(Having+Ven)的形式。 本句中,省略连接词、主语和添加的be动词,成为:The students having all left, the teacher started looking over their examination sheets.
■I know all about corn farming because I grew up in a Southern farm.
简化:时态问题与与逻辑顺序问题:副词从句的连接词有时用来区分主要从句和从属从句的先后顺序(如:after),简化时省略主语、be动词后,要么保留连接词以维持原句的先后逻辑顺序关系,要么省略连接词,将顺序靠前的句子改成现在完成式(Having+Ven)的形式。本句中,省略连接词、主语,成为:I know all about corn farming, having grown up in a Southern farm.
■As the door remained shut, the servant could not hear what was going on inside.
简化:副词从句简化时,保留主语后的必须注意2点事项:"必须省略掉连接词"(若保留主语,又保留连接词,只省略be动词,并没有达到省略的效果,反而看起来像是写错了,漏掉了be动词)、"副词从句的主语后必须配合现在分词或过去分词形式的补语"(只有副词从句的主语后面跟分词补语,才能明显区分是省略be动词后留下的简化从句)。本句专用,保留不同主语,则省略连接词并且后面需要跟现在分词,或过去分词形式的补语。The door remained shut, the servant could not hear what was going on inside.
 
■After he was told to report to his supervisor, the clerk left in a hurry.
简化:时态问题与与逻辑顺序问题:副词从句的连接词有时用来区分主要从句和从属从句的先后顺序(如:after),简化时省略主语、be动词后,要么保留连接词以维持原句的先后逻辑顺序关系,要么省略连接词,将顺序靠前的句子改成现在完成式(Having+Ven)的形式。 本句中,省略连接词,并使用Have+done的形式来表示先后顺序,并且过去分词told已经有"过去、完成"的意思,所以省略掉haveing been也是可以的,即: (Having been) told to report to his supervisor, the clerk left in a hurry. {supervisor:n:监督人,主管人,管理人,督学,检查员,导师;}
Although he was ordered to leave, the soldier did not move an inch.
简化:省略重复的主语、be动词后,而连接词具有表示"相反"的逻辑关系,不能省略。所以成为:Although ordered to leave, the soldier did not move an inch.
■The plan must be modified before it is put into effect.
简化: 兼作介词的连接词(before、after、since):身兼连接词与介词的双重词类,其连接词具有表示逻辑关系的功能,但是保留连接词则需要注意到其会被视为介词,其后只能跟名词类,所以要么将before后面的内容改为名词类,要么借用无意义的be动词改为being形式来做词类变化。本句中,借用being来做此类变换,成为:The plan must be modified before being put into effect. {put into:输入,使进入,把……译成,表达;}
■Because it had been bombed twice in the previous week, the village was a total wreck.
简化:当副词从句是have been的形式时,主语、连接词固然可以省略,但是been动词含有"已经……"的意味,因而需要保留下来,所以简化时,在主语和时态助动词(非不确定意味的助动词)have之间,需要加入be动词,改造为be+having的形式,此时省略主语、be动词后,成为having been的形式。如果having been后面的补语是表示"过去、已经"意味的过去分词,那么having been和过去分词补语都有"已经"的暗示,所以省略having been只留下过去分词的补语也是可以的。本句中,省略主语、be动词后成为本句,其中having been也可以省略,即: (Having been) bombed twice in the previous week, the village was a total wreck. {wreck:v:使……失事,使……遇难,破坏;n:遇难,残害,破坏,(船)失事下沉;}
When all things are considered, I cannot truly say that this was an accident.
简化:主语不同时:副词从句的主语和主要从句的主语不同时,要保留从句的主语,则"必须省略掉连接词"(若保留主语,又保留连接词,只省略be动词,并没有达到省略的效果,反而看起来像是写错了,漏掉了be动词)、"副词从句的主语后必须配合现在分词或过去分词形式的补语"(只有副词从句的主语后面跟分词补语,才能明显区分是省略be动词后留下的简化从句)。本句省略后,成为:All things considered, I cannot truly say that this was an accident.
■When the job was done, the secretary went home. {secretary:n:部长,秘书,书籍,大臣,写字台;}
简化:主语不同时,需要保留主语,所以必须省略连接词,且后跟现在分词或过去分词的补语,即成为:The job done, the secretary went home.
■He took on two extra jobs so that he could feed his family.
简化:助动词,简化为不定式的形式,其中的:so as可以省略。He took on two extra jobs (so as) to feed his family. {so as to:为的是,以便;}
■If you are in doubt, you should look up the word in the dictionary.
简化:省略主语、be动词,后仅剩下介词短语形式补语,成为:If in doubt, you should look up the word in the dictionary. {doubt:n:怀疑,疑惑,悬而未定;vt:怀疑,不信任;vi:不确定;}
■Because pork is so expensive, I'm buying beef instead.
简化:当副词从句的主语和主要从句的主语不同时,可以将副词从句的主语改写为"介词+主语"的形式,而省略be动词后,简化后剩余的补语正好成为介词短语的补语,也是一种合乎逻辑的简化为介词的方法) 或者 副词从句中的动词是单纯的be动词时,要么改为连接词+补语的形式,要么将be改为being的形式。本句要么改为"介词短语+补语"的形式,或者改为将单纯be动词的副词从句,省略掉连接词,改为being的形式,即:With pork so expensive, I'm buying beef instead. 
          或 Pork being so expensive, I'm buying beef instead. 
When we consider his handicap, he has done very well indeed.
简化:副词从句中,加入be动词改为be+Ving的形式后,省略连接词、主语、be动词后成为:Considering his handicap, he has done very well indeed. {handicap:n:障碍;vt:妨碍;}
 
C on the sofa, we began to watch television.
[A] Sat     [B] Seat     [C] Seated     [D] Set
注释:seat是及物动词,本句可还原为:we were seated on the sofa.
Returning to the room, B.
[A] the book was lost     [B] I found the book missing     [C] missing was book     [D] the book was missing
注释:Returning to room是简化从句,其主语必须与主要从句相同,能代表人的主语,只有B。
■The average age of the Lishan apples C today is about fifty years.
[A] grow     [B] grown     [C] growing     [D] to grow
注释:空格部分,可还原为:that are growing today的简化,growing today表示"今天在长"的。而B中的grown表示"今天种下去的",根据句中50岁的描述,选B合适语意。
Underground money lenders make most of their income from interest B on loans.
[A] earn     [B] earned     [C] to earn     [D] was earned
注释:空格部分还原为:that is earned on loans.,简化为B。 {income:n:收入,所得,收益;loan:n:贷款,借出;v:借,供应货款;}
■B the driveway, the house appeared to be much smaller that it had seemed to us as children many years ago.
[A] Standing in     [B] Seen from     [C] Crossing     [D] Driving down
注释:4个选项都是以副词从句的简化,但是要求从属从句的主语与主句相同,所以只有A和B。空格部分的宾语是"车道",房子不能站在里面,所以只能是B,其实When it was seen from的简化。 {the driveway:车道;}
After finishing my degree, D.
[A] my education will be employed by the university
[B] employment will be given to me by the university
[C] the university will employ me
[D] I will be employed by the university
注释:After finishing my degree是After I finish my degree的简化,所以主要从句只能用I作主语,故D。
The man B the paper is my father.
[A] reads     [B] reading     [C] is reading     [D] read
注释:空格部分可还原为:who is reading the paper的简化。
B, he washed the cup and put it away.
[A] Drinking the coffee     [B] Having drunk the coffee     [C] Having drank the coffee     [D] After drank the coffee
注释:A看起来是when he was drinking the coffee的简化,喝的同时洗杯子,不合适,所以应该用完成时的B。 {put away:收拾,放好,存储,吃,放弃,打消,<口>关押;}
■D to the south of China, not far away from the coast of Mainland, Hainan Island has long played an imprtant role in China's tourism.
[A] Its location     [B] Locating     [C] Is located     [D] Located
注释:空格部分是Hainan Island is located to the south……这句的简化,故选D。
John Williams wrote his first novel B.
[A] while he worked a porter at a hotel in Paris     [B] while working as a porter at a hotel in Paris     [C] while worked as a porter at a hotel in Paris     [D] while he was worked as a porter a hotel in Paris
注释:空格部分是while he was working as a porter……的简化,A中的while he worked a proter当作worked的宾语,把不及物的work当作及物动词使用,所以错误。加入be并改造为be+Ving的形式,省略后即为B。 {porter:n:搬运工,(列车)服务员,杂务工,<旧>黑啤酒;波特(人名);}
 
■A not a big star, the actor played in hundreds of films.
[A] Although     [B] He was     [C] Because     [D] Despite
注释:空格部分,可还原为:Although he was not a big star的简化。
Eisenhauer was president of Columbia University B President of the USA.
[A] before he becomes     [B] before becoming     [C] before     [D] before became
注释:空格部分是before he became President of the USA的简化。 {Eisenhauer:n:埃森豪尔;}
Gold remains stable even D to extremely high temperatures.
[A] when is heated     [B] it is heated     [C] when to heat     [D] when heated
注释:空格部分是even when it is heated……的简化。
A, the stock market crashed.
[A] With investor confidence gone     [B] When investor confidence gone     [C] When investors lose confidence     [D] With investors lost confidence
注释:空格部分可还原为:Because investor confidence was gone简化成介词短语。 {investor:confidence:}
A monkey's brain is small C with the human brain.
[A] when they are compared     [B] when compare     [C] compared     [D] to compare them
注释:空格部分可还原为:when it is compared……。
■Picasso did many of his abstract paintings C living in Paris.
[A] that he was     [B] during     [C] while     [D] and
注释:空格部分可还原为:while he was living……。 {Picasso:n:毕加索;}
A at correct angles, diamonds reflect light brilliantly.
[A] When carved     [B] If it is carved     [C] Carving     [D] If carving
注释:空格部分可还原为:when they are carved……。 {reflect:v:反映,反射,反省,归咎,显示;brilliant:adj:卓越的,灿烂的,美妙的,杰出的,才华横溢的;n:宝石;}
D, the children gradually learned to be independent.
[A] Because their father gone     [B] Their father was gone     [C] Due to their father was gone     [D] With their father gone
注释:空格部分还原为:Because their father was gone简化为介词短语。 {independent:adj:独立的,自主的,独自的,无偏见的;n:无党派者,独立派人士;}
She broke into tears A the news.
[A] upon hearing     [B] because hearing     [C] when heard     [D] when she hears
注释:空格部分还原为:as soon as she heard the news简化为介词短语。 {break into:闯入,突然发出,迸发,打断,打扰,侵占,占用;}
A the truth, I know nothing about it.
[A] To tell you     [B] Telling you     [C] I tell you     [D] I told you
注释:空格部分还原为If I can tell you the truth的简化。
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3.5 简化从句练习(Practicing of Reduction Sentence)
3.5.1 简化从句,亦在一般语法书中被称为"非限定从句(Non-finite Clauses)",其本身是高度精简的句型,也较具有挑战性。
简化从句的两大原则:a. 对等从句中,相对应的位置(主语与主语、动词与动词)如果重复,可以省略。b. 从属从句(名词从句、形容词从句、副词从句)中,省略主语、be动词,只留下补语。若主语非重复或空洞的元素,则应设法保留,以免句意改变。
动词简化的通用原则:a. 有be动词即省略be动词。 b. 有语气助动词(can(could)、must、should、will(would)、may(might)等,且非have这种事态助动词)则改为不定式。 c. 初以上2点之外的动词,一律加上-ing保留下来。
 
3.5 本小节示例及练习:
例1:
The patient had not responded to the standard treatment.
This fact greatly puzzled the medical team.
简化步骤:
1). 藉由句1整句和句2的the fact建立联系,可以考虑修改为形容词从句(从属从句是主语的修饰内容)或名词从句(从属从句就当作主语本身)。
          若改为形容词从句:The patient had not responded to the standard treatment, which greatly puzzled the medical team. (句2作为形容词来修饰整个句1,但这句存在修辞问题,即:which引导的形容词从句即可以修饰前面的整句,也可以修饰逗号前的名词the standard treatment,造成模棱两可(ambiguous)的毛病。)
          若改为名词从句:That the patient had not responded to standard treatment greatly puzzled the medical team. (直接用that+从句并放到主语位置,即可)
2). 对以上句子进行简化,主语不同无法省略,所以以所有格的形式出现、没有be动词,将原来的动词变成be+Ving形式、删除无意义的连接词,成为:The patient's not having responded to standard treatment greatly puzzled the medical team. 当然,也可以把从句的动词改写为名词类,使之成为名词短语后做主语,成为:The patient's failure to responded to standard treatment greatly puzzled the medical team.
{puzzle:n:难题,谜,迷惑,拼图游戏;vt:使为难,使困惑;vi:苦思,迷惑;ambiguous:adj:模棱两可的,含糊不清的;failure:n:失败,失败者,不及格,疏忽,失灵,未能,悲惨的事;}
 
例2:
The summer tourists are all gone.
The resort town has resumed its air of tranquility.
简化步骤:
1). 两句没有重复元素,但有先后时间的逻辑关系或者是表示原因的逻辑关系,所以改造成副词从句,选择连接词(after、because、now that等)。加上表示原因的副词,成为:Now that the summer tourists are all gone, the resort town has resumed its air of tranquility.
2). 对以上句子简化,主语不同需保留、去掉be动词留下主语和补语后,副词从句的结构就不存在了,因而可以省略连接词now that,成为:(With) the summer tourists all gone, the resort town has resumed its air of tranquility.,本句中,用介词来取代连接词,并把the tourists放在其后做介词宾语,而all gone依然作为补语,这样的做法比较口语化,而直接省略be动词不加with就显的文诌诌的,不够口语化。
{tourist:n:旅游者,二等舱;adj:观光的,乘坐二等舱的;tourism:n:旅游业,观光;resort:[音:rɪ'zɔːrt];n:(度假)胜地,手段,凭借;vi:诉诸,常去;resume:v:重新开始,再继续;n:简历,履历,摘要;tranquil:[音:'træŋkwɪl];adj:安静的,宁静的,稳定的,不变的;tranquility:[音:træŋ'kwɪlətɪ];n:宁静,平静,稳定;}
 
例3:
a. Confucius must have written on pieces of bamboo.
b. Confucius lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.
c. Paper was not available until the Eastern Han Dynasty.
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2的交叉点confucius,籍由关系词who来连接为关系从句(形容词从句),成为:(a+b). Confucius, who lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo.
2). 对上句进行简化,加入be动词并改写为be+Ving的形势后,简化为:Confucius, living  in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo.
3). 句3的内容表示原因,所以籍由连接词because以副词从句的方式来连接,成为:(a+b+c). Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo, because paper was not available until the Eastern Han Dynasty.
4). 对上句进行简化,保留不重复的主语、动词为单独的be动词,要么改为"连接词+补语"、要么省略连接词改为"being"的形式,此处改为being的形式,成为:(a+b+c). Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo, paper not being available until the Eastern Han Dynasty.
{Confucius:[音:kən'fjuʃəs];n:孔子;dynasty:n:朝代,王朝;}
 
例4:
a. The movable-type press was invented by Gutenberg.
b. The movable-type press was introduced to England in 1485.
c. This event marked the end of the Dark Ages there.
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2的交差点the movable-typre press,籍由关系词which来连接为关系从句(形容词从句),成为:(a+b). The movable-type press, which was invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1485.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略主语、be动词后,成为:The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1485.
3). 句3中的Event就是上面整句话,因为整句比较长,可以尝试添加个同位语an event,成为:(a+b+c). The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1485, an event which marked the end of the Dark Ages there.
4). 对上句进行简化,省略重复部分an event、加入be动词改为be+Ving的形式后,省略关系词which、be动词,成为:The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1485, marking the end of the Dark Ages there.
{The movable-type press:活版印刷;invent:v:发明,捏造;the Dark Ages:n:英国的黑暗时期;}
 
例5:
a. Ben Kook was educated in an art college.
b. Ben Kook acts unusual at times.
c. Ben Kook deals with economic matters at these times.
1). 句1和句2没有重复,但有表示因果的逻辑关系,籍由关系词because连接成的副词从句:(a+b). Because he was educated in an art college, Ben Kook acts unusual at times.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、be动词,成为:Educated in an art college, Ben Kook acts unusual at times.
3). 句3中的at these time与上句中的at times重复,籍由连接词when连击为副词从句,成为:(a+b+c). Educated in an art college, Ben Kook acts unusual (at times) when he deals with economic matters.
4). 对上句进行简化,处于次要地位的at times是副词类,且跟when重复,可以先行省略,然后在省略主语、加入be动词改为be+Ving结构后省略be动词,但是when代表的重复内容已经省略,所以这里不适合省略when,也可以将when引导的关系从句看做名词从句,成为:Educated in an art college, Ben Kook acts unusual when dealing with economic matters.
{at times:有时;unusual:adj:异常的,独特的,与众不同的;economic:adj:经济学的,经济的,有利可图的;}
 
例6:
a. I'd like something.
b. You will meet some people.
c. Then you can leave.
简化步骤:
1). 句1中的宾语something代表整个句2,所以句2加上that成为名词从句并代替something的位置,成为:(a+b). I'd like that you (will) meet some people. (注意,句1和句2合并后,that从句含有祈使语气,所以助动词用will应省略或保持原形。)
2). 对上句进行简化,保留不重复的主语,省略连接词that、助动词改写为toV形式,成为:I'd like you to meet some people.
3). 句3和上句没有重复,但有表示时间的逻辑关系,藉由关系词before连接成为副词从句,成为:(a+b+c). I'd like you to meet some people before you (can) leave.
4). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语you、并且注意到before是介词性质的连接词,所以改为Ving的形式,成为:I'd like you to meet some people before leaving.
 
例7:
a. I have not practiced very much.
b. I should have practiced very much.
c. I am worried about something.
d. I might forget something.
e. What should I say during the speech contest?
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2虽然有重复的单词"have practiced very much",但两句表示的是一种"本该做确没做"的"条件或让步"的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词as much as连接的副词从句,即:(a+b). I have not practiced as much as I should (have practiced).,其中的重复部分have practiced可以省略。也可以把as看做副词来修饰形容词much,而后一个as来引导一个副词从句。
2). 句3和上句没有重复,但有表示因果的逻辑关系,藉由连接词because来连接成副词从句,成为:(a+b+c). Because I have not practiced as much as I should, I am worried about something.
3). 对上句进行省略,省略掉连接词、重复主语、加入be动词改为Ving的形式后,成为:Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about something.
4). 上句中的about something"担心的事情"就是句4的内容,但是因为something是放在介词后面,所以要连成复句的话,可以先改写成about the possibility,在把句4加上that,形成名词从句来做posibility的同位语,即:(a+b+c+d). Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried (about the possibility) that I might forget something.
5). 对上句进行简化,因为介词短语about the possibility和that重复,所以可以省略,但其后的名词从句的简化(要省略掉that),则要把介词about保留下来以安放简化后的名词从句。省略重复主语I、that连接词、助动词应该为toV的形式(但由于介词about的原因,要改为Ving的动名词形式),即:Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting something.
6). 上句中的something就是句5的整个内容,所以把疑问句直接改为非疑问的名词从句,并却带something,成为:(a+b+c+d+e). Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting what I should say during the speech contest.
7). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、助动词改为toV形式,成为:Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting what to say during the speech contest.
{contest:[音:'kɑːntest];n:竞赛,比赛;vt:驳斥,争取;vi:奋斗;}
 
例8:
a. A. Fries was the leader of the College football team then.
b. A. Fries is the director of a football club now.
c. A. Fries say something.
d. The college football team lost in the important game.
e. A. Fries offered something.
f. He would assume responsibility.
g. He would tender his resignation.
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2分别描述A.Fries当时与现在的身份,且两句在内容和句型上对仗工整,适合以对等从句(合句)的方式来表现,因此,藉由对等连接词and连接成为对等从句,即:(a+b). A. Fries was the leader of the College football team then and he is the director of a football club now.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略对等位置的重复部分,成为:A. Fries was the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now.
3). 句3中的something就是整个句4的内容,所以适合链接为藉由that引导的名词从句,整个句4放入something的位置,即:(c+d). A. Fries saw that the College football team lost in the important game.
4). 对上句进行简化,省略连接词that、保留非重复主语后,成为:A. Fries saw the College football team's loss in the important game.
5). 句5中的something,就是句6中"要负起的责任",所以把整个句6改为名词从句放入something的位置,即:(e+f). A. Fries offered that he (would) assume responsibility.
6). 对上句进行简化,省略连接词、重复主语、助动词改为toV形式,成为:A. Fries offered to assume responsibility.
7). 2)中的句子描述的是具体的职位,有补充说明的功能,所以可改为关系从句并与6)句建立连接关系,成为:(e+f+a+b). A. Fries, who was the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility.
8). 对上句进行简化,省略主语who、be动词,只留下补语类,成为:A. Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility.
9.) 上句中"要付的责任"和4)中的句子虽没有重复,但是有因果逻辑关系,藉由连接词because改写为副词从句,成为:(e+f+a+b+c+d). Because he saw the College football team's loss in the important game, A. Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility.
10). 对上句进行简化,省略连接词because、重复主语、加入be改为be+Ving的形式并省略后,成为:Seeing the College football team's loss in the important game, A. Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility.
11). 句7中的"打算辞职"的内容,是为了说明上句中"负责的方式",也就是句7应该修饰上句中的动词assume,"以……方式"最好用介词by表示,即:by the way,所以句7改造为名词从句并直接放入by后面作介词的宾语,成为: Seeing the College football team's loss in the important game, A. Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility by that he would tender his resignation.
12). 对上句进行简化,省略连接词、重复主语,且介词by后需要动名词Ving,最后成为:(e+f+a+b+c+d+g). Seeing the College football team's loss in the important game, A. Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility by tendering his resignation.
{director:n:董事,经理,导演,主管,总监,指挥者;assume:[音:ə'suːm];vt:假定,设想,承担,(想当然的)认为,假装;resignation:n:辞职,辞呈,顺从;}
 
 
a. Been Book was educated in an art college. (because)
b. Ben Book acts unusual.
c. Ben Book deals with economic matters. (while)
■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2,组成副词从句,即:Because Been Book was educated in an art college, Ben Book acts unusual.(简化为:Educated in an art college, Ben Book acts unusual.)
2). 句3中用while来表示"时间、地点",将句3看做是副词从句,即:Educated in an art college, Ben Book acts unusual while he deals with economic matters.,简化后成为:Educated in an art college, Ben Book acts unusual while dealing with economic matters.
 
a. I'd like something.
b. You will meet some people. (that)
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,整个句2是句1中的something,所以适合改为名词从句:I'd like that you will meet some people.
2). 对上句进行简化,保留非重复主语、省略连接词、助动词改为toV,成为:I'd like that you to meet some people(one).
 
a. I'm not sure.
b. What should I do?
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,整个句2是句1中的不确定的内容,所以适合改为名词从句:I'm not sure what I should do. (将疑问句改为非疑问的形式)
2). 对上句进行简化,保留非重复主语、有意义的连接词,并将助动词改为toV,成为:I'm not sure what to do.
 
a. He worked late into the night.
b. He was trying to finish the report. (because)
■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示因果的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词because连接成为副词从句,即:He worked late into the night, because he was trying to finish the report.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、be动词后,成为:He worked late into the night trying to finish the report.
 
a. The soldier was wounded in the war. (after)
b. He was sent home.
■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示时间先后的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词after连接成为副词从句,即:After the soldier was wounded in the war, he was sent home.
2). 对上句进行简化,主从句主语相同,且从句的动词为单纯的be动词,所以要么改为"连接词+补语"的形式,要么省略连接词改为"being"的形式,所以改为being的形式,保留有意义的连接词,成为:(After/being) wounded in the war, the soldier was sent home. (其中wounded已经有"完成、已经"的意思,所以After/being也可以省略)。
 
a. He used to smoke a lot.
b. He got married. (before)
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示时间先后的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词before连接成为副词从句,即:He used to smoke a lot before he got married.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、加入be动词改为be+Ving的形式后(介词后也要求名词类的宾语),成为:He used to smoke a lot before getting married.
 
a. I am afraid.
b. The Democratic Party might win a majority. (that)
■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,整个句2是句1中的afraid的内容(但是afraid后面的宾语位置需要配合介词of来使用,即:I am afraid of something),所以适合改为名词从句:I am afraid of that the Democratic Party might win a majority.
2). 对上句进行简化,保留非重复主语并改为所有格、省略连接词、助动词改为toV,但是由于介词of的存在,所以应该为名词类的动名词Ving,成为:I am afraid of the Democratic Party's winning a majority.
{democracy:[音:dɪ'mɑːkrəsi];n:民主国家,民主,民主制;democratic:[音:ˌdemə'krætɪk];adj:民主的,民主党的,大众的;The Democratic Party:n:民主党;majority:n:大多数,多数,多数党,多数派;}
 
a. I have nothing better to do. (when)
b. I enjoy something.
c. I play poker. (that)
■■简化步骤:
1). 句2和句3没有重复内容,整个句3是句2中的something,所以适合改为名词从句:I enjoy that I play poker.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、省略连接词、加入be动词改为be+Ving形式后,省略成为:I enjoy playing poker.
3). 句1和上句没有重复内容,但有表示"时间、地点"的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词when连接为副词从句,即:When I have nothing better to do, I enjoy playing poker .
4). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、保留有意义的连接词、加入be动词改为be+Ving形式后,省略成为:When having nothing better to do, I enjoy playing poker. 本句虽然简化完成,但在口语化的句型中,通常可以牺牲一部分简洁性以换取句子的清楚性,即,再口语化的句子中,简化为:When I have nothing better to do, I enjoy playing poker. 就已经是成功的简化句了。所以,简化从句也要根据不同的应用情况做出调整。
 
a. Mike won the contest. (when)
b. Mike was awarded then thousand dollars.
■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示"时间、地点"的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词when连接成为副词从句,即:Mike was awarded then thousand dollars when he won the contest,.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、保留有意义的连接词、加入be动词改为be+Ving形式后,成为:Mike was awarded then thousand dollars when winning the contest. 
另外,还有对于副词从句,还有种特殊的简化方法,即:把连接词改为意义近似的介词短语,而把整个从句简化为名词从句后作为介词短语中的宾语(因为整个从句简化为只有1个宾语,所以需要大量简化),故也可以简化为:(Upon) winning the contest, Mike was awarded ten thousand dollars.
{contest:n:竞赛,比赛;vt:驳斥,争取;vi:奋斗;award:n:奖品,奖;v:授予,给予,判给;}
 
a. The motorcyclist was pulled over by the police car.
b. The motorcyclist did not wear a safety helmet. (who)
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2的交叉点是motorcyclist,籍由关系词who来连接为关系从句(形容词从句),成为:The motorcyclist who did not wear a safety helmet was pulled over by the police car.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、省略连接词、加入be动词改为be+Ving形式后(忽略表示否定的时态助动词),省略成为:The motorcyclist not wearing a safety helmet was pulled over by the police car.
{motorcyclist:n:骑摩托车的人;helmet:[音:'helmɪt];n:头盔,安全帽;pull over:路边停车;}
 
a. The mayor declined.
b. The mayor was a very busy person. (who)
c. The mayor was asked to give a speech at the opening ceremony. (when)
■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2的交叉点是The mayor,籍由关系词who来连接为关系从句(形容词从句,因为已经指明是市长,所以没有进一步修饰的空间,所以是补充说明性质的,用括弧性质的逗号隔开),成为:The mayor, who was a very busy person, declined something.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、省略连接词、省略be动词只留下补语部分,成为:The mayor, a very busy person, declined.
3). 句1和上句没有重复内容,但有表示"时间、地点"的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词when连接为副词从句,即:The mayor, a very busy person, declined when the mayor was asked to give a speech at the opening ceremony.
4). 对上句进行简化,主从句的主语相同,省略重复主语、保留有意义的连接词、从句的动词为单独的be动词,要么改为"连接词+补语"的形式,要么省略连接词改为"being"的形式,此处不能省略连接词,故而改为"连接词+补语"的形式,即:The mayor, a very busy person, declined when asked to give a speech at the opening ceremony.
{mayor:[音:'meɪər];n:市长;decline:v:下降,减少,变弱,拒绝,倾斜;n:衰微,跌落,晚年;ceremony:n:仪式,礼节,典礼;}
 
a. Tax rates are already very high. (although)
b. Tax rates might be raised further to rein in inflation.
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示"相反"的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词although连接成为副词从句,即:Although tax rates are already very high, tax rates might be raised further to rein in inflation.
2). 对上句进行简化,主从句的主语相同,省略重复主语、保留有意义的连接词(或者用still替换)、从句的动词为单独的be动词,要么改为"连接词+补语"的形式,要么省略连接词改为"being"的形式,此处保留连接词,故而改为"连接词+补语"的形式,成为:Although  already very high, tax rates might be raised further to rein in inflation.
{rate:n:比率,速度,价格,费用,等级;v:认为,估价,定等级,值得,怒斥,责骂;rein:[音:reɪn];n:缰绳,驾驭,控制;vt:控制,驾驭;vi:驾驭;inflation:n:通货膨胀,膨胀;}
 
a. The resort town is crowded.
b. There has been an influx of tourists for the holiday season. (because)
■■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示因果的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词because连接成为副词从句,即:The resort town is crowded because there has been an influx of tourists for the holiday season.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略连接词、保留非重复主语、省略无意义的there be结构,只剩下名词类补语部分,但是本句已经是svc结构,后面没有名词的空间,所以可以考虑将补语改为介词短语的形式,成为:The resort town is crowded with an influx of tourists for the holiday season.
{resort:[音:rɪ'zɔːrt];n:(度假)胜地,手段,凭借;vi:诉诸,常去;influx:[音:'ɪnflʌks];n:流入,河口,汇集,涌入;tourist:n:旅游者,二等舱;adj:观光的,乘坐二等舱的;}
 
a. The student had failed in two tests. (though)
b. The student was able to pass the course.
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示"相反"的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词though连接成为副词从句(though比较口语化,而although比较书面化),即:Though the student had failed in two tests, the student was able to pass the course.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、保留有意义的连接词(或者用still替换)、加入be动词改为beVing的形式后,省略成为:Though having failed in two tests, the student was able to pass the course. 或 用still表示though,成为:Having failed in two tests, the student was still able to pass the course.
 
a. The president avoided the issue. (that)
b. This was obvious to the audience.
■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,整个句1是句2中的主语,所以适合改为名词从句:That the president avoided the issue was obvious to the audience. 或 It was obvious to the audience that the President avoided the issue.
2). 对上句进行简化,保留连接词、保留非重复主语并改为所有格、加入be动词并给位be+Ving的形式后,省略成为:The president's avoiding the issue was obvious to the audience. 或着把从句改为名词类当作主要从句的主语来使用,成为:The President's avoidence of the issue was obvious to the audience.
{avoid:vt:避免,逃避,[]使无效,撤销;issue:n:议题,问题,期刊号,一次发行额,发行,[]子女;v:发表,公布,正式发给,发行,流出;audience:n:听众,观众,读者,倾听,拥护者,正式会见;obvious to:对……来说是明显的;}
 
a. Anyone could tell he was upset.
b. He had the look on his face. (because)
■■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示因果的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词because连接成为副词从句,即:Anyone could tell he was upset because he had the look on his face.
2). 对上句进行简化,乍一看比较难简化,其实句1是Anyone could tell something. + That he was upset (with something).两句结合成的名词从句,直接省略连接词、保留非重复主语并改为所有格的形式、加入be动词改为beVing的形式后,省略成为:Anyone could tell he was upset his having the look on his face.,看起来比较怪异的原因,就是upset后面的with something被省略掉,所以若用副词从句的另一种特殊的简化方法,即:把连接词改为意义近似的介词短语,而把整个从句简化为名词从句后作为介词短语中的宾语,后成为:Anyone could tell he was upset, with the look on his face.
{upset:adj:心烦的,苦恼的,不安的,不适的;v:推翻,翻倒,颠覆,打乱,使心烦;n:混乱,推翻;}
 
a. Michael Crichton is in town.
b. He is author of Jurassic Park. (who)
c. He could promote his new novel. (so that)
■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2的交叉点是Michael Crichton,籍由关系词who来连接为关系从句(形容词从句),因为Michael Crichton已经是具体的人,没有更进一步说明的空间,所以当作专有名词看待,成为: Michael Crichton, who is author of Jurassic Park, is in town.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略连接词、be动词,只留下补语,成为:Michael Crichton, author of Jurassic Park, is in town.
3). 句3和上句没有重复内容,但有表示"目的"的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词so that连接为副词从句,即:Michael Crichton, author of Jurassic Park, is in town so that he could promote his new novel.
4). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、助动词改为toV的形式、so that +to,可变为so as to,成为:Michael Crichton, author of Jurassic Park, is in town (so as) to promote his new novel.
{Michael Crichton:[音:ai];n:克莱顿;promote:vt:促进,提升,升迁,发起,促销,推销;}
 
a. I am a conservative. (although)
b. I'd like to see something.
c. The conservative party is chastised in the next election. (that)
■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示"相反"的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词though连接成为副词从句(though比较口语化,而although比较书面化),即:Although I am a conservative, I'd like to see something.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略重复主语、be动词(主语相同不用改变,当主语同时需要变为省略主语的"连接词+补语"形式或保留主语的"Being"形式)、保留有意义的连接词(或者用still替换),省略成为:Although (being) a conservative, I'd like to see something. 或 用still表示though,成为:Being a conservative, I'd still like to see something.
3). 句3和上句没有重复内容,整个句3是上句中的something,所以适合改为名词从句:Although (being) a conservative, I'd like to see that the conservative party is chastised in the next election.
4). 对上句进行简化,保留非重复的主语、省略连接词that、be动词,只留下补语,成为:Although (being) a conservative, I'd like to see the conservative party chastised in the next election.
{conservative:[音:kən'sɜːrvətɪv];adj:保守的,守旧的;n:保守派(党),保守的人;chastise:[音:tʃæ'staɪz];v:严惩,责难,鞭笞[chi];election:n:选举,当选,选举权;}
 
a. The man found a fly in his soup. (when)
b. The man called to the waiter.
简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示"当……的时候"的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词when连接成为副词从句,即:The man called to the waiter when the man found a fly in his soup.
或 When the man found a fly in his soup, the man called to the waiter.
2). 对上句进行简化,保留有意义的连接词、省略重复主语、加入be动词改为beVing的形式后,省略成为:The man called to the waiter when finding a fly in his soup. 或 Finding a fly in his soup, the man called to the waiter.
 
a. It is a warm day. (because)
c. We will go to the beach.
■■简化步骤:
1). 句1和句2没有重复内容,但句1和句2有表示因果的逻辑关系,所以藉由连接词because连接成为副词从句,即:Because it is a warm day, we will go to the beach.
2). 对上句进行简化,省略连接词,但是主语不同时,所以需要保留主语,那么需要省略掉连接词(否则会看做遗漏动词),并且主语后直接跟现在分词或过去分词形式的补语(必要时可以借助be动词),本句中没有分词补语,所以借用be动词的分词形式,即:It being a warm day, we will go to the beach.
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3.6 倒装句(Inversion Sentence)
3.6.1 倒装句:广义的倒装句是指把动词(或助动词)移到主语前面的句型,所以一般的疑问句都可以算作是倒装句。抛开这种只有语法功能的倒装句不谈,标准意义的倒装句是指具有修辞功能的倒装句,其用来强调语气、增强清楚性与简洁性,并能够更流畅的衔接前后的句子。
 
3.6.2 七种重要的倒装句:比较级的倒装、关系从句的倒装、假设语气的倒装、引用句的倒装、类似there is/are的倒装、否定副词开头的倒装、简单倒装。
比较级的倒装:比较级的句型通常会牵涉到两个从句的比较,而两个从句有重复的部分才能比较,由于一旦有重复就有省略的空间,因此省略不当就会伤害句子的清楚性。比较级需要用到倒装句的情形大都是:从属从句中的助动词或do动词不易省略,且从属从句的主语后面的修饰语较长。
关系从句的倒装:关系从句的关系词(关系代名词、关系副词)用来修饰先行词,如果不是原先就处于从句句首的位置,则要将其移到从句的句首以让他发挥连接词的功能(若关系词存在于介词短语中,则因为介词短语中内含关系词,所以要将整个介词短语移至先行词后面)。注意,当关系词移动到从句句首时,造成顺序的反常,才有倒装的可能;如果关系词没有移动就不能倒装。
假设语气的倒装:在假设语气的副词从句(往往由if引导)中,如果有be动词、助动词就可以考虑这种单纯的倒装句,如果没有则不能使用倒装。其具体做法是:省略掉连接词(如if)后,把be动词或助动词移到主语前面来取代连接词的功能。
引用句的倒装:在直接引用句(双引号括起来)和间接引用句(不用引号)中,都可以使用倒装句来突出引用句的内容。其具体做法是:引用句往往出现在宾语位置,为了强调引用句的内容而把它挪到句首,这样,与其紧密相关的动词也可以移到主语前,从而成为倒装句。注意,直接引用句中,主语和动词可以保持原来的顺序而不一定要倒装过来,但是间接引用句则需要倒装过来。
类似there is/are的倒装:这中倒装句的做法是:把地点副词(here、there、In……具体地名)挪到句首,句型和there is/are句型很接近,修辞功能在于强调语气和衔接上下文(例如:地点副词可以强调其后的动词、主语、甚至地点副词本身;也可以以地点副词to the west of……和to the east of……来衔接上下文)。
否定副词开头的倒装:表示否定意味的副词(not、never、hardly、barely)挪到句首来强调语气时,需要使用倒装句。这些否定副词,有时是和助动词一起来表示否定的(如:don't、will not等)、有时是来修饰动词的,所以倒装时其助动词或动词也需要迁移来保证否定副词和助动词或动词的紧密贴合。但是,原本就处于句首位置的否定副词(如:修饰位于句首的主语),则是正常位置,不需要倒装。另外,当only+adv表示强烈的否定意味时,也需要采用倒装句型。
not only……but also……的相关词组(correlative)中,but是对等连接词,要求省略号部分的严格对称。当把not only移到句首来强调语气时,因为not only是有否定功能的副词(not only和but also都是focusing adverbs,都是具有强调功能的副词),所以要采用倒装句型,且not only和but also对等的省略号部分也要求倒装(有时but also会拆开,倒装时其also不应该强调主语,而是应该和only一样强调动词)。
{barely:adv:几乎不,刚刚,勉强,少量地;}
简单倒装句:So引导的表示与前句内容相同的句子(如:Mary is pretty. So is her sister.),以及某些类似祈使句的不常用的倒装句(如:Long live the King!)。
 
3.6 本小节示例及练习:
Girls like cats more than boys. (ambiguous,模棱两可不清楚。本句既可以理解为:Girls like cats more than boys do.又可以理解为:Girls like cats more than they like boys.)
Girls like cats more than do boys, who as a rule are a cruel a lot. (Inversion Sentence,比较级倒装产生的原因:从属从句中的助动词或do动词不易省略,且主语后面的修饰语太长。上句中如果要表达"女孩比男孩更喜欢猫"的说法,则do动词不能省略(省略后无法判断boys是主语还是宾语,不清楚是被喜欢对象,还是喜欢猫的人),成为:Girls like cats more than boys, who as a rule are cruel lot, do. 该句修辞效果不佳,句中的do不能省略,但它又和他的主语距离太远,会伤害句子的清楚性,此外do代表的like cats也因为距离太远而不清楚,所以改为倒装句后,成为本句。在修辞效果上,一来do和主语放在了一起,二来do和其代表的like cats的距离也缩减到最小。)
{inversion:n:倒转,反向,倒置,[]到装法;cruel:adj:残酷的,残忍的,引起痛苦的;}
The President is a man on whom falls a heavy responsibility, whether he likes it or not. (Inversion Sentence,关系从句的倒装:关系从句的关系词(关系代名词、关系副词)用来修饰先行词,如果不是原先就处于从句句首的位置,则要将其移到从句的句首以让他发挥连接词的功能。注意,当关系词移动到从句句首时,造成顺序的反常,才有倒装的可能;如果关系词没有移动就不能倒装。本句是由:The President is a man.和A heavy responsibility, whether he likes it or not, falls on him.组成为关系从句:The President is a man on whom a heavy responsibility, whether he likes it or not, falls. (relative+s+v修辞不佳,介词短语on whom因为内含有关系词,所以要一并移到句首的位置),on whom介词短语当作副词来修饰动词fall,移动后与被修饰对象距离太远,而且主语与动词的距离也很远,所以改为倒装句成为本句。修辞效果上,依赖关系词whom和先行词在一起,二来介词短语on whom作为副词也和其修饰的动词在一起。)
The President is a man who bears a lot of responsibility. (relative clause,关系从句的倒装,关系词没有移动就不能倒装。本句中的关系从句可还原为:He bears a lot of responsibility,he改造成who后本身就在句首,无需倒装。)
Had I been there, I could have done something to help. (Inversion Sentence,假设语气的倒装:在假设语气的副词从句(往往由if引导)中,如果有be动词、助动词就可以考虑这种单纯的倒装句,如果没有则不能使用倒装。其具体做法是:省略掉连接词(如if)后,把be动词或助动词移到主语前面来取代连接词的功能。本句可还原为:If I had been there, I could have done something to help. (adverbial clause),省略掉if,并把be动词或助动词移到句首来取代if的假设语气,成为本句。)
"None was killed in the accident," said the police. (o+v+s,引用句的倒装:在直接引用句(双引号括起来)和间接引用句(不用引号)中,都可以使用倒装句来突出引用句的内容。其具体做法是:引用句往往出现在宾语位置,为了强调引用句的内容而把它挪到句首,这样,与其紧密相关的动词也可以移到主语前,从而成为倒装句。注意,直接引用句中,主语和动词可以保持原来的顺序而不一定要倒装过来,但是间接引用句则需要倒装过来。原句的正常顺序为:The police said, "None was liked in the accident." (s+v+o[direct quotation]),为了强调引用句的内容,将内容提前,对于直接引用句,主语和动词可以倒装也可以不倒装。)
{quotation:n:语录,饮用,行情,引语,报价;}
Cholera, warns the WHO, is coming back. (v+s,引用句的倒装,为了强调引用句的内容,将内容提前,对于间接引用句,主语和动词需要一并倒装。原句的正常顺序为:The WHO warns that cholera is coming back. (s+v+o[indirect quotation]),将间接引用的内容提前,并主语和动词倒装后成为本句。)
{WHO:n:世界卫生组织(World Health Organization);cholera:[音:'kɑːlərə]];n:霍乱;}
There goes the train! (adverb of place+v+s,类似there is/are的倒装:这中倒装句的做法是:把地点副词(here、there、In……具体地名)挪到句首,句型和there is/are句型很接近,修辞功能在于强调语气和衔接上下文(例如:地点副词可以强调其后的动词、主语、甚至地点副词本身;也可以以地点副词to the west of……和to the east of……来衔接上下文)。本句中,地点副词用来强调动词go。)
Here is your ticket for the opera! (adverb of place+v+s,类似there is/are的倒装。本句中,地点副词用来强调主语ticket。)
In Loch Ness dwells a mysterious monster. (adverb of place+v+s,类似there is/are的倒装。本句中,地点副词In Loch Ness用来强调地点Loch Ness和主语monster。)
{Loch Ness:[音:lɑːk nis];n:尼斯湖;dwell:[音:dwel];vi:居住,存在,冥想,详细阐述;mysterious:[音:mɪ'stɪriəs];adj:神秘的,不可思议的;}
To the west of Taiwan lies Southern China. To the east spreads the expanse of the Pacific. (类似there is/are的倒装。本句中,地点副词to the west和to the east用来衔接上下文。)
{spread:v:传播,展开,散布,铺开,伸展,涂撒;n:范围,传播,差额,幅度,盛宴;expanse:[音:ɪk'spæns];n:宽阔的区域;}
Not every day do we have such luck. (否定副词开头的倒装:表示否定意味的副词(not、never、hardly、barely)挪到句首来强调语气时,需要使用倒装句。这些否定副词,有时是和助动词一起来表示否定的(如:don't、will not等)、有时是来修饰动词的,所以倒装时其助动词或动词也需要迁移来保证否定副词和助动词或动词的紧密贴合。但是,原本就处于句首位置的否定副词(如:修饰位于句首的主语),则是正常位置,不需要倒装。另外,当only+adv表示强烈的否定意味时,也需要采用倒装句型。本句的正常顺序为:We don't have such luck every day.,为了强调"不是每天"将not every day至于句首,not是否定意味的副词,所以需要倒装为本句。注意助动词do是和not表达否定以为的,所以助动词也要前移来配合否定的需要)。
Not until you are married will I stop waiting for you. (否定副词开头的倒装,原句的正常顺序为:I will not stop waiting for you until you are marred.,not和will共同表示否定,当把not until you……提到句首来强调时,助动词will也需要倒装,从而成为本句。)
Hardly had I sat down to work when the phone rang. (否定副词开头的倒装:表示否定意味的副词(not、never、hardly、barely)挪到句首来强调语气时,需要使用倒装句。本句的正顺序为:I had hardly sat down to work when the phone rang.,本句中的否地意味的幅度,如not、never、hardly、barely等,移到句首时,也要倒装成为本句。)
Hardly anyone knew him. (否定副词开头的倒装:原本就处于句首位置的否定副词(如:修饰位于句首的主语),则是正常位置,不需要倒装。本句中hardly作为副词修饰主语anyone,其本身就在句首是正常顺序,不需要倒装。)
Only I saw him yesterday. (否定副词开头的倒装:原本就处于句首位置的否定副词(如:修饰位于句首的主语),则是正常位置,不需要倒装。本句中only作为副词修饰主语I,其本身就在句首是正常顺序,不需要倒装。)
Only yesterday did I see him. (否定副词开头的倒装:当only+adv表示强烈的否定意味时,也需要采用倒装句型。本句的正常顺序为:I saw him only yesterday. ,only yesterday表示"仅仅就是昨天,而不是更早以前的时间",其也有隐含的否定以为,所以也需要倒装成为本句。)
(没有否定以为的副词处于句首,本身就不需要倒装。)
Only gradually did they become close friends. (否定副词开头的倒装:当only+adv表示强烈的否定意味时,也需要采用倒装句型。当不带有only时,句子:Gradually they became close friends. ,句首的副词本身没有否定以为是正常顺序,但是加上only后就有了强烈的否定意味了,这时就需要倒装成为本句。)
{gradually:adv:逐渐地;}
Not only did he pass the exam but he also scored at the top. (否定副词开头的倒装:not only……but also……的相关词组(correlative)中,but是对等连接词,要求省略号部分的严格对称。当把not only移到句首来强调语气时,因为not only是有否定功能的副词(not only和but also都是focusing adverbs,都是具有强调功能的副词),所以要采用倒装句型,且not only和but also对等的省略号部分也要求倒装(有时but also会拆开,倒装时其also不应该强调主语,而是应该和only一样强调动词。原句是:He not only passed the exam but also scored at the top.,当把not only移动到句首强调时,成为:Not only did he pass the exam but also scored at the top. (X),这句中出现了对等连接词左右不对称的问题,前半句的倒装是正确的,but also的左边是从句he pass the exam,但右边却是动词短语scored at top,所以首先要修改为准确的结构,即:Not only did he pass the exam but also he scored at the top. (不准确),这样语法没问题,但是修辞效果不佳。also和only都是focusing adverbs,都有强调的功能,only用来强调did……,所以also也有用来强调动词scored,所以but also应该拆开来成为but he also scored……,这样not only did……和but he also scored……才能左右呼应而成为本句。)
Mary is pretty. So is her sister. (v+s,简单倒装句:So引导的表示与前句内容相同的句子。)
Long live the King! (v+s,单倒装句:某些类似祈使句的不常用的倒装句。)
 
 
■The students were warned that on no account B to cheat.
[A] they were     [B] were they     [C] they should     [D] they can
注释:on on account是否定副词短语,移至that从句(名词从句)句首需要倒装。 {cheat:vt:欺骗,骗取;vi:作弊,行骗;n:骗子,欺骗;}
C make up for lost time.
[A] Only by working hard we can     [B] By only working hard we can     [C] Only by working hard can we     [D] By only working hard can we
注释:only by working hard引诱only修饰,表示"只有……而非其他",所以需要到倒装。 {make up:弥补,和解,编造,整理,化妆,拼凑成;}
Rarely B such nonsense.
[A] I have heard     [B] have I heard     [C] I do hear     [D] don't hear
注释:rarely具有否定功能,需要倒装。 {rarely:adv:很少,难得;nonsense:n:废话,胡说,荒唐;}
C perched a large black bird.
[A] Often     [B] Suddenly     [C] On the wire     [D] It
注释:地点副词位于句首,类似there is/are的句型,需要倒装。 {perch:n:栖木,高位,杆,河鲈鱼;v:栖息,就位,位于;}
Only just now B to him about the thing to heed while riding a motorcycle.
[A] I talked     [B] was I talking     [C] talked I     [D] I was talked
注释:only再句首,且有否定的意味,需要到倒装。 {heed:v:注意,留心;n:注意,留心;}
■John was as confused about the rules A.
[A] as were the other contestants     [B] as the other contestants had     [C] than were the other contestants     [D] than the other contestants had
注释:前面是as confused,所以有也应为as。且前面是is,所以在as……as的对称接口中也用be动词,不能用had。而且,后面的as的主语较长,如果were至于最后会造成其描述的补语与动词相聚太远,所以采用比较级的倒装句式。 {confuse:vt:使困惑,使混乱,混淆;contestant:n:竞争者,参赛者;}
An IBM PC 286 is as powerful D on NASA's Voyager II.
[A] than the mainframe computer is     [B] than is the mainframe computer     [C] as the mainframe computer is powerful     [D] as is the mainframe computer
注释:句中采用as……as的句式,C中的is powerful重复了,所以选D。 {NASA:National Aeronautics and Space Administration(美国国家航空和航天管理局);aeronautics:[音:ˌerə'nɔːtɪks];n:航空学;voyager:[音:'vɔɪɪdʒər];n:航海者,航行者;mainfram:n:主机,大型计算机;}
■The New Testament is a book B the life and teachings of Jesus.
[A] which can be found     [B] in which can be found     [C] which can find     [D] in which can find
注释:原句是The life and teachings of Jesus can be found in the book,改成关系从句后在倒装,即是B。 {testament:n:证明,自白,[]遗嘱,<古>圣约;圣经旧约,圣经新约;The New Testament:圣经新约;teaching:n:教学,教义;adj:教学的;}
■Not until the doctor was sure everything was all right C the emergency room.
[A] he left     [B] left he     [C] did he leave     [D] he did leave
注释:not uitil在句首需要倒装。
D, man could die out.
[A] World War III should ever break out
[B] If should World War III ever break out
[C] If World War III should have broken out
[D] Should World War III ever break out
注释:原句是If World War III should ever break out……,省略if后倒装成为D。 {break out:(战争、火灾等)爆发,逃脱;}
■The results, A, the leading journal of science, indicate that the experimental procedure is flawed.
[A] says Nature     [B] Nature says     [C] which says Nature     [D] which Nature says
注释:原句是间接引用句,Nature says the result……改成倒装句成为A,比不倒装的B好,因为空格后的the leading journal of sciences是Nature的同位语,挨在一起比较好。 {nature:n:自然界,性质,自然,自然状态,本性,类型;journal:n:日志,日记,期刊;indicate:v:指示,象征,显示,暗示,预示,表明,指明;experimental:adj:实验的,实验性的,试验性的;flaw:[音:flɔː];n:瑕疵,缺陷,破绽,裂缝;v:使破裂,有瑕疵;}
Across the street from the station A.
[A] stood an old drugstore     [B] it stood an old drugstore     [C] where an old drugstore    [D] which stood an old drugstore
注释:定点副词移到句首需要倒装,类似there is/are的句型。
I tired to call some friends but A.
[A] none could I reach     [B] could I reach none     [C] I could none reach     [D] I none could reach
注释:I could reach none的倒装。 {reach:v:到达,伸出,达成,取的联系,延伸,(伸手)去够;n:范围,影响力,河段,等级;}
A trouble you again.
[A] Never will I     [B] Not I will ever     [C] Will not ever I     [D] Never I will
注释:I will never trouble you again的倒装。
Not until you paint your first oil color D the difference between theory and practice.
[A] you find out     [B] and find out     [C] finding out     [D] do you find out
注释:not until在句首需要倒装。 {theory:[音:'θɪri];n:学说,理论,原理,意见;}
■B a baby deer is born, it struggles to stand on its own feet.
[A] No sooner     [B] As soon as     [C] So soon as     [D] Not sooner that
注释:A答案需要采用倒装,而C、D都不是正确的而连接词,所以B能引导后面那个没有倒装的从句。 {struggle:vi:努力,奋斗,斗争,挣扎;n:斗争,竞争,奋斗;}
■B the invention of the movable print, books were mostly copied by hand and cost far more than ordinary people could afford.
[A] After     [B] Until     [C] Not Until     [D] Because of
注释:"活版印刷发明前,书都是用手抄,一般人根本买不起",从句意来看,只有B符合。 {invention:n:发明,虚构,发明物;ordinary:adj:平凡的,普通的,平淡的;}
B did I find out that he was dead.
[A] A moment ago     [B] Only a moment ago     [C] An only moment ago     [D] For a moment
注释:下文是倒装,所以空格部分只能选用B。
Henry James is B is his philosopher brother William.
[A] famous and also     [B] as famous as     [C] famous so     [D] equally famous
注释:比较级后面已经倒装了。 {philosopher:[音:fə'lɑːsəfər];n:哲学家,思想家啊,达观者;}
A does the recluse venture out of his hermitage.
[A] Seldom     [B] Often     [C] Occasionally     [D] Sometimes
注释:下文是倒装,所以选用需要倒装的Seldom。 {recluse:[音:'rekluːs];n:隐士;n:venture:n:冒险(事业),风险,投机,企业;v:冒险,敢于,冒昧地说;hermitage:n:隐居之处,隐士生活,修道院,罗纳葡萄酒;seldom:adv:很少,难得;occasion:n:场合,时机,理由,机会,盛大场面;vt:引起,致使;occasional:adj:偶然的,临时的,不时的;occasionally:adv:偶尔地;}
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posted on 2014-12-29 10:35  RJ  阅读(...)  评论(... 编辑 收藏

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