使用阻塞队列解决生产者-消费者问题

如果你想避免使用错综复杂的waitnotify的语句,BlockingQueue非常有用。BlockingQueue可用于解决生产者-消费者问题,如下代码示例。对于每个开发人员来说,生产者消费者问题已经非常熟悉了,这里我将不做详细描述。

为什么BlockingQueue适合解决生产者消费者问题

任何有效的生产者-消费者问题解决方案都是通过控制生产者put()方法(生产资源)和消费者take()方法(消费资源)的调用来实现的,一旦你实现了对方法的阻塞控制,那么你将解决该问题。

Java通过BlockingQueue提供了开箱即用的支持来控制这些方法的调用(一个线程创建资源,另一个消费资源)。java.util.concurrent包下的BlockingQueue接口是一个线程安全的可用于存取对象的队列。

BlockingQueue是一种数据结构,支持一个线程往里存资源,另一个线程从里取资源。这正是解决生产者消费者问题所需要的,那么让我们开始解决该问题吧。

使用BlockingQueue解决生产者消费者问题

生产者

以下代码用于生产者线程

package cn.edu.hdu.chenpi.cpdemo.howtodoinjava;

import java.util.concurrent.BlockingQueue;

class Producer implements Runnable {
    protected BlockingQueue<Object> queue;

    Producer(BlockingQueue<Object> theQueue) {
        this.queue = theQueue;
    }

    public void run() {
        try {
            while (true) {
                Object justProduced = getResource();
                queue.put(justProduced);
                System.out.println("Produced resource - Queue size now = "
                        + queue.size());
            }
        } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
            System.out.println("Producer INTERRUPTED");
        }
    }

    Object getResource() {
        try {
            Thread.sleep(100); // simulate time passing during read
        } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
            System.out.println("Producer Read INTERRUPTED");
        }
        return new Object();
    }
}

这里,生产者线程创建一个资源(Object对象)并将它存入队列中,如果队列已经满了(最大为20),它将会等待直到消费者线程从队列中取走资源,所以队列的长度永远不会超过最大值,比如20。

消费者

以下代码用于消费者线程

package cn.edu.hdu.chenpi.cpdemo.howtodoinjava;

import java.util.concurrent.BlockingQueue;

class Consumer implements Runnable {
    protected BlockingQueue<Object> queue;

    Consumer(BlockingQueue<Object> theQueue) {
        this.queue = theQueue;
    }

    public void run() {
        try {
            while (true) {
                Object obj = queue.take();
                System.out.println("Consumed resource - Queue size now = "
                        + queue.size());
                take(obj);
            }
        } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
            System.out.println("CONSUMER INTERRUPTED");
        }
    }

    void take(Object obj) {
        try {
            Thread.sleep(100); // simulate time passing
        } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
            System.out.println("Consumer Read INTERRUPTED");
        }
        System.out.println("Consuming object " + obj);
    }
}

队列中有资源的话,消费者线程将从队列中取走资源,否则会等待直到生产者创建资源。

测试该解决方案是否运行正常

现在,让我们测试下以上生产者消费者线程是否能正常工作:

package cn.edu.hdu.chenpi.cpdemo.howtodoinjava;

import java.util.concurrent.BlockingQueue;
import java.util.concurrent.LinkedBlockingQueue;

public class ProducerConsumerExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
        int numProducers = 4;
        int numConsumers = 3;

        BlockingQueue<Object> myQueue = new LinkedBlockingQueue<>(20);

        for (int i = 0; i < numProducers; i++) {
            new Thread(new Producer(myQueue)).start();
        }

        for (int i = 0; i < numConsumers; i++) {
            new Thread(new Consumer(myQueue)).start();
        }

        // Let the simulation run for, say, 10 seconds
        Thread.sleep(10 * 1000);

        // End of simulation - shut down gracefully
        System.exit(0);
    }
}

当我们运行以上代码,会发现类似如下输出结果:

Consumed resource - Queue size now = 1
Produced resource - Queue size now = 1
Consumed resource - Queue size now = 1
Consumed resource - Queue size now = 1
Produced resource - Queue size now = 1
Produced resource - Queue size now = 1
Produced resource - Queue size now = 1
Consuming object java.lang.Object@14c7f728
Consumed resource - Queue size now = 0
Consuming object java.lang.Object@2b71e323
Consumed resource - Queue size now = 0
Produced resource - Queue size now = 0
Produced resource - Queue size now = 1
Produced resource - Queue size now = 2
Consuming object java.lang.Object@206dc00b
Consumed resource - Queue size now = 1
Produced resource - Queue size now = 2
Produced resource - Queue size now = 3
Consuming object java.lang.Object@1a000bc0
Consumed resource - Queue size now = 2
Consuming object java.lang.Object@25b6183d
Consumed resource - Queue size now = 1
Produced resource - Queue size now = 2
Produced resource - Queue size now = 3
...
...
Produced resource - Queue size now = 20
Consuming object java.lang.Object@2b3cd3a6
Consumed resource - Queue size now = 19
Produced resource - Queue size now = 20
Consuming object java.lang.Object@3876982d
Consumed resource - Queue size now = 19
Produced resource - Queue size now = 20

从输出结果中,我们可以发现队列大小永远不会超过20,消费者线程消费了生产者生产的资源。

 

译文链接:http://howtodoinjava.com/algorithm/producer-consumer-problem-using-blockingqueue/

posted @ 2016-06-02 15:54  风一样的码农  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏