【数据采集与融合】第二次实践

  1. 作业①

    1.1作业内容

    要求:在中国气象网(http://www.weather.com.cn)给定城市集的7日天气预报,并保存在 数据库

序号地区日期天气信息温度
1 北京 7日(今天) 晴间多云,北部山区有阵雨或雷阵雨转晴转多云 31℃/17℃
2 北京 8日(明天) 多云转晴,北部地区有分散阵雨或雷阵雨转晴 34℃/20℃
3 北京 9日(后台) 晴转多云 36℃/22℃
4 北京 10日(周六) 阴转阵雨 30℃/19℃
5 北京 11日(周日) 阵雨 27℃/18℃
6......        
  

   1.2实验过程:

   核心代码如下:

    1.创建一个天气数据库的类

class WeatherDB:
    def openDB(self):
        self.con = sqlite3.connect("weathers.db")
        self.cursor = self.con.cursor()
        try:
            self.cursor.execute("create table weathers (wCity varchar(16),wDate varchar(16),wWeather varchar(64),wTemp varchar(32),constraint pk_weather primary key (wCity,wDate))")
        except:
            self.cursor.execute("delete from weathers")

    def closeDB(self):
        self.con.commit()
        self.con.close()

    def insert(self, city, date, weather, temp):
        try:
            self.cursor.execute("insert into weathers (wCity,wDate,wWeather,wTemp) values (?,?,?,?)",
                                (city, date, weather, temp))
        except Exception as err:
            print(err)

    def show(self):
        global num
        self.cursor.execute("select * from weathers")
        rows = self.cursor.fetchall()
        print("{0:^16}{1:{5}^16}{2:{5}^16}{3:{5}^32}{4:{5}^32}".format("序号","city","date", "weather","temp",chr(12288)))
        for row in rows:
            print("{0:^16}{1:{5}^16}{2:{5}^16}{3:{5}^32}{4:{5}^32}".format(str(num),row[0],row[1],row[2],row[3],chr(12288)))
            num += 1

    2.爬取天气数据,并插入数据库

class WeatherForecast:
    def __init__(self):
        self.headers = {
                "User-Agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.0 x64; en-US; rv:1.9pre) Gecko/2008072421 Minefield/3.0.2pre"}
        self.cityCode = {"北京": "101010100", "上海": "101020100", "广州": "101280101", "深圳": "101280601"}

    def forecastCity(self, city):
        if city not in self.cityCode.keys():
            print(city + " code cannot be found")
            return
        url = "http://www.weather.com.cn/weather/" + self.cityCode[city] + ".shtml"
        try:
            req = urllib.request.Request(url, headers=self.headers)
            data = urllib.request.urlopen(req)
            data = data.read()
            dammit = UnicodeDammit(data, ["utf-8", "gbk"])
            data = dammit.unicode_markup
            soup = BeautifulSoup(data, "lxml")
            lis = soup.select("ul[class='t clearfix'] li")
            for li in lis:
                try:
                    date = li.select('h1')[0].text
                    weather = li.select('p[class="wea"]')[0].text
                    temp = li.select("p[class='tem']")[0].text.strip()
                    # print(city,date,weather,temp)
                    self.db.insert(city, date, weather, temp)
                except Exception as err:
                    print(err)
        except Exception as err:
            print(err)

    def process(self, cities):
        self.db = WeatherDB()  # 创建天气数据库对象,db
        self.db.openDB()  # 打开数据库

        for city in cities:
            self.forecastCity(city)  # 循环遍历,逐一爬取和存储天气预报数据

        self.db.show()  # 打印数据库中数据
        self.db.closeDB()  # 关闭数据库

1.3运行结果如下:

 数据库:

1.4实验心得:

 这次实验对之前爬取天气的实例进行了复现,让我加深了对爬取网页的代码的学习,同时我们还学习了对如何创建一个数据库类,并且向数据库中插入数据,学习如何在pycharm中连接数据库,查看表格

作业②

2.1作业内容

要求:用requests和自选提取信息方法定向爬取股票相关信息,并存储在数据库中。

候选网站:东方财富网:https://www.eastmoney.com/ 新浪股票:http://finance.sina.com.cn/stock/

2.2实验步骤:

1.打开网站,快捷键f12,点击网络,点击js,找到股票相关信息的文件,获取股票信息如下:

 

 打开对应的url查看:

2.核心代码:

获取数据:

def getHtml(url):
    try:
        header = {
            "User-Agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.0 x64; en-US; rv:1.9pre) Gecko/2008072421 Minefield/3.0.2pre"}
        resp = requests.get(url,headers=header)
        html = resp.text
        return html
    except Exception as err:
        print(err)

num = 1  # 序号
def getContent(html):
    stocks = re.findall(r"\"diff\":\[(.*?)\]",html,re.M|re.S)
    # 使用正则表达式获取stock
    # print(stocks)打印stock列表
    stocks = list(eval(stocks[0]))
    # 将爬取的数据转换为列表
    global num
    result = []  # 爬取结果存入列表
    for stock in stocks:
        stockcode = stock["f12"]
        stockname = stock["f14"]
        newprice = stock["f2"]
        diefu = stock["f3"]
        diee = stock["f4"]
        dealnum = stock["f5"]
        deale = stock["f6"]
        zhenfu = stock["f7"]
        most = stock["f15"]
        least = stock["f16"]
        today = stock["f17"]
        yesterday = stock["f18"]
        # 字典获取数据
        result.append([num,stockcode,stockname,newprice,diefu,diee,dealnum,deale,zhenfu,most,least,today,yesterday])
        # 存入结果列表
        num += 1

    return result

创建数据库类:

# 股票数据库
class stockDB:
    # 开启
    def openDB(self):
        self.con = sqlite3.connect("stocks.db")
        self.cursor = self.con.cursor()
        try:
            self.cursor.execute("create table stocks (Num varchar(16), stockCode varchar(16),stockName varchar(16),Newprice varchar(16),RiseFallpercent varchar(16),RiseFall varchar(16),Turnover varchar(16),Dealnum varchar(16),Amplitude varchar(16),max varchar(16),min varchar(16),today varchar(16),yesterday varchar(16))")
        except:
            self.cursor.execute("delete from stocks")

    # 关闭
    def closeDB(self):
        self.con.commit()
        self.con.close()

    # 插入
    def insert(self,Num,stockcode,stockname,newprice,risefallpercent,risefall,turnover,dealnum,Amplitude,max,min,today,yesterday):
        try:
            self.cursor.execute("insert into stocks(Num,stockCode,stockName,Newprice,RiseFallpercent,RiseFall,Turnover,Dealnum,Amplitude,max,min,today,yesterday) values (?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?)",
                                (Num,stockcode,stockname,newprice,risefallpercent,risefall,turnover,dealnum,Amplitude,max,min,today,yesterday))
        except Exception as err:
            print(err)

存入数据库

    s = "{0:^10}\t{1:{13}^10}\t{2:{13}^10}\t{3:{13}^10}\t{4:{13}^10}\t{5:{13}^10}\t{6:{13}^10}\t{7:{13}^10}\t{8:{13}^10}\t{9:{13}^10}\t{10:{13}^10}\t{11:{13}^10}\t{12:{13}^10}"
    print(s.format("序号","股票代码","股票名称","最新价","涨跌幅","涨跌额","成交量","成交额","振幅","最高","最低","今收","昨收",chr(12288)))
    stockdb = stockDB()  # 创建数据库对象
    stockdb.openDB()  # 开启数据库
    for page in range(1, 6):
        # 因为本人学号尾数是5,所以只爬了五页
        url = "http://19.push2.eastmoney.com/api/qt/clist/get?cb=jQuery11240009917002240502182_1634088844934&pn=" + str(page) + "&pz=20&po=1&np=1&ut=bd1d9ddb04089700cf9c27f6f7426281&fltt=2&invt=2&fid=f3&fs=m:1+t:2,m:1+t:23&fields=f1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7,f8,f9,f10,f12,f13,f14,f15,f16,f17,f18,f20,f21,f23,f24,f25,f22,f11,f62,f128,f136,f115,f152&_=1634088845178"
        html = getHtml(url)
        stocks = getContent(html)
        for stock in stocks:
            print(s.format(stock[0],stock[1],stock[2],stock[3],stock[4],stock[5],stock[6],stock[7],stock[8],stock[9],stock[10],stock[11],stock[12],chr(12288)))
            stockdb.insert(stock[0],stock[1],stock[2],stock[3],stock[4],stock[5],stock[6],stock[7],stock[8],stock[9],stock[10],stock[11],stock[12])
            # 存入数据库
    stockdb.closeDB()

2.3实验结果:

 数据库:

2.4实验心得:

 1.学习了如何抓包,过程中有很多名字一样的response,要点进f12功能【网络】面板的【预览】功能,查看索要爬取的数据的内容,找到相应的url

 2.同时也学习了如何创建数据库的类,把爬取下来的数据内传入到数据库里

 3.这次实验不仅加深了对之前爬取网页内容的学习,还学习了新的内容,为我后面的爬虫学习之旅奠定了一定的基础

作业③

3.1作业内容

要求:爬取中国大学2021主榜(https://www.shanghairanking.cn/rankings/bcur/2021)所 有院校信息,并存储在数据库中,同时将浏览器F12调试分析的过程录制Gif加入至博客中。

 3.2实验步骤:

打开网站,F12,点击网络,点击js,找到大学排名的相关信息:

 

 

 

打开文件对应网址,开起来会乱码,但是没关系,代码中可以解析:

 核心代码:

获取数据

def getHtml(url):
    try:
        header = {
            "User-Agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.0 x64; en-US; rv:1.9pre) Gecko/2008072421 Minefield/3.0.2pre"}
        resp = requests.get(url,headers=header)
        resp.raise_for_status()
        resp.encoding = resp.apparent_encoding
        return resp.text
    except Exception as err:
        print(err)


def getContent(html):
    r1 = 'univNameCn:"(.*?)"'
    r2 = 'score:(.*?),'

    namelist = re.findall(r1,html,re.S|re.M)
    scorelist = re.findall(r2,html,re.S|re.M)
    collegedb = collegeDB()
    collegedb.openDB()
    print("{0:^10}\t{1:{3}^10}\t{2:{3}^10}".format("排名", "学校名称", "总分", chr(12288)))
    num = 1
    for i in range(len(namelist)):
        print("{0:^10}\t{1:{3}^10}\t{2:{3}^10}".format(num, namelist[i], scorelist[i], chr(12288)))
        collegedb.insert(num,namelist[i],scorelist[i])
        num += 1

创建数据库类:

class collegeDB:

    def openDB(self):
        self.con = sqlite3.connect("colleges.db") # 连接数据库,没有的话会注定创建一个
        self.cursor = self.con.cursor() # 设置一个游标
        try:
            self.cursor.execute("create table colleges(Rank varchar(10),Schoolname varchar(10),Score varchar(10))")
        except:
            self.cursor.execute("delete from colleges")

    def closeDB(self):
        self.con.commit()
        self.con.close()

    def insert(self,rank,schoolname,score):
        try:
            self.cursor.execute("insert into colleges(Rank,Schoolname,Score) values (?,?,?)", (rank, schoolname, score))
        except Exception as err:
            print(err)

3.3运行结果

 

 

 

 数据库:

 

 3.4实验心得:

 1.这次实验学习了如何抓包,过程中有很多名字一样的response,要点进f12功能【网络】面板的【预览】功能,查看索要爬取的数据的内容,找到相应的url进行爬取,虽然这次实验和上一次爬取大学排名有一点相似,但是也增加了很多新的内容,学到了很多新知识

 2.同时也学习了如何创建数据库的类,把爬取下来的数据内传入到数据库里

 3.这次实验不仅加深了对之前爬取网页内容的学习,还学习了新的内容,为我后面的爬虫学习之旅奠定了一定的基础

 全部代码地址:第二次实践作业 · 王欢/数据采集与融合 - 码云 - 开源中国 (gitee.com)

posted @ 2021-10-14 18:49  cowhorse  阅读(24)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报