Rocho.J

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【英语魔法俱乐部——读书笔记】 2 中级句型-复句&合句(Complex Sentences、Compound Sentences)

【英语魔法俱乐部——读书笔记】 2 中级句型-复句&合句(Complex Sentences、Compound Sentences):(2.1)名词从句、(2.2)副词从句、(2.3)关系从句、(2.4)对等连接词与对等从句

 

 

2.0 中级句型-复句&合句
2.0.1 复句(Complex Sentences):将一个句子改造成类似名词、形容词、副词的形态,并放到另一个句子中使用,该句子就称为从属从句,另一句则称为主要从句,而合并后的具有主从之分的句子就称为复句。复句的从属从句主要有:名词从句、形容词从句、副词从句。
合句(Compound Sentences):由and、or、but等连接词将两个独立的简单句连接起来而组成的句子,并且两个独立简单句之间维持平行、对等的关系,没有主、从之分,就称为合句。合句可以当成两个简单句子来解释,两句之间互为单纯的对等从句关系,只要注意对等从句之间的对称要求即可。
 
2.0.2 名词从句:名词从句是个独立的简单句,其外加连接词that成为名词从句,放在主要从句的主语、宾语、补语或同位语位置上。
 
2.0.3 形容词从句:形容词从句又称为"关系从句",即:两个独立的简单句之间必须要有关系,也就是要有重复元素存在。
 
2.0.4 副词从句:副词从句是比较简单的从属从句,其有点类似于对等从句(合句),其也是由连接词来连接两个独立的句子,只不过其连接词是具有7个类型:时间(地点)、条件、原因(因果)、目的、让步、限制、方法(状态)等关系的连接词,而不是由对等连接词(and、or、but)连接而已。副词从句和对等从句(合句)都是单纯的关系,只不过副词从句比对等从句多一层修饰关系。
 
2.0 本小节示例及练习:
Girls like dolls, but boys like robots. (合句可以当成两个互为对等关系的简单句来解释,只要注意对称要求即可。) {doll:v:打扮;n:玩具娃娃,美貌女子,有吸引力的人;}
I know that I am right.(svo) (名词从句,由I know something(svo) + I am right组成,其中I am right是独立简单句,其外加连接词that成为名词从句,放在主要从句中做宾语。)
My father is a man who always keeps his word.
                      ↑                    |
                      |-----------------|
(形容从句,两个简单句之前必有重复元素来作为关系而存在。本句由My father is a man + He always keeps his word组成,其中前句的a man和后句的he存在重复而建立关系,然后再将后句中重复的he改写成关系词who,就可以把两句连在一起。who always keeps his word是用来形容前面的名词man,所以称为形容词从句。)
He works hard because he's in need of money.
        ↑                                 |
        |----------------------------|
(副词从句,类似于对等从句(合句),只不过其连接词是具有修饰关系的连接词而不是对等连接词。本句由He works hard+ He's in need of money组成,前句和后句都是独立的句子,但两者之间具有因果关系,所以用表示因果关系的连接词because放在后句前面而把两句连接起来。其中becuase he's in need of money修饰主要从句中的动词works,所以称为副词从句。)
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2.1 名词从句(Noun Clause)
2.1.1 名词从句的典型特色:a. 名词从句本来是一个完整、独立的简单句。 b. 前面加上无意义的连接词that表示后边跟着一个名词从句(that只有语法功能而无实际意义)。 c. 名词从句必须位于主要从句的名词位置(主语、宾语、补语、同位语等)位置,当作名词使用。
主语位置的名词从句:名词从句和主要从句的主语是重复元素,将名词从句(that+简单句)放入主要从句的主要位置。如果名词从句比较长,直接放入主语位置会让人不太好阅读,此时可以使用虚词(expletive)来填入主语位置,让主要从句使用It……的形式来表达,而名词从句则后移成为复句。
宾语位置的名词从句:名词从句和主要从句的宾语是重复元素,将名词从句(that+简单句)放入主要从句的宾语位置。名词从句前面的that只具有标示语法的功能,而没有实际意义,而在宾语从句中宾语位置是明显的从属位置,省略连接词that后,句意依然清楚,所以可以省略。但是主语位置则不行,所以能够省略that要看"省略that后能不恩能够维持句意的清晰"。同样,宾语较长是可以使用虚词it作为宾语,而名词从句后移成为it的同位语。
补语位置的名词从句:名词从句和主要从句的补语是重复元素,将名词从句(that+简单句)放入主要从句的补语位置。名词类的主语补语和主语之间是同等关系,因此名词从句只要放在be动词后面的补语位置即可。同样,只要不会产生断句的困难或意思混淆就可以省略连接词that。
同位语位置的名词从句:名词从句和主要从句的同位语是重复元素,将名词从句(that+简单句)放入主要从句的同位语位置。同位语位置的名词从句在省略掉连接词that后,句意依然不变,因此需要注意省略了连接词that之后的同位语位置的名词从句,如:You'd better take care that nothing goes wrong.(svo+appositive结构,该句可看成You'd better take care of that thing. + Nothing goes wrong.连个独立句子组成,后句加上that后并省略掉前句中的介词短语后,成为You'd better take care nothing goes wrong.)
 
2.1.2 名词从句的放大和强调:有时名词从句的内容比主要从句更重要,需要强调名词从句的内容,这时可以把名词从句当作主要从句处理,反而把主要从句缩小并放入括弧性质的逗号当中,即:把连接词that去掉并往前移,使之看起来像主要从句,再把真正的主要从句往后移到比较不重要的位置,并用逗号隔开。同时,为了解决由名词从句前移或主句后移而带来的修饰内容和被修饰内容的距离间隔的问题,也可以采用倒装句法来解决。
 
2.1.3 疑问句改装为名词从句:除了典型的以连接词that引导的名词从句,用来表示"那件事情"(that thing)之外,还有以疑问词(who、what、when等)引导的疑问句,也可以改装成名词从句,用来代表一个问题(the question)。改装方法是将疑问句改为非疑问句的顺序,并将疑问词当作连接词用,将其直接放入主要从句的"the question"位置即可。
比较特别的疑问词Whether不能独立当作疑问词来引导带问号的疑问句,它只能引导代表一个问题(which,"是哪一个?")的名词从句。whether的本质是which+either,大多数情况下其可以和解释为"是否"的if互换,但是在句首不可以,因为放在句首的if会被误以为是表示"如果"的副词从句。此外,介词短语中的介词后面也只能用whether而不能用if,因为whether是which和either合成的字,其中的which代表名词类,因此可以作为介词的宾语,而介词后必须使用名词短语的原因否定了其后使用if连接词引导的名词从句的可能性。
 
2.1.4 名词从句的形态:a. 完整的简单句加上无意义的连接词that,代表"那件事"。 b. 疑问词引导的疑问句的改装,不用加连接词,代表"那个问题",其中whether有时可以改写为if,但是句首和介词短语的宾语位置不可改写为if。
名词从句属于名词类,其在主要从句中位于名词位置(主语、宾语、补语、同位语)使用。
 
2.1 本小节示例及练习:
That he didn't show up on time is strange.(s,名词性从句做主语,该句由Something is strange.(s) + He didn't show up on time两句组成,后句加上that作为名词形态放入主句的主语位置。此句中的名词从句较长,可能会让读者看不清楚,这时可以用虚词来填入主语位置,从而让主句能够清楚地表达出来,而名词从句后移即可。)
It is strange that he didn't show up on time.(expletive+s,此句中的名词从句较长,因而使用虚词来填入主语位置,让主句能够清楚地表达出来,而名词从句后移成为前者的复句。)
The defendant said that he didn't do it.(svo,名词从句做宾语,该句由The defendant said something.(svo) + He didn't do it.组成,后句加上that作为名词形态放入主句的宾语位置。由于that只有语法标示功能而没有实际意义,所以放在宾语位置的名词从句明显是从属位置,因此省略连接词that后句意并不会不清楚,而主语位置则不然。例如:The defedant said (that) he didn't do it(o),省略that后句意依然清楚,而(That) he didn't show up is strange(s),省略that后就会让人误以为He didn't show up是主句,然后又跟着is strange就会感觉比较奇怪。) {defendant:n:被告;}
I find it strange that he didn't show up  on time.(expletive+o,名词从句做宾语,该句由I find something strange.(svoc) + He didn't show up on time组成,后句加上that作为名词形态放入主句的宾语位置。此句的宾语位置后还有个补语,如果宾语从句太长,就会使补语离得较远而不便于句子的阅读和理解,此时可以用虚词it来代替名词从句做宾语,而真正的名词从句后移就成为该句的形态。)
The car is ruined. The important thing is that we're all right.(svc,名词从句做补语,该句中名词类的主语补语和主语是同等关系,即:the important thing = we‘re all right,所以把we’re all right前面加上that(表示"那件事情")来形成名词从句,并放入主句be动词后的补语位置,使之和主句的主语the important thing同等,而成为一个复句。同样,只要不产生断句困难或意思的混淆,依然可以省略连接词that后成为:THe important thing is we're all right.)
The story that he once killed a man might just be true.(s+appositive,名词从句做同位语,he once killed a man原是一个完整的简单句,加上连接词that后成为名词从句并放入主句主语后面的同位语的位置,成为与主语同等的东西。) {appositive:同位语;}
I am afraid that I can't help you.(svc+appositive,名词从句做同位语,此句中I can't help you是完整的简单句,外加连接词that成为名词从句,其需要放在主句的名词位置,而主句I am afraid中看不出有任何名词的位置,原因是主句经过了省略,其原句应该是I am afraid of that thing + I can't help you,后句加上that成文名词从句,其可以视为主句中thing的同位语。其成为同位语的原因:a. that thing无意义 b. that thing与that I can't help you重复 c.of that thing是可有可无的介词短语,将其省略后就成为I am afraid that I can't help you。)
You'd better take care that nothing goes wrong.(svo+appositive,名词从句做同位语,该句的宾语是care,同样没有位置放置名词从句,而原句可以视为You'd better take care of that thing + Nothing goes wrong组成,后句加上that成为名词形态放入主句的that thing后面作为同位语,然后在省略掉无意义的介词短语,就成为You‘d better take care that nothing goes wrong. )
This is your last offer, I suppose?(svc,sv,名词从句的放大与强调,当名词从句的内容有时比主句更重要时,我们可以选择把名词从句当主要从句看待,而把主要从句缩小并放入括弧性质的逗号当中。该句翻译为"我想这就是你们最后的报价吧?"该句中找不到连接词,我们先还原到正常语序I suppose that this is your last offer?(svo),该句由I suppose something + that this is your last offer组成,后者是重要内容,却在从属位置,因此可以做放大处理:将名词从句前的连接词that省略掉,并前移,使之看起来像主要从句,再把主要从句往后移到不重要的位置,并用逗号隔开即可。)
The earthquake was a 6.9, said Dr. Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan Geological Observatory. (ovs,名词从句的放大与强调,当名词从句的内容更重要时,我们可以把名词从句的that去掉后前移,并将其当主句看待,把主句缩小后移放在逗号性质的括弧后边。引用句还可以采用倒装句式来强调名词从句的内容。该句可还原为Dr. Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan Geological Observatory, said that the earthquake was a 6.9.(svo),句中的几级地震是重点,所以将名词从句做放大处理,即:省略掉连接词that并前移,使之看起来像主要从句,成为The earthquake was a 6.9, Dr. Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan Geological Observatory, said.,放大后的句子的主语Dr. Chang和动词said间隔太远,修辞效果不佳,所以把动词到装到主语前面,成为该句的最终形态。) {director:n:导演,经理,懂事,主任;observatory:n:天文台,气象台,瞭望台;}
I know who you are.(svo,疑问句改装的名词从句,原句由I know the question.(svo) + who are you?组成,将疑问句改成非疑问句的顺序who you are后即成为名词从句,其中疑问词who作为连接词,将整个名词从句放入主要从句的宾语位置(the question位置)而成为复句。)
When the bomb will go off is anybody's guess.(s,疑问句改装的名词从句,原句由The question is anybody's guess.(s) + When will the bomb go off?组成,将后句改为非疑问句的顺序,不需要连接词,直接放入主要从句的主语位置即可构成复句。) {go off:变质,爆炸,熄灭;}
I can't tell whether he's telling the truth or not.(o,特别疑问词whether改装的名词从句,whether并不能引导一个带问号的疑问句,而只能引导代表一个问题的名词从句。该句可还原为:I can't tell which.(svo) + Either he's telling the truth or he's not.组成,前句中的which也可代表一个"是哪一个?"的问题,后句的选择项(either…or)放入主句的宾语位置,把which和either结合就成为whether,用来引导后面的名词从句。该句中的whether也可以改成if。)
Whether the stock market will improve or not is impossible to say now.(s,特别疑问词whether改装的名词从句,该句可还原为:Either the stock market will improve or it will not. + (The question) which is impossible to say now.(s)组成,前句结合后句的either成为whether引导的名词从句,来放入后句的主语位置,从而成为复句。该证据中由于whether至于句首,不能用if代替,因为if会让读者误以为是表示"如果"的副词从句。)
The treatment will be decided by whether the tumor is malignant or not.(prep+o,特别疑问词whether改装的名词从句,该句可还原为:Either the tumor is malignant or it is not. + The treatment will be decided by (the question) which.(prep+o)组成,前句中的either结合主句中的which形成whether引导的名词从句,但是whether位于介词短语的宾语位置,这里只能是名词短语而不适合连接词if引导的名词从句,所以介词短语后的whether也不能用if代替。) {malignant:adj:有恶意的,恶性的,有害的;}
 
 
■Although Columbus knew the earth was round, he could not imagine B.
[A] how was it large     [B] how large it was     [C] of what large it was     [D] of that what size
注释:空格位置是宾语位置,而由疑问词引导的名词从句可以放在宾语位置,不过要改成非疑问句的顺序。故,选B。
A in the stratosphere is depleted is not completely understood.
[A] How ozone     [B] While ozone     [C] Ozone     [D] Ozone that
注释:空格后接连有is depleted和is not understood两个动词短语,所以应该有两个从句。A中的疑问词引导的名词从句作为后面的is not completely understood这个动词短语的主语。 { stratosphere:n:平流层,高层次,最高阶段;deplete:vt:耗尽,使空竭;}
It is believed A into modern birds.
[A] that pterosaurs evolved     [B] what pterosaurs were evolved     [C] it was pterosaurs were evolved     [D] peterosaurs that were evolved
注释:it是虚词,代表一个以that引导的名词从句,改从句在主要从句中做主语,因it虚词的引入而将名词从句后移。{pterosaurs:[音:pterə'sɔːz];n:飞龙类,飞龙目;}
■The fact D the forests of North America are shrinking almost as fast as are those of the Amazon Basin is largely ignored by the American people.
[A] of     [B] which     [C] is that     [D] that
注释:主要从句是The fact…… is largely ignored by American people. 空格后边的从句the forests of North America are shrinking fast……是完整的简单句,前面加上that后成为名词从句,作为the fact的同位语。{basin:n:盆地,流域,脸盆;}
The report D some birds guide African natives to honeybee hives was for a long time discredited by the scientific community.
[A] why     [B] which     [C] what     [D] that
注释:主要从句是The report…… was for a long time discredited by the scientific community(这项报告……有很长一段时间不被科学界采信). 空格后面的some birds guide African natives to honeybee hives(有些鸟类引导非洲土著找到蜂窝)是个完整的简单句,加上that成为名词从句后当作the report的同位语。 {discredit:n:丧失名誉,怀疑,丢脸,信任;vt:败坏……的名声,怀疑,不信;community:n:社区,社会,团体;}
Riding the rapids down the Colorado, Captain Powell was determined to prove D could be traversed.
[A] the Grand Canyon it     [B] that in the Grand Canyon     [C] how in the Grand Canyon     [D] that the Grand Canyon
注释:空格位置是宾语位置,只有D中的that引导的名词从句可以在主句中做宾语使用。{rapid:n:急流,湍摊;adj:迅速的,块的,险峻的;traverse:v:横贯,穿越,详细讨论,阻止;[]遍历;n:横贯,横木;the grand canyon:卡罗拉多大峡谷;}
She wouldn't tell me A she saw there.
[A] what     [B] that     [C] which     [D] how
注释:空格是tell的宾语位置,A中的引文次what引导的名词从句可以当作宾语使用。
Quantum physicists are interested in C tiny particles move.
[A] what     [B] which     [C] how     [D] that
注释:空格位置是介词短语in的宾语位置,应使用名词类。C中的疑问词引导的名词从句可以放在介词in后作介词短语的宾语。{quantum:n:定量,量,量子;particle:n:颗粒,微粒,粒子;}
C after lying dormant for hundreds of years is hard to believe.
[A] It is seeds that can sprout     [B] Seeds can sprout     [C] That seeds can sprout     [D] Sprouting seeds
注释:主要从句是"Something" is hard to believe,其动词表示出主语是单数,只有C中的That引导的名词从句可以做is的主语。{dormant:adj:休眠的,静止的,潜伏的,冬眠的;sprout:n:芽,年幼者;v:长芽,萌芽,迅速成长;}
■Whether she can do the job depends on how well prepared C.
[A] is she     [B] can she     [C] she is     [D] she can
注释: depend on后面又是另一个问题:How well prepared is she?改成名词从句后在主句的介词短语中做介词的宾语。
After comparing the two answer sheets, the teacher came to the conclusion C in the exam.
[A] is the students cheated     [B] which is the students that cheated     [C] that the students cheated     [D] what the students cheated
注释:空格部分是conclusion的同位语,所以应该使用that引导的名词从句,故选C。{conclusion:n:结尾,结论,结束;}
Scientists believe B made the moon as cold as it is.
[A] that an atmosphere is absent     [B] that the absence of an atmosphere     [C] what was the absence an atmosphere     [D] an atmosphere is absent
注释:空格位置是宾语位置,所以B中的that引导的名词从句可以用来做宾语。{atmosphere:n:大气,空气,气压;absent:adj:缺席的,不在的;vt:使缺席;absence:n:缺乏,缺席;}
■B is decided by the ecological role that it plays.
[A] An animal sees well     [B] Whether an animal sees well     [C] Does an animal see well     [D] So an animal sees well
注释:空格部分是is decided的主语部分,所以应用名词从句。既然需要decided的事情,所以应该用疑问句改造的名词从句,故选B。{ecological:adj:生态的,生态学的;}
■Analysts agree D is too much "hot money" circulating in the stock market.
[A] what     [B] which     [C] that     [D] that there
注释:空格位置是宾语位置,而且Analyst agre(分析家一致认为),所以应该是表示叙述看法的名词从句而不能用疑问句形态的名词从句,所以选D。{circulate:n:流通,循环,传播;vt:使流通,使环流;}
Have you wondered whether A too late to change your job?
[A] it is     [B] is it     [C] that it is     [D] is
注释:特别的疑问词whether改造的名词从句作为wonder的宾语,疑问词作为连接词,所以不用that,故选A。{wonder:v:惊奇,想知道;n:奇迹,奇观;adj:奇妙的,非凡的;wander:n:漫步,徘徊,闲逛;vt:漫步于;vi:漫步,蜿蜒,徘徊;闲逛,迷路;}
■D is impossible to tell now.
[A] When will it snow     [B] Whether will snow     [C] When it snows     [D] Whether it will snow
注释:空格部分应选择一个由疑问句改造的名词从句,来做主要从句的主语使用,故选D。C中的when it snows解释为"下雪的时候"是副词从句,不能做主语。
■Such an opportunity, A, comes only once in a lifetime.
[A] the salesman says     [B] that the salesman says     [C] which says the salesman     [D] what the salesman says
注释:空格位置位于两个逗号之间,是一个括弧性质的插入结构。本句可视为一个间接引用句,空格部分用来介绍说话的人,所以选择A。
■Many voters are concerned C may not be able to deliver on his promises.
[A] over the candidate     [B] with the candidate     [C] that the candidate     [D] that candidate that
注释:空格是以that引导的名词从句,由于已有动词may not be,所以只缺that来构成名词从句,做主要从句的同位语。其中主句Many voters are concerned (of that thing) that the candidate……中,省略了介系短语。{deliver:v:递送,发表,交付,履行;}
■I find D that he didn't take the money.
[A] to believe hard     [B] it to believe hard     [C] it hardly to believe     [D] it hard to believe
注释:空格后面的that引导的名词从句被往后移而以虚词it代替主要从句中动词find的宾语。
■Babylon is C Bagdad.
[A] that is now     [B] what now     [C] what is now     [D] that now
注释:原句可还原为Babylon is the place that is now Bagdad. "巴格达就是今天叫做巴格达的地方",that从句是形容词从句,如果省略掉that的先行词the place,就得把that换成另一个关系词what,所以选C。
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2.2 关系从句/形容词从句(Relative Clause / Adjective Clause)
2.2.1 关系从句又称为形容词从句,其如果没有经过任何省略,则均应该以形容词看待,即:在省略之前,关系从句全部都是形容词从句,所有的形容词从句也都是关系从句,两者间可划等号。以关系从句的方式来组成复合句需要满足以下3个条件:a. 两个句子要有交叉点,即:两个句子间要有一个重复元素,并藉此元素来建立"关系"。b. 把交叉点改写为关系词的拼法(wh-),让其产生连接词的功能。c. 将关系从句依附于主要从句的交叉点后来修饰交叉点(名词),关系从句作形容词使用。注意:若关系词存在于介词短语中,则因为介词短语中内含关系词,所以要将整个介词短语移至先行词(交叉点)的后面。
关系从句(形容词从句)的连接词是主要从句中内含字眼的改写,而名词从句、副词从句的连接词都是外加的。
 
2.2.2 关系从句与主要从句的交叉点,可能是代名词、副词,相应的改为wh-的拼法后,分别称为:关系代名词(关系代词)、关系副词。常见的关系代名词和关系副词如下:
     代名词                              关系代名词
     he(she, they)                     who
     it(they)                             which
     his(her, their, its)               whose
     him(her, them)                  whom
     
     副词                                 关系副词
     then                                    when
     there                                   where
     so                                       how
     for a reason                         why
 
2.2.3 关系代名词可以省略的原因:关系代名词依附于主要从句的先行词的后面,其实际上是先行词的重复,当两个从句的断句清晰,即使省略掉关系词也不会影响句子的清楚性时,就可省略关系代名词(关系代词)。当关系代名词当宾语或补语时,因为关系代名词要往前移,即使省略掉它,后面还是s+v的构造,可以和主要从句区分清楚,因而可以省略;而关系代名词当主语时,省略关系代名词则会造成断句的苦难,所以通常不可省略。
 
2.3.4 关系从句如果有指示的作用时,其关系代名词who、which可以用that来取代,其中that是借鉴于指示代名词,具有指示的功能。由于that的指示功能明确,所以常用在各种下定义的句型中。当关系从句的指示要求教强烈时,一般都选择that,如果用who、which就不恰当,但是当其指示要求没那么强烈时用which也是可以的,只是没有that更合适罢了。
同样,关系从句如果缺乏指示功能时,就不应该借用指示代名词that当关系词;并且如果关系从句没有指示作用,而且只是起补充说明的性质,则应该用逗号将先行词(antecedent)与关系词(relative)隔开,而且也不能再借用指示代名词that了,这时逗号的功能和括弧类似,就是所谓的逗号形式的括弧(括弧就是用来作补充说明作用的)。由于逗号将两个从句打断开来,不能再共用先行词这个重复点,所以即使关系词作宾语也不能省略了。
 
2.3.5 关系代名词与先行词重复,所以有时可以省略关系词,同样,先行词有时候也可以省略。省略先行词的要求:a. 先行词是空的、没有内容的字眼(如:thing、people等空泛的字眼)。b. 关系从句与先行词之间不能有逗号隔开,而且因为先行词是属于重要元素的名词类,而不是可有可无的修饰语,所以省略掉先行词后,关系从句就缺少了重要成份,故而关系从句的关系词要有所变化,其可能的变化形式为:what(表示前面省略掉的先行词所代表的内容)、whoever(表示不管先行词是谁,指人)、whichever(表示"任意选哪一个"的意思)。注意,省略先行词而带来的what、whoever、whichever变化的关系从句,也可以当做疑问词引导的名词从句来处理。
 
2.3.6 关系从句属于形容词类,是修饰语性质,而它修饰的对象就是先行词位置的名词,所以一般情况下关系从句要放在先行词后面,以满足修饰语与其修饰的对象应该尽量接近的原则,以增强修饰对象的明确性,但是假如关系从句直接放在先行词后面会引起误解,则要将其移开或者改动一下句型,所以关系从句的位置并不确定,其位置的判断标准是:"放在哪个位置最清楚?"。
 
2.3.7 关系从句中的副词成分和主要从句中的先行词重复时,就需要将连接词改写为关系副词,关系副词作为副词类,不像关系代词是重要的名词类,所以可以比较自由的省略,其先行词不需要做变化,但是和关系代词一样,如果有括弧性质的逗号隔开,就不能省略了。常见的关系副词有:when(表示从句中时间副词的改写)、where(表示从句中地方副词的改写)、how/why(表示从句中so改写的how和for a reason改写的why)。关系副词或副词类先行词的省略要求:a. 先行词和连接词(关系副词)都是空洞、无内容的字眼。b. 先行词和连接词(关系副词)重复。c. 先行词和连接词(关系副词)都是可有可无的副词类。当满足这三个要求时,先行词和关系副词需要选择一个来省略,以避免重复并使句子紧凑些。
省略先行词而留下关系副词的关系从句,也可以看做是副词从句,这是因为把连接词(关系副词)看做外加的连接词,虽然道理上讲得通,但分析的不透彻,因为连接词(关系副词)是内含的关系副词,只是省略了先行词而已,所以不论省略先行词还是省略(连接词)关系副词的形容词从句,都只是形容词从句的不同省略形式而已,应该同样解释为关系从句。
 
2.3.8 有逗点隔开的关系从句:不论是关系代名词还是关系副词引导的关系从句,用逗号将其与主要从句隔开的原因是:将逗号视为一组起补充说明作用的括弧,而括弧中的关系从句具有补充说明的功能,失去了指示的功能,所以用逗号隔开的关系从句中不能用指示代名词that,并且关系词也不能省略。当先行词是具体明确的时间、地点或疑问时,因为这些明确的内容不是模糊的,其已经无法进一步指认,只能当做补充说明使用,所以要用括弧性质的逗号隔开。
 
2.3.9 Wh-ever:wh-ever有两种解释方式:当解释为no matter wh-的时候,其是表示让步、条件的语气,后接的从句是直接附在主要从句上作修饰语的副词从句;当解释为anyone/anything that的时候,其表示省略掉先行词的关系从句,当然也可以看作是在主要从句中扮演名词角色(主语、宾语、补语、同位语)的名词从句。
 
2.2 本小节示例及练习:
For boyfriend I'm looking for a man who is tall, rich, and well-educated. (antecedent[先行词] + relative/adjective clause,关系从句组成复合句的条件:a. 两个简单句有交叉(建立"关系")。b. 把交叉点改写为wh-的拼法(a man就是he所代表的对象,即:先行词)。c. 将关系从句赋予主要从句的交叉点之后(制造关系从句,作形容词使用)。本句中,原始句子为:For boyfriend I'm looking for a man和He is tall, rich, and well-educated,两句的交叉点为a man和he,然后将交叉点改写为wh-的拼法,即:Who is tall, rich, and well-educated (sv),之后将改写后的句子挪到交叉点之后构成本句)。
I know that I am right. (s+v+conj+o[noun clause],名词从句的连接词是外加的,关系从句的连接词是内含字眼的改写。)
I know this because I have proof. (s+v+o+conj+adverbial clause,副词从句的连接词是外加的,关系从句的连接词是内含字眼的改写。)
I don't trust people who talk too much. (s+v+o+relative clause,关系从句没有外加的连接词,其连接词是句子内含字眼的改写,产生的关系从句属于形容词的功能,用来修饰先行词)。
The man (whom) you saw just now is my uncle. (s1+o+s2+v2+v1+c,本句由The man is my uncle. (svc)和You saw him just now. (svo)两句组成,交叉重复点在The man和him,所以后句改为wh-的拼法,即:you saw whom just now (svo),将后句中的whom提前并移到先行词the man的后面组成该句。该句中省略了先行词whom后,后面仍是一个sv结构,不会和主句混淆,所以可以省略。)
The man who was here just now is my uncle. (s1+s2+v2+c2+v1+c1,关系词(交叉点)做主语时不能省略关系词(连接词),该句是由The man is my uncle.(svc)和He was here just now.(svc)两句组成,后句改成wh-拼法,即:who was here just now(svc),然后在合并为该句。该句如果省略掉连接词(关系从句的主语),成为The man was here just now is my uncle.(X),会造成断句上的困难的,所以是错误语法,该句的关系词(连接词)不可省略)。
He is not the man (who) he used to be. (s1+v1+c+s2+v2,关系词作为补语,原句是He is not the man(svc)和He used to be the man(svc)两句组合而成,交叉(重复点)是补语位置,所以仍用who,后句改为wh-的拼法,即:who he used to be (csv),关系从句挪到先行词后成为:He is not he man who he used to be,同样该句省略关系词后并不会造成断句的困难,所以可以省略。)
Man is an animal that is capable of reason. (s1+v1+s2+v2,that借自指示代名词,有指示作用的关系从句需要借用that作先行词。关系从句指出"有理性能力的那种"动物才能示人,所以用具有指示功能的that。) {capable:adj:有能力的,能干的,有……可能性;be capable of:有能力,能够;}
Meteorology is a science that deals with the behavior of the atmosphere. (s1+v1+s2+v2,that借自指示代名词,具有明确的指示作用,常用在各种下定义的句子中。本句中用which也不算错,指示的要求不算很强烈。) {meteorology:n:[音ˌmiːtiə'rɑːlədʒi],气象学,气象状态;atmosphere:n:大气,空气,气氛;}
Money is (the only things) that interests him. (s1+v1+antecedent+s2+v2,强烈的指示性的要求,一般选择用that。)
He's (the best man) that I can recommend. (s1+v1+antecedent+s2+v2,强烈的指示性的要求,一般选择用that。)
Spaceman Armstrong was (the first man) that set foot on the moon. (s1+v1+antecedent+s2+v2,强烈的指示性的要求,一般选择用that。)
For boyfriend, I'm considering (your brother John), who is tall, rich, etc. (s1+v1+antecedent+s2+v2,关系从句缺乏指示的功能,不能用that,并且其只是补充说明的性质,应该用括弧性质的逗号将关系从句与先行词隔开。本句中,先行词your brother John是专有名词,已经明确知道是谁,关系从句不再具有指出是谁或是那种人的功能。因而关系从句只有补充说明的作用,说明"考虑John的原因",所以应该放在括弧性质的逗号后面而不再用指出是"哪个/哪种"的指示性关系代词that,这种补充说明的关系从句在传统语法中被称为"非限定性关系从句")。
I like (books), whatever the subject, that have illustrations. (s1+v1+antecedent+s2+v2,本句中的关系从句是第二个逗号后面的内容,即:that have illustrations,虽然关系从句前面也是个逗号,可是这个逗号是和前一个逗号构成一组括弧,把whatever the subject扩在里面其补充说明的作用,而关系从句本身并不在括号中,关系从句本身仍然是个具有指示功能的从句,指出"喜欢的那一种书",所以还是借用指示代名词that。) {illustration:n:说明,插图,图解,例证;}
I like (TIME Classic Words), which many people like, too. (s1+v1+antecedent+o+s2+v2,本句中的先行词是个书名,听过的人已经明确是哪本书,所以后面的关系从句是补充说明的性质,应该放在括弧性质的逗号后,关系代词没有指示功能,所以关系代词用which,并且因为已经有逗号隔开,两个从句已经断开,所以关系代词即使是宾语也不能省略,which作为关系从句自己的宾语使用。) {TIME Classic Words:《时代经典用字》}
I have what you need. (s1+v1+s2+v2,关系从句中的先行词、关系词(连接词)均可以省略,省略关系词只要不影响断句即可,而省略先行词首先要保证先行词是"空洞"的字眼,然后需要将关系词改写为what、whoever、whichever的形式以以替先行词的句子成分,当然,关系词前面有逗号的情况,不论是先行词和关系词均不能省略。在做句型分析事,也可以把这种省略先行词的情况解释为wh-引导的名词从句。本句是由I have the thing. (svo)和You need it. (svo)组成,交叉点是the thing和it,改写为-wh并迁移变成:I have (the thing) that/which you need.(s1+v1+o1(antecedent)+relative(o2)+s2+v2),省略先行词that并改为what之后变成本句。)
I have the thing you need. (s1+v1+s2+v2,上句如果省略了关系代词则变成本句。)
I'll shoot whoever moves. (s1+v1+s2+v2,关系从句中的先行词、关系词(连接词)均可以省略,省略关系词只要不影响断句即可,而省略先行词首先要保证先行词是"空洞"的字眼,然后需要将关系词改写为what、whoever、whichever的形式以以替先行词的句子成分,当然,关系词前面有逗号的情况,不论是先行词和关系词均不能省略。在做句型分析事,也可以把这种省略先行词的情况解释为wh-引导的名词从句。本句是由I'll shoot any person. (svo)和He moves. (sv)组成,确定交叉点并改为关系代词(这里要用具有指示作用的指示代名词that)成为:I'll shoot any person that moves.(s1+v1+o(antecedent)+s2(relative)+v2),省略掉先行词any person后,关系代词要改成whoever变成本句。本句由于关系词作为主语,因为省略后会引起断句苦难,所以关系词不可省略。)
You can take any car you like. (s1+v1+o+s2+v2,关系从句中的先行词、关系词(连接词)均可以省略,省略关系词只要不影响断句即可,而省略先行词首先要保证先行词是"空洞"的字眼,然后需要将关系词改写为what、whoever、whichever的形式以以替先行词的句子成分,当然,关系词前面有逗号的情况,不论是先行词和关系词均不能省略。在做句型分析事,也可以把这种省略先行词的情况解释为wh-引导的名词从句。本句是由You can take any car. (svo)和You like it. (svo)组成,确定交叉点并改为具有指示作用的关系词that成为:You can take any car that you like. (s1+v1+o1+o2(relative)+s2+v2),省略关系代词后成为本句。)
You can take whichever (car) you like. (s1+v1+o+s2+v2,上句也可以省略空洞的先行词any car, 并对关系代词that做修改为wh-的拼法,成为本句。这种省略先行词的情况也可以解释为wh-引导的名词从句)。
There are two apples in the basket which is lying on the table. (antecedent+relative clause,一般说来修饰语与被修饰的对象应该尽可能接近,以增强其明确性,也就是:关系从句(修饰语)要放在先行词(被修饰对象)的后面,但是若关系从句放在先行词后会引起误解,则要将其移开或改动一下句型。本句是由There are two apples in the basket.和The basket is lying on the table.组成,关系从句的位置够清楚,其动词是is的单数形式,表示主语whihc是单数,所以先行词只能是basket,不会成为apples,所以是可以的。)
In the basket you can find two apples which I bought. (antecedent+relative clause,一般说来修饰语与被修饰的对象应该尽可能接近,以增强其明确性,也就是:关系从句(修饰语)要放在先行词(被修饰对象)的后面,但是若关系从句放在先行词后会引起误解,则要将其移开或改动一下句型。本句是由You can find two apples in the basket.和I bought the apples.组成,找出交叉点后修改为wh-的拼法并移动到先从此后面成为:You can find two apples which I bought in the basket. (antecedent+relative clause,X),拼完的结果是错误的,因为地方副词in the basket和所修饰的动词can find距离过远而造成其是bought的修饰语的假象,即:"在篮子里买的2个苹果",就是失去原意。那么,将in the basket移到先行词后面成为:You can find two apples in the basket which I bought. (antecedent+relative clause,X),结果依然是错误的,因为关系代词which不是主语,所以看不出关系从句中动词是单数还是复数,所以其先行词可能是apples也可能basket,即:句子可解释为"我买的两个苹果在篮子里",也可解释为"两个苹果在我买的篮子里",一句话有两种解释,就存在混淆而没解释清楚。所以把in the basket短语移开到句首变成本句,这样in the basket只能修饰can find,且关系从句也只有单一的先行词,意思才能表达清楚)。
A plague broke out which lasted 20 years. (antecedent+relative clause,一般说来,关系从句(修饰语)要放在先行词(被修饰对象)的后面,以增强其明确性,但是假如关系从句直接放在先行词后面会引起误解,则要将其移开或者改动一下句型,所以关系从句的位置并不确定,其位置的判断标准是:"放在哪个位置最清楚?"。本句由A plague broke out.和It lasted 20 years.组成,找出交叉点后修改为wh-拼法并移到先行词后边成为:A plague which lasted 20 years broke out. (antecedent+relative clause,X),这个句子句意并没错,但是逻辑错误,因为"一场延续了20年的瘟疫爆发了"不符合逻辑,应该是先爆发然后才会延续,所以移动关系从句到句尾变成本句,虽然造成了关系代词和先行词有距离,但距离不远且中间没有动词阻隔、没有别的名词妨碍先行词的判断,故用距离换取表达顺序的合理性。) {plague:[音:pleɪɡ];n:瘟疫,麻烦,灾祸;vt:折磨,烦扰,造成麻烦;}
The rain came when the farmers needed it most. (relative clause,关系从句是以副词和主要从句的先行词重复时,就需要改写为关系副词。关系副词是副词类,不像关系代词是重要的名词类,所以其省略比较自由,其先行词不需要做变化,但是有括弧性质的逗号隔开时也不能省略。本句由The rain came at a time.和The farmers needed it most then.组成,找出交叉点后改写为wh-的关系副词的拼法,并移到先行词后面成为:The rain came (at a time) (when) the farmers needed it most. (antecedent+relative clause)。该句省略先行词后变成本句,省略之前关系从句仍然是修饰先行词at a time,所以关系从句解释为形容词从句。本句中满足关系从句省略的条件:a. 先行词at at time和关系副词when都是空洞的词。b. 两者有重复并且都是可有可无的副词类,所以择一来省略。同样,省略先行词后的本句也可以看做副词从句(把when当作外加词),虽然也可以讲通,但其实质上是内含副词的改写,只是省略了先行词而已,所以解释为关系从句比较合理。)
The rain came at a time the farmers needed it most. (relative clause,上句中也可以省略关系词(连接词、关系副词)成为本句)。
I need some time I can be with my daughter. (svo+relative clause,关系从句是以副词和主要从句的先行词重复时,就需要改写为关系副词。关系副词是副词类,不像关系代词是重要的名词类,所以其省略比较自由,其先行词不需要做变化,但是有括弧性质的逗号隔开时也不能省略。本句由I need some time.和I can be with my daughter then.两句组成,找出交叉点后修改为wh-的拼法,并移动到先行词前成为:I need some time (when) I can be with my daughter. (antecedent+relative clause),省略关系副词后成为本句。但是本句不能省略先行词,因为先行词some time虽然是空洞且重复的,但它是名词类,不是可有可无的副词类,所以不能省略为:I need when I can be with my daughter. (sv+relative clause,X),这样句子缺少宾语,就是错误的句子。)
I know the time he will arrive. (antecedent+relative clause,关系从句是以副词和主要从句的先行词重复时,就需要改写为关系副词。关系副词是副词类,不像关系代词是重要的名词类,所以其省略比较自由,其先行词不需要做变化,但是有括弧性质的逗号隔开时也不能省略。本句由I know the time. (svo)和He will arrive then.组成,找出交叉点后改写为wh-的拼法,并移到先行词后成为:I know the time (when) he will arrive. (antecedent+relative clause),省略关系副词成为本句。)
I know when he will arrive. (noun clause,当先行词是名词类时,不能当作可有可无的副词类一样随便省略,而上句省略掉先行词后成为本句也似乎也正确,原因是:本句根本就是名词从句。名词从句有三种:一种是简单句外加that构成,表示"that thing(那件事情)";第二种是疑问词引导的由疑问句改造而成,表示"a question(一个问题)";第三种是由没有疑问词的疑问句改造而成,表示"Yes/No questions(会还是不会的问题)",该类型的名词从句,首先要把疑问句改写成either……or……的结构,然后再于表示"何者"的which合并成为whether即可)。
He said (that) he would call. (s+v+o[noun clause],简单句外加that构成名词从句,表示that thing"那件事")。
He asked how much it was. (s+v+o[noun clause],由疑问词引导的疑问句改造而成名词从句,表示a question"一个问题")。
No one knows whether the stock will go up (or not). (s+v+o[noun clause],由没有疑问词的疑问句改造而成,表示yest/no question"会还是不会的问题"。本句原为:Will the stock go up?,先改为either……or的形式,即:Either the stock will go up or it will not.,然后将表示"何者"的which合并成whether即可成为本句。)
I know the time he will arrive. (s+v+o+relative clause,省略掉关系副词when的关系从句,当形容词用。因为先行词the time是名词类,所以不可省略。)
I know when he will arrive. (s+v+o[noun clause],该句并不是I know the time when he will arrive省略先行词the time的结果,因为先行词the time是名词类,所以不能省略。而该句其实是由疑问词引导的疑问句改造而成的名词从句。原句是由I know the question. (svo)和When will he arrive? (interrogative) 两句组合而成的名词从句,这里的when是疑问词而不是关系词。) {interrogative:[音:ˌɪntə'rɑːɡətɪv];adj:疑问的;n:疑问词,疑问句;}
The car stopped (at a place) (where) three roads met. (antecedent+relative clause,本句由The car stopped at a place.和Three roads me there.组成,找出交叉点后改写为wh-的拼法,并移到先行词后成为本句,本句中的先行词和关系副词都是副词类,择一省略即可)。
The Johnsons have a place (where) they can get away from other people. (s+v+o[antecedent]+relative clause,本句中关系副词可以省略,但名词类的先行词不能省略。)
Please tell me where you were last night. (s+v+o[noun clause],本句不是省略了先行词,而其根本就是个由疑问词引导的名词从句)。
Can you show me the way (how) you pulled off that trick? (antecedent+relative clause,本句由Can you show me the way?和You pulled off that trick in that way (=so).组成,找出交叉点后改写为wh-的拼法,并移到先行词后成为本句,本句中的可省略关系副词how,但不能省略名词类的先行词the way)。 {pull off:脱,拿掉,拿下,努力实现,用的,把(车船等)开离;}
Can you show me how you pulled off that trick? (s+v+o+o[noun clause],本句不是省略了先行词,而是由疑问词引导的名词从句)。
I've forgotten the reason (why) I called. (s+v+o+relative clause,本句是由I've forgotten the reason.和I called for a reason.组成,找出交叉点后改写为wh-的拼法,并移到先行词后成为本句,本句中的可省略关系副词why,但不能省略名词类的先行词the reason)。
I've forgotten why I called. (s+v+o[noun clause],本句不是省略了先行词,而是由疑问词引导的名词从句)。
Shakespeare was born in 1654, when Queen Elizabeth I was on the throne. (antecedent+relative clause,括弧性质的逗号将补充说明作用的关系副词引导的关系从句(形容词从句)与主要从句隔开来,因为是补充说明作用,所以也是去了指示功能,所以不能用指示代词that,且关系副词不能省略。本句由Shakespeare was born in 1564.和Queen Elizabeth I was on the throne then.组成,找出交叉点后改写为wh-的拼法,并移到先行词后而且添加补充说明作用的括弧之后成为本句。之所以实用括弧的原因,因为先行词是明确的年代,不是模糊的事情,而不是进一步指出时间,所以是起补充说明性质的功能)。  {throne:n:王位,君主;}
The best museum in  Taiwan is the Palace Museum, where you can see our national treasures. (antecedent+relative clause,括弧性质的逗号将补充说明作用的关系副词引导的关系从句(形容词从句)与主要从句隔开来,因为是补充说明作用,所以也是去了指示功能,所以不能用指示代词that,且关系副词不能省略。本句由The best museum in Taiwan is the Palace Museum.和You can see our national treasures there.组成,找出交叉点后改写为wh-的拼法,并移到先行词后而且添加补充说明作用的括弧之后成为本句。同样,先行词已经指明地点,所以需要使用补充说明性质的括弧来分隔。)
Whenever (=No matter when) he gets upset, he turns on the radio. (wh-ever解释为no matter wh-的时候,其是表示让步、条件的语气,后接的从句是直接附在主要从句上作修饰语的副词从句,本句是副词从句修饰主要从句的动词。) {upset:adj:心烦的,苦恼的,不安的;v:推翻,翻到,颠覆,打乱,使心烦;n:混乱,推翻;}
Whoever (=No matter who) stole the money, it can't be John. (wh-ever解释为no matter wh-的时候,其是表示让步、条件的语气,后接的从句是直接附在主要从句上作修饰语的副词从句)
I'll fire whoever (=anyone that) stole the money. (s+v+o[noun clause],当wh-ever解释为anyone/anything that的时候,其表示省略掉先行词的关系从句,也可以看作是在主要从句中扮演名词角色(主语、宾语、补语、同位语)的名词从句。本句中,如果解释为no matter who,后面的从句就成为了副词从句,那么主句动词fire就没有了宾语,所以应该解释为anyone that,这样才有宾语。)
Whatever (=No matter what) he may say, I won't change my mind. (adverbial clause+s+v+o,本句解释为No matter what,表示让步、条件的副词从句。)
Whatever (=Anything that) he may say won't be true. (s[noun clause]+v+c,本句解释为anything that,表示主要从句的主语。)
Whichever (=No matter which) may you go, I'll follow. (adverbial clause+s+v,本句解释为No matter what,表示让步、条件的副词从句。)
Whichever way (=Any way that) you go is fine with me. (s[noun clause]+v+c,本句解释为anything that,表示主要从句的主语。)
 
 
Not long ago I wrote a letter to a friend, C almost got us into a quarrel.
[A] whom     [B] where     [C] which     [D] what
注释:空格位置既要在从句中做主语,又是连接词,所以只能是关系代名词,故从A、C、D中选,其中A是宾格不行,D是省略先行词后才用的连接词的变化,所以只能是C,表示"写信这件事"或"这封信"险些引起争吵。 {quarrel:n:吵架,争论,怨言;vi:吵架,争论,挑剔;}
■England, A is justly proud of her poets, is today ranked behind the continent in poetic achievement.
[A] which     [B] that     [C] where     [D] whom
注释:空格位置是is的主语(非宾格),所以只能用关系代名词,因此只能从A或B中选,而在逗号性质的括弧中,地名已经明确指定了,不需要再用指示性的that,所以选A。 {poetic:[音:'etik];adj:富有诗意的;achievement:n:成就,成绩,完成,达到;}
You are the only friend D he will listen to at all.
[A] where     [B] whom     [C] which     [D] that
注释:先行词是the only friend,有明显的指示功能,所以用that而不用whom,故D。
■Choose the correct sentence: A
[A] I have bought a book, the cover of which bears a picture of The Hague.
[B] I have bought a book; the cover of which bears a picture of The Hague.
[C] I have bought a book, the cover of which, bears a picture of The Hague.
[D] I have bought a book, of which bears a picture of The Hague.
注释:B错误在于以分号分隔关系从句和先行词,C的错误在于以逗号分隔主语the cover of which和动词bears,D的错误在于以介词短语of which做主语,故选A。 {bear:n:熊;v:忍受,负荷;The Hague:海牙法庭;}
■This is the one encyclopedia upon B I can depend.
[A] that     [B] which     [C] what     [D] it
注释:虽然先行词the one encyclopedia有明显的知识功能,但关系词出现在介词短语后时就不能借用that,只能用which。 {encylopedia:n:百科全书;}
C likes good food and cheerful service would like the Regent Hotel.
[A] Who that     [B] Someone     [C] Whoever     [D] Who
注释:空格前没有先行词,因为要选用whoever这个省略先行词的关系词。 {regent:adj:摄政的;n:摄政,(大学等的)评议员;The Regent Hotel:晶丽酒店;}
This custom, B, is slowly disappearing.
[A] of many centuries ago origin     [B] which originated many centuries ago     [C] with may centuries origin
注释:A和C都在名词origin前面加上了短语(many centuries ago和many centuries)来修饰,可是名词前面只能有单词形式的形容词来形容,所以是错误的,故选择形容词从句B。 {origin:n:起源;[]原点,起因;}
I find it very unfair when D I do is considered mediocre or a failure. I can be depressed for days because of B happens.
[A] that     [B] those     [C] which     [D] what
[A] who     [B] what     [C] that        [D] where
注释:两个位置都省略了先行词,所以只能用what。 {mediocre:[音:ˌmiːdi'oʊkər],adj:平庸的,平凡的;depress:vt:使沮丧,压下,使小调,降低,压抑;}
D is elected President, corruption won't cease.
[A] Whatever     [B] Who     [C] How     [D] Whoever
注释:空格前省略了先行词,所以只能选A或者D,而"当选总统" {corruption:n:贪污,堕落,腐败;cease:n:停止;v:终止,停止;elect:v:选举;adj:精选的,当选的,[神学]被上帝选中的;n:被选中者,[神学]上帝的选民;}
■Neither success nor money, to me at least, is the criterion C we are to be judged.
[A] which     [B] to which     [C] under which     [D] since which
注释:关系从句可还原为:We are to be judged under the criterion.,译为"我们应该以此标准来衡量",所以关系从句要用under which。 {criterion:[音:kraɪ'tɪriən];n:标准,准则;}
I'm afraid I'd never be able to see Jane again, D very much.
[A] that I love     [B] I love     [C] I love her     [D] whom I love
注释:空格引导的句子可以还原为I love Jane very much,改成关系从句whom I love very much,因为关系从句前面有括弧性质的逗号,所以whom不能省略。
■Didn't you know that all D is not gold?
[A] which glitters     [B] glitters     [C] who glitters     [D] that glitters
注释:All that glitters is not gold.,译为"会发亮的不都是金子",这是一句格言,关系从句that glitters之中的关系词应该用that,因为先行词all表示"全部",是一个指示明确的范围,所以要用that来取代which。 {glitter:n:灿烂,闪烁,辉耀,亮片;v:闪烁;}
I have a present for A his hand first.
[A] whoever raises     [B] whomever raises     [C] anyone raises     [D] whoever that raises
注释:形容词从句中,省略先行词后,主要从句就缺少了一个主要成分,所以先行词要改变为what、whoever、whichever的形式,本句中的whoever类的关系词不需要先行词,功能相当于anyone that,因为关系词作为动词raise的主语,所以要用逐个whoever。
■Boys A in the form make a lot of friends.
[A] who live     [B] who lives     [C] live     [D] that living
注释:who live in the form是形容词从句,主要who代表先行词boys,是复数,所以动词用live而不加-s。 {form:n:形式,相撞,表格,良好的健康状态,表现状态,常规;v:形成,建立;}
The final decision will be up to A everyone trusts.
[A] Judge Clemens, whom     [B] Judge Clemens, who     [C] Judge Clemens whom     [D] Judge Clemens who
注释:Judge Clemens是专有名词,已经明确说明是谁,后便的内容不具有指示的作用,而只能是补充说明的作用,所以要用逗号性质的括弧给隔开。逗号后面的关系词应用宾格的whom作为trusts的宾语,故A。
■B he has in his pocket, it's not a gun.
[A] What     [B] Whatever     [C] When     [D] How
注释:whatever作为no matter what解释时,是表示让步的语气,后面引导从句应作表示让步的副词从句来解释。
Abandoned flower pots are C.
[A] where do mosquitoes thrive     [B] mosquitoes thrive there     [C] where mosquitoes thrive     [D] what mosquitoes thrive
注释:本句可还原为:Abandoned flower pots are places where mosquitoes thrive.,(弃置的花盆是蚊孳生的地方),省略掉palaces后成为C。  {mosquito:n:蚊子;thrive:vi:兴旺,繁荣,茁壮成长;}
■The author wrote his first novel D he was working as a hotel clerk.
[A] which     [B] during     [C] what     [D] while
注释:空格后面是表示时间的副词从句,while即是副词从句的连接词。
A held upside down, the fire extinguisher begins to spray bubbles.
[A] When it is     [B] When they are     [C] Whenever they are     [D] During it is
注释:后面的fire extinguisher(灭火器)是单数,所以代名词要用it。从句it is held……需要连接词,故选A,而D的during是介系词。 {upside:n:上部 上涨,优势,潜力,上面,上方;}
I need to know B the library is open.
[A] that     [B] when     [C] which     [D] if it
注释:从语法要求来讲,A和B都对。A表示"图书馆开着"这件事,B则是由疑问句变来,表示"图书馆"什么时候开,两者都是正确的名词从句。不过B的问题比较能配合上下文的I need to know……的语意。
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2.3 副词从句(Adverbial Clause)
2.3.1 副词从句是三种从属从句(名词从句、形容词从句/关系从句、副词从句)中最简单的一种,它和主要从句之间有点像对等从句(合句)的关系,只不过对等从句是以对等连接词(and、or、but)连接两个独立句子,两个从句地位相等,没有主从之分,也不需要相互解释;而副词从句则采用有逻辑关系的从属连接词来连接两个独立句子,通过使用从属连接词来使某个句子成为从属地位的从句,整个从句当作副词使用,用来修饰主要从句中的动词。除了这层修饰关系之外,副词从句和对等从句同样都很单纯。
 
2.3.2 副词从句和名词从句的相比较:副词从句和名词从句原先都是完整、独立的简单句,并且两者都是通过添加从属连接词来构成从属从句,只不过名词从句的连接词是表示"那件事情"的that,此外没有别的含义;而副词从句的连接词则是表示两句话之间有逻辑关系、有意义的连接词,即:副词从句和名词从句的连接词不同,一个有意义一个没有。
名词从句属于名此类,其要放在主要从句的名词位置(主语、宾语、补语、同位语),即:取一个独立简单句,外加上没有意义的连接词that后构成一个名词从句,将其放入主要从句的名词位置使用,名词从句和主要从句一同构成完整的句子。而副词从句是修饰语的词类,其要附在一个完整的主要从句上作修饰语使用,其中,主要从句和副词从句都是完整的句子,副词从句直接附上去修饰主要从句中的被修饰语(动词、形容词、名词、副词),即:名词从句和主要从句共同构成完整的句子,而副词从句和主要从句是两个完整的句子,副词从句用来修饰主要从句中的被修饰成分。
 
2.3.3 副词从句的种类:副词从句的结构比较单纯,所以重点在于认识各种连接词。常见的连接词所代表的逻辑关系有:表示"时间、地方",表示"条件",表示"原因、结果",表示"目的",表示"让步",表示"限制",表示"方法、状态"七个大类。
     表示"时间、地方":表示时间(after、until、when[也可以当关系词处理]),表示地点(where[也可当关系词处理])。值得注意的是:未来时间的副词从句,虽然还没到发生时间,可是语气上必须假设"已经发生、或到了那个时候",即:假设一方已发生,所以副词从句的时态要用现在简单式。
     表示"条件":表示条件(if、as long as、suppose),副词从句修饰主要从句成立的条件,如果是未来时间的副词从句,同样要假设"一方已经发生",所以副词从句应用现在简单式,同时主要从句中的名词从句也应该用简单式(同样假设已发生后才会出现的情况),只有主要从句的动词会采用助动词表示的未来式,表示一种可能发生但未发生的情况。此外,可能还要注意省略句的情况,如:supposing that you were ill → suppose you were ill.。
     表示"原因、结果":表示原因(as[既然]、now that[既然]),表示结果(so……that[那么的……,以至于……],so that[为了……,以便])。注意:独立简单句前面加上无意义的连接词that会成为名词从句(指"那件事情"),当that一旦配合其他字眼当作具有表达逻辑关系的连接词时,就成了副词从句的连接词,用来引导副词从句。
     表示"目的":表示目的(so that、in order that[为了,使得]、lest[以免]、in case[万一])。注意:独立简单句加上无意义的连接词that构成名词从句,而当that一旦配合其他字眼组成具有逻辑关系的连接词时,就成了副词从句的连接词。
     表示"让步":表示让步(although、while、Whether[=No matter]、Whoever[=No matter who]、Whichever[=No matter which]、However[=No matter how]、Wherever[=No matter where]、Whenever[=No matter when])。Wh-拼法的连接词,若解释为No matter……[不论……],就表示让步语气,引导副词从句。
     表示"限制":表示限制(as far as[就……而言;远到……;到……程度;]、in that[即……(in the sense that,从某种意义来说)])。
     表示"方法、状态":表示方法(as),表示状态(as if[好像])。注意:as if引导的副词从句中的语气问题,如:现在简单式is表示真实情况,虚拟语气were表示非事实,过去简单式表示不确定是否是事实的情况。
 
2.3.4 副词从句是最简单的从属从句,其由完整的简单句加上有意义的、表达逻辑关系的连接词(because、if、although等)构成,通常其附在一个完整的主要从句上作修饰语(修饰动词较常见),两个主从句之间的关系类似于对等从句。
 
2.3 本小节示例及练习:
Because he needs the money, he works hard.(conj.+adverbial clause+main clause,副词从句和主要从句都是完整的简单句,两句之间使用从属连词because连接,使得前句处于从属地位,其当作副词来修饰主要从句中的动词works。除了,这种修饰关系外,副词从句和对等从句一样单纯。)
He needs the money, and he works hard.(coordinate clause+conj+coordinate clause,对等从句(合句)也是两个完整的简单句,两句之间使用对等连接词and连接,两个从句地位相等,没有主从之分,也不需要相互解释。)
The witness said that he saw the whole thing.(sv+conj+o,名词从句原本也是独立的简单句,其前加上无意义的连接词that(表示"那件事情")成为从属地位的名词从句后,放入主要从句的名词位置(主语、宾语、补语、同位语)等)
The witness said this, though he didn't really see it.(svo+conj+adverbial clause,副词从句也是独立的简单句,其前加上有意义的、有逻辑关系的连接词although(表示"让步")而成为从属地位的副词从句后,直接附在一个完整的主要从句上作修饰语使用。)
He became more frugal after he got married.(conj+adverbial clause,表示时间、地方的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词became的时间。) {frugal:adj:节俭的,节省的;}
I'll be waiting for you until you're married.(conj+adverbial clause,表示时间、地方的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词will be waiting的时间。注意:该句是表示未来时间的副词从句,虽然还没到发生的时间,但是在语气上需要假设"已经到了那个时候",因为你无法在一个假设的条件下,推论另一个假设结论,所以这里要采用现在简单式。)
It was all over when I got there.(conj+adverbial clause,表示时间、地方的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词was的时间。注意:when也可以当做关系词来使用。)
A small town grew where three roads met.(conj+adverbial clause,表示时间、地方的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词grew的地方。注意:where也可以当做关系词来使用。)
If he calls, I'll say you're sleeping.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"条件"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词will say的条件——如果打过来就会说,不打不说。在表示条件的副词从句中,如果是未来时间,也同样需要采用假设"已经发生"的简单现在式所描述的语气来作为前提。此外,say的宾语也是现在简单式的名词从句,表示假设成立时,会说"在睡觉"。只有主要从句使用will表示的未来时间来表明"会做但还没做"的可能性。)
He won't have it his way, as long as I'm here.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"条件"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词won‘t have的条件。注意:as long as也可以采用同级比较来诠释。)
Suppose you were ill, where would you go?(conj+adverbial clause,表示"条件"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词would go的条件。suppose原本是动词,它是由副词从句supposing that you were ill简化后得到的,省略后剩下的suppose动词当作连接词使用。注意到:假设你病了,是个将来的时间,所以suppose用假设语气,而主要从句也使用不确定会一定发生的助动词表示的将来式。)
As there isn't much time left, we might as well call it a day.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"原因、结果"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词might call的原因。)
There's nothing to worry about, now that Father is back.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"原因、结果"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词is的原因。注意:单独的简单句加上无意义的连接词that会成为名词从句(指代"那件事"),可that一旦配合其他字眼后,就具有表示逻辑关系的功能,使之成为了副词从句的连接词。) {now that:既然;}
He looked so sincere that no one doubted his story.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"原因、结果"的副词从句,副词从句修饰形容词sincere造成的结果。) {sincere:adj:真诚的,诚挚的;so……that:太……以至于,其表示因果关系。}
The mother locked the door from the outside, so that the kids couldn't get out when they saw fire.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"原因、结果"的副词从句,副词从句用来修饰动词locked造成的后果。注意,该副词从句中还有一个表示时间的副词从句when they saw fire.) {so that:所以,其表示因果关系。}
The mother locked away the drugs so that the kids wouldn't swallow any by mistake.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"目的"的副词从句,副词从句修饰locked有什么目的。) {lock away:将……所藏起来;so that:目的是,其表示"目的"关系。}
I've typed out the main points in boldface, in order that you won't miss them.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"目的"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词type out的目的。同样,独立的句子加上无意义的that成为名词从句,而that和其他词连用则具有表示逻辑关系的语意,此处的in order that表示目的。) {in order that:目的,为了;boldface:n:粗体,黑体;}
I've underlined the key points, lest you miss them.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"目的"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词have underlined,表示有何目的。) {lest:以免;}
You'd better bring more money, in case you should need it.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"目的"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词bring的目的。) {in case:万一……}
Although you may object, I must give it a try.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"让步"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词must give。)
While the disease is not fatal, it can be very dangerous.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"让步"的副词从句,Wh-的拼法,若解释为No matter……(不比……),就表示让步语气。) {fatal:adj:致命的,毁灭性的的,决定性的;}
Whether(=No matter) you agree or not, I want to give it a try.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"让步"的副词从句,)Wh-的拼法,若解释为No matter……(不比……),就表示让步语气。
Whoever(=No matter who) you calls, I won't answer.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"让步"的副词从句,Wh-的拼法,若解释为No matter……(不比……),就表示让步语气。)
Whichever(=No matter which) way you go, I'll follow.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"让步"的副词从句,Wh-的拼法,若解释为No matter……(不比……),就表示让步语气。)
However(=No matter how) cold it is, he's always wearing a shirt only.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"让步"的副词从句,Wh-的拼法,若解释为No matter……(不比……),就表示让步语气。)
Wherever(=No matter where) he is, I'll get him!(conj+adverbial clause,表示"让步"的副词从句,Wh-的拼法,若解释为No matter……(不比……),就表示让步语气。)
Whenever(=No matter when) you like, you can call me.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"让步"的副词从句,Wh-的拼法,若解释为No matter……(不比……),就表示让步语气。)
As far as money is concerned, you needn't worry.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"限制"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词needn't worry,表示不比担心的事情的某一个方面,暗示别的方面才是要担心的。)  {as far as:就……而言,远到……,到……程度;}
Picasso was a revolutionary in that he broke all traditions.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"限制"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词was,表示把"是革命派"的意义加以限制:重点在于打破传统,而非真的举枪起义。) {revolutionary:adj:革命的;n:革命者;in that:在于……;}
He played the piano as Horowitz would have.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"方法、状态"的副词从句,副词从句修饰动词played的弹法。)
He writes as if he is left handed.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"方法、状态"的副词从句,主要从句的is表示他真的是左撇子。)
He writes as if he were left handed.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"方法、状态"的副词从句,主要从句的were表示他并不是真的左撇子,而是冒充的。)
He writes as if he was left handed.(conj+adverbial clause,表示"方法、状态"的副词从句,主要从句的was表示不一定,他可能是也可能不是左撇子。)
 
 
■Please come back A you finish your work.
[A] as soon as     [B] as soon as possible     [C] as possibly soon     [D] as soon possible
注释:空格前后都是完整的独立从句,因此空格位置需要连接词,A是把后面的从句改为副词从句,B的as soon as possible是as soon as it is possible的简化,其本身已经是一个从句而不是连接词。C、D都不是完整的连接词,故选A。
■Which of the following is correct? A
[A] He is very smart; moreover, he is diligent.
[B] He is very smart, moreover, he is diligent.
[C] He is very smart, Moreover, he is diligent.
[D] He is very smart; and moreover, he is diligent.
注释:moreover是副词,不具有连接词的语法功能,所以要用分号(;)来取代连接词。{moreover:adv:此外,而且;diligent:adj:勤奋的,用功的;}
It is not safe to get off a car B.
[A] unless it is in motion     [B] until it has come to a stop     [C] after you have opened the window     [D] before the traffic lights turns red
注释:四个答案在语法上都对,但是从意思上来讲选B更合适,"车子未停稳的时候,下车不安全"。
■If you sell your rice now, you will be playing your hand very badly. Wait A the price goes up.
[A] until     [B] still     [C] for     [D] that
注释:wait一词独自构成一个命令句,与右边的the price goes up之间需要一个连接词,故排除非连接词B。D中的that会把从句变成名词从句,不符合要求。C中的for可以当连词,但放在此处的for要解释为because,句意不通。所以只有A这个而连接词可以引导表示"时间、地点"的副词从句。{play one's hand:抓住某人的机会;}
(The rain is over. You must not stay any longer.)
You must not stay any longer C the rain is over.
[A] when     [B] that     [C] now that     [D] as for
注释:now that解释为"既然",其符合句意。
■It is such a good opportunity B you should not miss it.
[A] as     [B] that     [C] which     [D] of which
注释:上文中有such,所以要采用that来配合,表示因果关系。
■Tom is dull. He works hard. He will surely pass the exam. A
[A] Though Tom is dull, he works so hard that he will surely pass the exam.
[B] Despite his dullness, Tom will surely pass the exam by work hard.
[C] Tom will surely pass the exam because he works hard with his dullness.
[D] Dull as Tom is, he will surely pass the exam with work hard.
注释:首句和中句相反,中句和后句有因果关系,所以首句和中句用though来连接,中句和后句用so……that来连接。B中的by work hard错误在于介词by后面直接跟动词,C中的he works hard with his dullness句意牵强,D同样把动词直接放在了介词后面。故,选A。{dull:adj:呆滞,钝,迟钝,无趣的;v:变钝,迟钝;}
She had worked several yeas C she could continue her studies in France.
[A] as     [B] while     [C] before     [D] then
注释:had work是过去式,could continue是过去简单式,所以是时间先后顺序,故选择C。
■C, he never begged for money.
[A] Despite he was poor     [B] Because he was poor     [C] Poor as he was     [D] In spite of he was poor
注释:Though he was poor可以改写为poor as he was,连接词使用as。A和D都是用介词despite、in spite of来引导从句,语法错误。B句型正确,但逻辑关系不通顺,故选C。{despite:prep:不管,尽管;in spite of:不管,不顾,尽管;}
C the typhoon warnings, several fishing boats set sail.
[A] Because     [B] According     [C] Despite     [D] Although
注释:名词短语the typhoon warnings前面因有介系词,所以只能选C。
I knew i would never have what I needed D it myself.
[A] even made     [B] without me making     [C] except making     [D] unless I made
注释:空格表示"条件",所以C不合适。A中多了一个动词made,语法错误。B中应该省略掉重复主语me,所以只有D是以unless引导的副词从句表示条件,所以选D。
Which of the following is correct? C
[A] I shall either go back to Taiwan or my family will come to England.
[B] I shall go back either to Taiwan or my family will come to England.
[C] Either I shall go back to Taiwan or my family will come to England.
注释:either和or之间的部分要和or之后的部分对称,符合条件的对等从句只有C。
B unwilling to do so, he had to follow the traditional ways.
[A] After     [B] Although     [C] Since     [D] Once
注释:unwilling和had to意思想法,只有although可表示相反的关系,所以选B。B是although he was unwilling……的简化形式。{although:conj:虽然,尽管,然而,可是;though:conj:虽然,尽管,然而,可是;adv:不过;although和though同义,只不过although语气比though重,前者常用语书面语,后者常用语口语等非正式场合。}
■Which of the following is correct? B
[A] Not only the money but also three paintings was stolen.
[B] Not only the money but also three paintings were stolen.
[C] Not only the money was stolen but also were the paintings.
注释:not only和but also要求对称,A虽然对称,可是从句的单复数冲突,,而C中应该倒装的是主句not only was the money stolen而不是后面的从句。
■No one was sure A was going to happen.
[A] what     [B] who     [C] when     [D] where
注释:空格位置要求连接词,而且能够当was的主语,所以要用关系代名词类的A或B。因为空格前面没有先行词,所以不能用who只能用what,故选A。其中what was going to happen亦可做疑问句的名词从句看待。
■C she studied hard, but she didn't succeed.
[A] Though     [B] Although     [C] Indeed     [D] While
注释:两个从句中已经有连接词but,所以不能再用连接词,所以只剩下副词类的C。{indeed:adv:真正地,的确,事实上,甚至;although和though同义,只不过although语气比though重,前者常用语书面语,后者常用语口语等非正式场合。}
■"You seem angry at Martha."
"I am. D I'm concerned, she can go away forever."
[A] As like as     [B] As many as     [C] As such as     [D] As far as
注释:空格位置应该用连接词,其中D是表示限度的从属连词,符合要求。B的as many as需要配合复数名词才能使用。{as far as:adv:就……而言,远到,到……程度;}
I'm going to tell you the number once more, D you forget.
[A] don't     [B] that     [C] so that     [D] lest
注释:空格位置要用连接词,故排除A。B会造成名词从句,不符合句型要求。C和D都是副词从句的连接词,但只有D符合句子的逻辑关系。
■The mother's warning B there be no contact with boys was generally ignored.
[A] which     [B] that     [C] if     [D] wherever
注释:从后句的there be no contact……来看,是间接命令句语气,所以应该是名词从句,故选择B。
■Don't go away D you have told me what actually happened.
[A] since     [B] then     [C] after     [D] until
注释:空格位置用来连接两个从句,所以适合用连接词A、C或D。通过句意来判断,D比较合理。
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2.4 对等连接词与对等从句
2.4.1 对等从句:又称为合句(Compound Sentences),由and、or、but等连接词将两个独立的简单句连接起来而组成的句子,并且两个独立简单句之间维持平行、对等的关系,没有主、从之分。合句可以当成两个简单句子来解释,两句之间互为单纯的对等从句关系,只要注意对等从句之间的对称要求即可。
 
2.4.2 对等连接词(主要包括:and、or、but)是用来连接句子中两个对等的部分(单词、短语、对等从句),所谓对等,即是:结构与内容均要对称,而且月越工整越好。
对等从句的省略原则是:省略相对应位置的重复元素,其原因是对等从句有相当严格的对称要求,即使省略掉重复的元素依然能够表达清楚。
对等从句是写作过程中的难点,尤其以"相关词组"(correlatives)出现的对等连接词(如:not……but;not only……but also;both……and;either……or;neither……nor等),还有以对等连接词连接的对等从句中常常会省略重复部分,这些都是对等从句中的难点。
注意:also的位置不一定和but连在一起,also和only都有强调(focusing)的功能,假如:not only直接修饰动词is,则also也要直接修饰be动词才可以,所以有可能成为but ……also be的形式。
{correlative:adj:有相互关系的,相关的;n:有相互关系的物,相关语,关联词;}
 
2.4.3 分号可以取代连接词来连接两个从句(如:He's not an atheist; rather, he believes in agnosticism.),但是不能取代对等连接词来连接名词短语,也不能取代not……but的词组。
{agnosticism:[音:æɡ'nɒstɪsɪzəm];n:不可知论;}
 
 
2.4 本小节示例及练习:
The Yangtze River, the most vital source of irrigation water across the width of China and important as transportation conduit as well, has nurtured the Chinese civilization for millennia. (X) {Yangtze:n:长江;vital:adj:至关重要的,有活力的,生死攸关的;irrigation:n:灌溉,[]冲洗;conduit:[音:'kɒndʊɪt];n:导管,水管,沟渠;millennia:[音:mɪ'leniə];n:一千年(millennium的复数);millennium:[音:mɪ'leniəm];n:一千年,太平盛世;}
问题描述:
主要从句的基本句型为:The Yangtze River has nurtured the Chinese civilization. (svo),主语和动词之间的逗号当成起补充说明作用的括弧来看,那么括弧中的内容就是Yangtze River的同位语(其本质就是形容词从句的省略which is简化后的结果)。这个句子的错误在于:对等连接词and两边的内容在结构上并不对称,左边的the most vital source是名词短语,而右边的important却是形容词,此类不同,所以最简单的该法就是把形容词类改为名词类,即:
The Yangtze River, the most vital source of irrigation water across the width of China and an important transportation conduit, has nurtured the Chinese civilization for millennia. 
 
Scientists believe that hibernation is triggered by decreasing environmental temperatures, food shortage, shorter periods of daylight, and by hormonal activity. (X) {hibernation:n:冬眠;decrease:n:减少,降低;v:减少,减小,降低;shortage:n:不足,缺少,短缺;hormonal:[音:hɔː'məʊnl];adj:荷尔蒙的,激素的;activity:n:活动,活跃;vt:表演;adj:厉害;trigger:v:引发,触发;}
问题描述:句中划线的部分是以by A、B、C and D的结构来修饰宾语从句中的动词is triggered,A、B、C和D之间是该是引发冬眠的平行的因素,所以应该以对等的方式来处理。但是原句的处理方法是中,by A、B、C之间缺乏连接词,而and只能连接2个by引导的介词短语(by this and by that)。所以,最佳的修改方式是把A、B、C、D四项平行元素并列,并以and串联后共同至于介词by后成为by A、B、C and D的结构,即:
Scientists believe that hibernation is triggered by decreasing environmental temperatures, food shortage, shorter periods of daylight, and hormonal activity. 
 
Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth and generally harm the fetus. (X) {generally:adv:一般地,通常,普遍地;fetus:[音:'fiːtəs];n:胎,胎儿;}
问题描述:
本句可还原为Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth of the fetus, and it may generally harm the fetus. (s1+v1+o1+s2+v2+o2),两个对等从句的主语都是smoking by pregnant women,宾语也都是the fetus,所以省略的原则就是:相对应位置的重复元素可以使省略。本句中两个宾语扮演的角色不同,前者是一fetus为介词短语,后者则以fetus做harm的宾语,所以,固然宾语可以省略,但前面的of不恩能够省略,即:
Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth of and generally harm the fetus.
 
Rapid advances in computer technology have enhanced the speed of calculation, the quality of graphics, the fun with computer games, and have lowered prices. (X) {enhance:vt:提高,增加,加强;quality:n:品质,才能,特质;adj:高品质的,[英俚]棒极了;}
问题描述:本句以speed、quality、fun三者作为动词have enhanced的宾语,三者在内容和结构上都是对称的,反而在结尾用and和have lowered prices连在一起成为A、B、C and D的结构,前三者都是名词短语,而后者是动词短语,因此结构不对称。从句意上来说,前三者是"增加"的东西,而后者是"降低"的东西,所以四者内容不适合并列,所以可以把前三者用A、B and C的方式连接,而后者从属从句简化的方式来处理,即:
Rapid advances in computer technology have enhanced the speed of calculation, the quality of graphics and the fun with computer games while lowering prices.
 
Population density is very low in Canada, the largest country in the Western Hemisphere and it is the second largest in the whole world. (X) {density:n:密度,浓度,比重;hemisphere:n:半球,}
问题描述:本句中the largest country in the Western Hemisphere是形容词从句省略掉which is之后留下的名词补语,也就是所谓的同位语。对等连接词and左边是名词补语,而右边却是主从句的结构,所以,可以将后句也改为名词短语以求结构工整对称,即:
Population density is very low in Canada, the largest country in the Western Hemisphere and the second largest in the whole world. 
 
Once the safety concerns over the new production procedure were removed and with its superiority to the old one being proved, there was nothing to stop the factory from switching over. (X) {concern:n:关心,关心的事,忧虑,担心;vt:涉及,影响,关心,(使)担心;n:公司,企业;procedure:n:程序,手续,步骤;superiority:[音:suːˌpɪri'ɔːrəti];n:优越性,优势;switch over:转换,切换;}
问题描述:
对等连接词and出现在划线内容前面,其左侧是一个从属从句,右侧却是介词短语,在结构上不正确,所以本句可以先还原成对等从句:The safety concerns over the new production procedure were removed and its superiority to the old one be proved. (s1+v1+s2+v2),可以看到对等从句中的主语不同,动词也不同,所以只能省略be动词这个重复的元素,即:Once the safety concerns over the new production procedure were removed and its superiority to the old one proved.,这个省略句的对等从句前面加上once(一旦)就成为表示条件的副词从句,若在附于主要从句之上,就成本符合要求的从句:
Once the safety concerns over the new production procedure were removed and its superiority to the old one proved, there was nothing to stop the factory from switching over.
 
Worker bees in a honeybee hive assume various tasks, such as guarding the entrance, serving as sentinel and to sound a warning at the slightest threat, and exploring outside the nest for areas rich in flowers and, consequently, nectar. (X) {honeybee:n:蜜蜂;hive:n:蜂房,蜂箱,蜂群,喧闹繁忙的场所;vi:蜂进入蜂箱,聚居,把一部分分离出来;vt:使蜂入箱,储备;assume:vt:假定,设想,承担,(想当然的)认为,加装;sentinel:[音:'sentɪnl];n:哨兵,传送器,[]标记符号;v:放哨,设哨岗;slight:adj:轻微的,纤弱的,微笑的;vt:轻视,忽略;n:轻蔑,怠慢;nest:n:巢;nectar:n:花蜜,甜美的饮料,众神引用的酒;consequent:[音:'kɒnsəˌkwent];adj:作为结果的,随之发生的,合乎逻辑的;n:推论,结论,[]后项;consequently:[音:['kɑːnsəkwentli];adv:因此,所以;}
问题描述:
句子在such as之后的内容是列举工蜂的工作,属于A、B and C的结构,其中划线部分的B又可以分成B1和B2("站哨"和"发出警报"),这两个动作是一体的两个面,所以用and连接很恰当。只是serving as sentinel是动名词和to sound a warning是不定式,在结构上不对称,而且后面的内容都是guarding和exploring的动名词类,所以应该把划线部分也改为动名词的形式,即:
Worker bees in a honeybee hive assume various tasks, such as guarding the entrance, serving as sentinel and sounding a warning at the slightest threat, and exploring outside the nest for areas rich in flowers and, consequently, nectar.
 
Shi Huangdi of the Qin dynasty built the Greate Wall of China in the 3rd century BC, a gigantic construction that meanders from Gansu province int he west through 2,400 km to the Yellow Sea in the east and ranging from 4 to 12 m in width. (X) {dynasty:n:朝代,王朝;gigantic:[音:dʒaɪ'ɡæntɪk];adj:巨大的;meander:[音:mi'ændər];v:缓慢而弯曲地滚动,漫步,闲聊;n:河流的曲折,漫步,迂回曲折的进程;wander:[音:'wɑːndər];vi:漫步,蜿蜒,迷路,闲逛,徘徊;vt:漫步于;n:漫游,徘徊,闲逛;range:n:范围,射程,山脉,排,一系列,炉灶;[]值域,极差;v:排列,使……站在某一方,延伸,漫游,射程达到(某距离);wonder:[音:'wʌndər];n:惊奇,惊愕,奇迹,奇观;v:惊奇;想知道;怀疑;adj:奇妙的,非凡的;}
问题描述:
句中的a gigantic construction是the Great Wall的同位语,后面用that meanders……的形容词从句来修饰。对等连接词and的右边的划线部分是ranging,可是左边没有与之对称的Ving的结构,并且从语意上右边是讲厚度,左边讲长度的部分只有形容词从句的动词meanders可能与ranging对称,所以可以把ranging改成ranges以求对称,即:
Shi Huangdi of the Qin dynasty built the Greate Wall of China in the 3rd century BC, a gigantic construction that meanders from Gansu province int he west through 2,400 km to the Yellow Sea in the east and ranges from 4 to 12 m in width.
 
The large number of sizable orders suggests that factory operations are thriving, but that the low-tech nature of the processing indicates that profit margins will not be as high as might be expected. (X) {sizable:adj:相当大的;thrive:vi:兴旺,繁荣,茁壮成长;process:[音:En:əʊ;US:ɑ];n:工序,过程;v:加工,处理,起诉,列队前进;processing:n:进程,步骤,数据处理,整理,配置;indicate:v:指示,象征,显示,暗示,预示,表明,指明;profit:n:利润,收益,利益;vi:得益,获利,vt:有益于;margin:n:边缘,余地,幅度,利润,差额,页边空白,定金;[]原价和卖价之差;vt:加边于,为……付保证金;}
问题描述:
对等连接词but右边的that引导的名词从只能与左侧的that factory operations are thriving对称,但是这样句意解释不通。再细心观察,but左右两边是另一种形式的对称:The large number of sizable orders suggests something good. (svo) 和 The low-tech nature of the processing indicates something bad. (svo),这两句在形式上与意思上都对称,并且其中的宾语部分something good和something bad分别以一个that引导的名词从句来表示。所以,but右边应该和左边的主要从句对称,两句都是主要从句,不应该以从属连接词that来引导,所以把but右边的that拿掉,即:
The large number of sizable orders suggests that factory operations are thriving, but the low-tech nature of the processing indicates that profit margins will not be as high as might be expected.
 
Not only is China the world's most populous state but also the largest market int the 21st century. (X) {populous:adj:人口众多的,人口稠密的;state:n:情形,状态,国家,州,政府;adj:国家的,州的,国事礼仪的 ;v:陈述,声明,说明,规定;}
问题描述:
像not only……but also之类的以"相关词组(correlatives)"出现的对等连接词,在对称要求上更为严格:not only与but之间的部分和but右侧的内容对称。本句中ont only移到句首成为倒装句,结果使not only和but之间夹着一个完整的从句,而but右边只有名词短语the largest market……所以不对称,应该右侧内容改为完整的从句。而且,需要注意also的位置不一定和but连在一起,also和only都有强调(focusing)的功能,假如:not only直接修饰动词is,则also也要直接修饰be动词才可以,所以是but it also is而不是but also it is……即:
Not only is China the world's most populous state but it also is the largest market int the 21st century.
 
New radio stations are either overly partisan, resulting in lopsided propaganda, or avoid politics completely, shirking the media's responsibility as a public watchdog. (X) {overly:adv:过度地,极度地;partisan:[音:'pɑːrtəzn];adj:偏袒的,党派性的;n:强烈支持者,党羽,游击队员;lopsided:[音:ˌlɑːp'saɪdɪd];adj:倾向一方的,不平衡的;praopaganda:n:宣传;宣传的内容;avoid:vt:避免,逃避,[]使无效,撤销;shrik:vi:收缩,退缩,萎缩,畏惧,害怕;vt:使收缩;n:收缩,萎缩;n:精神科医生;watchdog:n:看门狗,看守者;v:看守;stance:n:立场,态度,站立姿势;}
问题描述:
相关词组either……or之间的内容也有和or右侧的部分对称,原句划线内容中,or的左侧是形容partisan,右边确实动词avoid,而无法对称,所以将两边都变成形容词或动词,即:
New radio stations are either overly partisan, resulting in lopsided propaganda, or completely apolitical, shirking the media's responsibility as a public watchdog. 或
New radio stations are either take an overly partisan stance, resulting in lopsided propaganda, or avoid politics completely, shirking the media's responsibility as a public watchdog.
 
Many modern-day scientists are not atheists, to whom there is no such thing as God; rather agnostics, who refrain from conjecturing about the existence of God, much less His properties. (X) {modern-day:adj:当代的,当前的;atheist:[音:'eɪθiɪst];n:无神论者;agnostic:[音:æɡ'nɑːstɪk];n:不可知论者;adj:不可知论的,不可知论者;refrain:v:抑制,避免,克制;n:副歌,叠句,重复;conjecture:[音:kən'dʒektʃər];n:推测,臆测;v:推测;existence:n:存在,生存;}
问题描述:
本句是以not A but B的相关词组来连接两个名词atheists和agnostics,后面分别附上一个形容词从句,但是句中却使用了分号(;)和副词rather来连接,分号可以取代连接词来连接两个从句,如:He's not an atheist; rather, he believes in agnosticism.,但是分号不能取代对等连接词来连接名词短语,也不能取代not……but的词组,所以原句改成:
Many modern-day scientists are not atheists, to whom there is no such thing as God but agnostics, who refrain from conjecturing about the existence of God, much less His properties.
 
 
Gold not only looks beautiful C lasts forever.
[A] and     [B] nevertheless     [C] but also     [D] besides
注释:not only和but also配合。
D to militarism nor the imposition of a totalitarianism could long guarantee Japan victory in war.
[A] The devotion is neither     [B] Neither is the devotion     [C] The devotion, neither     [D] Neither the devotion
注释:neither……nor之间要求对称。nor的左边是名词短语the imposition of a totalitarianism(加强极权统治),最符合的对称要求是D中的the devotion to militarism(奉献于军国主义),故选D。 {militarism:[音:'mɪlɪtərɪzəm];n:军国主义,尚武精神,好战态度;imposition:n:强迫接受,课税,欺骗,[]拼版;totalitarian:[音:[toʊˌtælə'teriən];adj:极权主义的;n:极权主义者;totalitarianism:[音:təʊˌtælə'teəriənɪzəm];n:极权主义;devotion:n:虔诚,献身,奉献,热爱;}
Democracy is not the ideal political institution, D it is an optimal one.
[A] where     [B] and     [C] so     [D] but
注释:not……but搭配,表示"并非前者,而是后者"。 {democracy:n:民主国家,民主,民主制;ideal:adj:理想的,完美的,空想的,观念的;n:理想,典范,目标;institution:n:制定,制度,机构,名流;optimal:adj:最理想的,最佳的;}
War is destructive, wasteful, and A.
[A] ultimately futile     [B] an ultimately futile exercise     [C] it is ultimately futile     [D] ultimate futility
注释:对称连接词要求两边对称,其前面的destructive、wasteful都是形容词,所以后面也要形容词("徒劳的");{destructive:adj:破坏性的,有害的;ultimately:adv:最后,最终;futile:[音:'fjuːtl];adj:无效的,无用的,徒劳的;futility:n:无用,无益,无价值;}
To succeed in this business, you must be either talented B hard working.
[A] or be     [B] or     [C] nor     [D] and
注释:either……or配合。
■Not only is fruit cheap in Thailand A.
[A] but it also comes in may varieties     [B] but also in may varieties     [C] but also comes in many varieties     [D] and also various
注释:not only……but also搭配,要求对称。not only后面是个倒装的从句,所以bug后面也要选从句结构,故A。
■Oil painting began with the Flemish artists, D watercolor has been around since ancient cavemen first dug out colored earth from the ground and mixed it with water.
[A] so     [B] and     [C] or     [D] but
注释:空格前后都是完整的句子,但是内容有相反,所以使用相反的连接词but。{Flemish:n:弗兰德人,弗兰德语;adj:弗兰德的,弗兰德人的,弗兰德语;ancient:adj:古老的,古代的;n:古人;cavemen:n:穴居人,野人;dug out:v:掘出(找出,逃跑);}
Her boyfriend is tall, handsome, and B.
[A] intelligence     [B] intelligent     [C] intelligently     [D] he is intelligent
注释:对等连接and要求对称,所有内容都是形容词。
They plan to shop the whole afternoon and A the evening through.
[A] dance     [B] dancing     [C] have danced     [D] will dancing
注释:对等连接词and要求对称,其左边的动词原型,右边也要用动词原型。
■Not only C but he also drinks heavily.
[A] he smokes a lot     [B] he does smoke a lot     [C] does he smoke a lot     [D] does smoke a lot
注释:not only移到句首时需要倒装。
The origin of "go" and A was in ancient China.
[A] the place of its development     [B] it was developed     [C] it was developed which     [D] the development was there
注释:对等连接词and两边对称,都要用名词。{go:指"围棋",源自日本。}
Hawaii is famous for its spectacular volcanoes, friendly people, and D.
[A] pleasant     [B] to have pleasant beaches     [C] its beaches are pleasant     [D] pleasant beaches
注释:A、B、C and D结构,要求对称,只有D的pleasant beaches可以和and左边的内容对称。 {spectacular:adj:壮观的,令人惊叹的;n:壮观,豪华节目;volcano:n:火山;}
■When the eye of a typhoon passes through, the air is still, the humidity high, D low.
[A] with air pressure     [B] air pressure being     [C] that the air pressure is     [D] and the air pressure
注释:为省略前是the air is still,the humidity is hight,and the air pressure is low这三个部分以and对等连接词来连接,省略掉重复连接词be,故选D。 {humidity:n:湿度,湿气;}
■A password consisting of both letters and numerals cannot be easily guessed, A be easily cracked by a decoding expert.
[A] nor can it     [B] and cannot it     [C] nor it cannot     [D] it cannot
注释:nor置于句首要用倒装句型。{consist:vt:由……组成,构成,在于,符合;}
The police detective tried to find clues by B and repeatedly questioning the suspect.
[A] careful     [B] carefully     [C] he is careful     [D] to be careful
注释:对等连接词and要求两边都用对称的副词,故选C。 {clue:n:线索,提示;}
Meteorological satellites help make weather forecasts more accurate and C.
[A] more reliably     [B] more reliability     [C] more reliable     [D] it is reliable
注释:more reliable和more accurate对称。 {meteorological:[音:ˌmiːtiərə'lɒdʒɪkl];气象的;meteorology:[音:ˌmiːtiə'rɑːlədʒi],气象学,气象状态;reliable:adj:可靠的,可信的;}
Controlling the way you spend money is often a more effective way to meet a budget than C.
[A] try to make more money     [B] you try to make more money     [C] trying to make more money     [D] you are trying to make more money
注释:比较级也要求对称,比较的对象一个是controlling the way……,所以另一方应该是trying to……,所以选C。 {meet:v:遇见,满足;budget:n:预算;vt:编预算,为……做预算;vi:节省开支;adj:廉价的,不贵的;}
Allowing children to make small decisions for themselves may contribute to harmony, efficiency and A.
[A] happiness     [B] they are happy     [C] happily     [D] to happy
注释:对等连接词and,均选用名词的A。 {contribute to:是……的原因,有助于,为……作贡献,为……捐款,为……撰稿;harmony:n:和谐,协调,调和,和声;efficiency:n:效率,功率;}
■Contrary to common belief, the pencil uses C.
[A] lead nor graphite     [B] but lead not graphite     [C] not lead but graphite     [D] graphite but lead
注释:not……but表示"非前者即后者",即:铅笔用的是石磨而不是铅。 {contrary:adj:相反的,截然不同的,执拗的;n:反面,相反;与……相反;belief:n:信念,信仰,相信;graphite:n:石墨,黑铅,铅笔粉;lead:n:领头位置,主角,榜样,引言,铅;}
Dr. Sun Yat-sen is remembered by Chinese C the Ching Dynasty but also for laying down the foundations for a new China.
[A] not only overthrew     [B] only not overthrew     [C] not only for overthrowing     [D] for not only overthrowing
注释:后面是but also for……,所以空格位置要用not only for……来配合。 {lay down:放下(武器),放弃,制定、强制性宣传(法律、规则),拟定(地图比例等);foundation:n:根基,基础,根据,创建,基金(会);overthrow:v:推翻,打到,颠覆,[]高投;n:推翻,瓦解,颠覆,[]高投;Sun Yat-sen:孙逸仙(即孙中山先生);}
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posted on 2014-12-08 18:55  RJ  阅读(...)  评论(... 编辑 收藏

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