Python操作MySQL之SQLAlchemy

SQLAlchemy是Python编程语言下的一款ORM框架,该框架建立在数据库API之上,使用关系对象映射进行数据库操作,简言之便是:将对象转换成SQL,然后使用数据API执行SQL并获取执行结果。

sqlalchemy

SQLAlchemy本身无法操作数据库,其必须以来pymsql等第三方插件,Dialect用于和数据API进行交流,根据配置文件的不同调用不同的数据库API,从而实现对数据库的操作.

MySQL-Python
    mysql+mysqldb://<user>:<password>@<host>[:<port>]/<dbname>
  
pymysql
    mysql+pymysql://<username>:<password>@<host>/<dbname>[?<options>]
  
MySQL-Connector
    mysql+mysqlconnector://<user>:<password>@<host>[:<port>]/<dbname>
  
cx_Oracle
    oracle+cx_oracle://user:pass@host:port/dbname[?key=value&key=value...]
  
更多详见:http://docs.sqlalchemy.org/en/latest/dialects/index.html

底层处理

使用 Engine/ConnectionPooling/Dialect 进行数据库操作,Engine使用ConnectionPooling连接数据库,然后再通过Dialect执行SQL语句。

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from sqlalchemy import create_engine
 
 
engine = create_engine("mysql+pymysql://root:123@127.0.0.1:3306/t1", max_overflow=5)
 
# 执行SQL
# cur = engine.execute(
#     "INSERT INTO hosts (host, color_id) VALUES ('1.1.1.22', 3)"
# )
 
# 新插入行自增ID
# cur.lastrowid
 
# 执行SQL
# cur = engine.execute(
#     "INSERT INTO hosts (host, color_id) VALUES(%s, %s)",[('1.1.1.22', 3),('1.1.1.221', 3),]
# )
 
 
# 执行SQL
# cur = engine.execute(
#     "INSERT INTO hosts (host, color_id) VALUES (%(host)s, %(color_id)s)",
#     host='1.1.1.99', color_id=3
# )
 
# 执行SQL
# cur = engine.execute('select * from hosts')
# 获取第一行数据
# cur.fetchone()
# 获取第n行数据
# cur.fetchmany(3)
# 获取所有数据
# cur.fetchall()

说白了就是使用pymysql的方法一样.

ORM功能使用

创建表

from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base
from sqlalchemy import Column, Integer, String, ForeignKey, UniqueConstraint, Index
from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker, relationship
from sqlalchemy import create_engine

engine = create_engine("mysql+pymysql://root:7ujm8ik,@192.168.4.193:3306/testsql", max_overflow=5)

Base = declarative_base()

# 创建单表
class Users(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'users'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(32))
    extra = Column(String(16))

    __table_args__ = (
    UniqueConstraint('id', 'name', name='uix_id_name'),
        Index('ix_id_name', 'name', 'extra'),
    )

# 一对多
class Favor(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'favor'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    caption = Column(String(50), default='red', unique=True)


class Person(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'person'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(32), index=True, nullable=True)
    favor_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey("favor.nid"))

# 多对多
class ServerToGroup(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'servertogroup'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    server_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('server.id'))
    group_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('group.id'))

class Group(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'group'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)


class Server(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'server'

    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    hostname = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)
    port = Column(Integer, default=22)

#定义初始化数据库函数
def init_db():
    Base.metadata.create_all(engine)

#顶固删除数据库函数
def drop_db():
    Base.metadata.drop_all(engine)

# drop_db()
init_db()

操作表

操作后我们会发现,class定义的为首字母大写,写入表以后为全部小写的模式.

from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base
from sqlalchemy import Column, Integer, String, ForeignKey, UniqueConstraint, Index
from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker, relationship
from sqlalchemy import create_engine

engine = create_engine("mysql+pymysql://root:7ujm8ik,@192.168.4.193:3306/testsql", max_overflow=5)

Base = declarative_base()

# 创建单表
class Users(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'users'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(32))
    extra = Column(String(16))

    __table_args__ = (
    UniqueConstraint('id', 'name', name='uix_id_name'),
        Index('ix_id_name', 'name', 'extra'),
    )

# 一对多
class Favor(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'favor'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    caption = Column(String(50), default='red', unique=True)


class Person(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'person'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(32), index=True, nullable=True)
    favor_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey("favor.nid"))

# 多对多
class ServerToGroup(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'servertogroup'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    server_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('server.id'))
    group_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('group.id'))

class Group(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'group'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)


class Server(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'server'

    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    hostname = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)
    port = Column(Integer, default=22)

#定义初始化数据库函数
def init_db():
    Base.metadata.create_all(engine)

#顶固删除数据库函数
def drop_db():
    Base.metadata.drop_all(engine)

# drop_db()
# init_db()

#创建mysql操作对象
Session = sessionmaker(bind=engine)
session = Session()

add:增加一个
add_all:增加多个

Session = sessionmaker(bind=engine)
session = Session()

obj = Users(name='alex',extra='sb')
session.add(obj)
#add_all 列表形式
session.add_all([
    Users(name='cc',extra='cow'),
    Users(name='dd',extra='cowcow')
])
#提交
session.commit()

# 删
session.query(Users).filter(Users.id > 2).delete()

# 提交
session.commit()

session.query(Users).filter(Users.id > 2).update({"name" : "099"})
session.query(Users).filter(Users.id > 2).update({Users.name: Users.name + "099"}, synchronize_session=False)
session.query(Users).filter(Users.id > 2).update({"num": Users.num + 1}, synchronize_session="evaluate")
session.commit()

# 提交
session.commit()

ret=session.query(Users).all()
ret = session.query(Users.id, Users.extra).all()    #结果为一个列表
ret = session.query(Users).filter_by(name='cc').first()
ret = session.query(Users).filter_by(name='cc').all()

print(type(ret))
print(ret[0].extra)

其他

条件:

# 条件
ret = session.query(Users).filter_by(name='alex').all()
ret = session.query(Users).filter(Users.id > 1, Users.name == 'eric').all()
ret = session.query(Users).filter(Users.id.between(1, 3), Users.name == 'eric').all()
ret = session.query(Users).filter(Users.id.in_([1,3,4])).all()
ret = session.query(Users).filter(~Users.id.in_([1,3,4])).all()
ret = session.query(Users).filter(Users.id.in_(session.query(Users.id).filter_by(name='eric'))).all()

与 或:

from sqlalchemy import and_, or_
ret = session.query(Users).filter(and_(Users.id > 3, Users.name == 'eric')).all()
ret = session.query(Users).filter(or_(Users.id < 2, Users.name == 'eric')).all()
ret = session.query(Users).filter(
    or_(
        Users.id < 2,
        and_(Users.name == 'eric', Users.id > 3),
        Users.extra != ""
    )).all()

通配符 非:

ret = session.query(Users).filter(Users.name.like('e%')).all()
ret = session.query(Users).filter(~Users.name.like('e%')).all()

限制:

ret = session.query(Users)[1:2]

排序:

ret = session.query(Users).order_by(Users.name.desc()).all()
ret = session.query(Users).order_by(Users.name.desc(), Users.id.asc()).all()

分组:

from sqlalchemy.sql import func

ret = session.query(Users).group_by(Users.extra).all()
ret = session.query(
    func.max(Users.id),
    func.sum(Users.id),
    func.min(Users.id)).group_by(Users.name).all()

ret = session.query(
    func.max(Users.id),
    func.sum(Users.id),
    func.min(Users.id)).group_by(Users.name).having(func.min(Users.id) >2).all()

连表:

ret = session.query(Users, Favor).filter(Users.id == Favor.nid).all()

ret = session.query(Person).join(Favor).all()

ret = session.query(Person).join(Favor, isouter=True).all()

组合:

q1 = session.query(Users.name).filter(Users.id > 2)
q2 = session.query(Favor.caption).filter(Favor.nid < 2)
ret = q1.union(q2).all()

q1 = session.query(Users.name).filter(Users.id > 2)
q2 = session.query(Favor.caption).filter(Favor.nid < 2)
ret = q1.union_all(q2).all()

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posted @ 2016-07-27 17:29  ccorz  阅读(22139)  评论(1编辑  收藏  举报