文件实例应用

一,词频统计:

统计一篇文章中的单词数量:

import sys
import re
def countFile(filename,words):
    #对 filename 文件进行词频分析,分析结果记在字典 words里
    try:
        f = open(filename,"r",encoding = "gbk" )    #文件为缺省编码。根据实际情况可以加参数 encoding="utf-8" 或 encoding = "gbk"
    except Exception as e:
        print(e)
        return 0
    txt = f.read()  #全部文件内容存入字符串txt
    f.close()
    splitChars = set([]) #分隔串的集合
    #下面找出所有文件中非字母的字符,作为分隔串
    for c in txt:
        if not in ( c >= 'a' and c <= 'z' or c >= 'A' and c <= 'Z'):
            splitChars.add(c)
    splitStr = ""  #用于 re.split的正则表达式
    #该正则表达式形式类似于: ",|:| |-" 之类,两个竖线之间的字符串就是分隔符
    for c in splitChars:
        if c in {'.','?','!','"',"'",'(',')','|','*','$','\\','[',']','^','{','}'}:
        #上面这些字符比较特殊,加到splitChars里面的时候要在前面加 "\"
            splitStr += "\\" + c + "|"   # python字符串里面,\\其实就是  \
        else:
            splitStr +=  c + "|"
    splitStr += " "  # '|'后面必须要有东西,空格多写一遍没关系
    lst = re.split(splitStr,txt) #lst是分隔后的单词列表
    for x in lst:
        if x == "":        #两个相邻分隔串之间会分割出来一个空串,不理它
            continue
        lx = x.lower()
        if lx in words:
            words[lx] += 1  #如果在字典里,则改词出现次数+1
        else:
            words[lx] = 1  #如果不在字典里,则将该词加入字典,出现次数设为1
    return 1

result = {}  #结果字典。格式为 { 'a':2,'about':3 ....}
if countFile(sys.argv[1],result) ==0:# argv[1] 是 源文件,分析结果记在result里面
    exit()
lst = list(result.items())
lst.sort() #单词按字典序排序
f = open(sys.argv[2],"w",encoding="gbk")  #argv[2] 是结果文件, 文件为缺省编码, "w"表示写入
for x in lst:
    f.write("%s\t%d\n" % (x[0],x[1]))
f.close()

二,词频统计升级:

能够读取多个文件的文本内容,对多个文件进行统计,这里肯定就要用有关文件夹中的内容下面直接上代码把.

 

 

import sys
import re
import os
def countFile(filename,words):
    #对 filename 文件进行词频分析,分析结果记在词典 words里
    try:
        f = open(filename,"r",encoding = "gbk" )    #文件为缺省编码。根据实际情况可以加参数 encoding="utf-8" 或 encoding = "gbk"
    except Exception as e:
        print(e)
        return 0
    txt = f.read()  #全部文件内容存入字符串txt
    f.close()
    splitChars = set([]) #分隔串的集合
    #下面找出所有文件中非字母的字符,作为分隔串
    for c in txt:
        if not ( c >= 'a' and c <= 'z' or c >= 'A' and c <= 'Z'):
            splitChars.add(c)
    splitStr = ""  #用于 re.split的正则表达式
    #该正则表达式形式类似于: ",|:| |-" 之类,两个竖线之间的字符串就是分隔符
    for c in splitChars:
        if c in {'.','?','!','"',"'",'(',')','|','*','$','\\','[',']','^','{','}'}:
        #上面这些字符比较特殊,加到splitChars里面的时候要在前面加 "\"
            splitStr += "\\" + c + "|"   # python字符串里面,\\其实就是  \
        else:
            splitStr +=  c + "|"
    splitStr += " "  # '|'后面必须要有东西,空格多写一遍没关系
    lst = re.split(splitStr,txt) #lst是分隔后的单词列表
    for x in lst:
        if x == "":        #两个相邻分隔串之间会分割出来一个空串,不理它
            continue
        lx = x.lower()
        if lx in words:
            words[lx] += 1  #如果在词典里,则改词出现次数+1
        else:
            words[lx] = 1  #如果不在词典里,则将该词加入词典,出现次数设为1
    return 1

result = {}  #结果字典
lst  = os.listdir() #列出当前文件夹下所有文件和文件夹
for x in lst:
    if os.path.isfile(x): #如果x是文件
        if x.lower().endswith(".txt") and x.lower().startswith("a"):
            #x是 'a'开头, .txt结尾
            countFile(x,result)
lst = list(result.items())
lst.sort() #单词按字典序排序
f = open(sys.argv[1],"w",encoding="gbk") #argv[2] 是结果文件, 文件为缺省编码, "w"表示写入
for x in lst:
    f.write("%s\t%d\n" % (x[0],x[1]))
f.close()

其实和第一个文件差的就是打开文件夹的步骤

 

三,词汇统计升级再升级:

 

 

 1 import sys
 2 import re
 3 def makeFilterSet():
 4     cet4words = set([])
 5     f = open("cet4words.txt", "r",encoding="gbk")
 6     lines = f.readlines()
 7     f.close()
 8     for line in lines:
 9         line = line.strip()
10         if line == "":
11             continue
12         if line[0] == "$":
13             cet4words.add(line[1:])  # 将四级单词加入 集合
14     return cet4words
15 
16 def makeSplitStr(txt):
17     splitChars = set([])
18     #下面找出所有文件中非字母的字符,作为分隔符
19     for c in txt:
20         if not ( c >= 'a' and c <= 'z' or c >= 'A' and c <= 'Z'):
21             splitChars.add(c)
22     splitStr = ""
23     #生成用于 re.split的分隔符字符串
24     for c in splitChars:
25         if c in ['.','?','!','"',"'",'(',')','|','*','$','\\','[',']','^','{','}']:
26             splitStr += "\\" + c + "|"
27         else:
28             splitStr +=  c + "|"
29     splitStr+=" "
30     return splitStr
31 
32 def countFile(filename,filterdict):  #词频统计,要去掉在 filterdict集合里的单词
33     words = {}
34     try:
35         f = open(filename,"r",encoding="gbk")
36     except Exception as e:
37         print(e)
38         return 0
39     txt = f.read()
40     f.close()
41     splitStr = makeSplitStr(txt)
42     lst = re.split(splitStr,txt)
43     for x in lst:
44         lx = x.lower()
45         if lx == "" or lx in filterdict:  #去掉在 filterdict里的单词
46             continue
47         words[lx] = words.get(lx,0) + 1
48     return words
49 
50 result = countFile(sys.argv[1],makeFilterSet())
51 if result != {}:
52     lst = list(result.items())
53     lst.sort()
54     f = open(sys.argv[2],"w",encoding="gbk")
55     for x in lst:
56         f.write("%s\t%d\n" % (x[0],x[1]))
57     f.close()

 四,词频统计升级升级再升级:

 

 

 1 import sys
 2 import re
 3 def makeVaryWordsDict():
 4     vary_words = { }    #元素形式: 变化形式:原型 例如 {acts:act,acting:act,boys:boy....}
 5     f = open("word_varys.txt","r",encoding="gbk")
 6     lines = f.readlines()
 7     f.close()
 8     L = len(lines)
 9     for i in range(0,L,2):  #每两行是一个单词的原型及变化形式
10         word = lines[i].strip()     #单词原型
11         varys = lines[i+1].strip().split("|")   #变形
12         for w in varys:
13             vary_words[w] = word  #加入 变化形式:原型  , w的原型是 word
14     return vary_words
15 
16 def makeSplitStr(txt):
17     splitChars = set([])
18     #下面找出所有文件中非字母的字符,作为分隔符
19     for c in txt:
20         if not ( c >= 'a' and c <= 'z' or c >= 'A' and c <= 'Z'):
21             splitChars.add(c)
22     splitStr = ""
23     #生成用于 re.split的分隔符字符串
24     for c in splitChars:
25         if c in ['.','?','!','"',"'",'(',')','|','*','$','\\','[',']','^','{','}']:
26             splitStr += "\\" + c + "|"
27         else:
28             splitStr +=  c + "|"
29     splitStr+=" "
30     return splitStr
31 
32 def countFile(filename,vary_word_dict):
33 #分析 filename 文件,返回一个词典作为结果。到 vary_word_dict里查单词原型
34     try:
35         f = open(filename,"r",encoding="gbk")
36     except Exception as e:
37         print(e)
38         return None
39     txt = f.read()
40     f.close()
41     splitStr = makeSplitStr(txt)
42     words = {}
43     lst = re.split(splitStr,txt)
44     for x in lst:
45         lx = x.lower()
46         if lx == "":
47             continue
48         if lx in vary_word_dict: #如果在原型词典里能查到原型,就变成原型再统计
49             lx = vary_word_dict[lx]
50         #直接写这句可以替换上面 if 语句  lx = vary_word_dict.get(lx,lx)
51         words[lx] = words.get(lx,0) + 1
52     return words
53 
54 result = countFile(sys.argv[1],makeVaryWordsDict())
55 if result != None and result != {}:
56     lst = list(result.items())
57     lst.sort()
58     f = open(sys.argv[2],"w",encoding="gbk")
59     for x in lst:
60         f.write("%s\t%d\n" % (x[0],x[1]))
61     f.close()

 

posted @ 2022-02-01 19:34  prize  阅读(30)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报