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ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor的基本使用和源码解读

1 基本使用

ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor是一种特殊的线程池,它可以执行延迟任务定时任务

首先,通常会在全局范围内创建线程池对象,可以是静态变量,或者Spring单例对象:

ThreadFactory threadFactory = Executors.defaultThreadFactory();  
RejectedExecutionHandler rejectedExecutionHandler = new ThreadPoolExecutor.CallerRunsPolicy();  
// 1、创建线程池  
ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor scheduledThreadPoolExecutor = new ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor(  
        3,  
        threadFactory,  
        rejectedExecutionHandler);

然后,在对应业务场景中,创建任务,并且提交到线程池:

// 2、创建任务  
Runnable task = new Runnable() {  
    @Override  
    public void run() {  
        System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName() + ": run()");  
        try {  
            Thread.sleep(500);  
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {  
            e.printStackTrace();  
        }  
    }  
};  
// 执行延时任务  
scheduledThreadPoolExecutor.schedule(task, 1, TimeUnit.SECONDS);  
// 执行定时任务  
scheduledThreadPoolExecutor.scheduleAtFixedRate(task, 0, 1, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

在整个线程池使用结束后,需要主动关闭线程池:

scheduledThreadPoolExecutor.shutdown();  
// 或
scheduledThreadPoolExecutor.shutdownNow();

2 核心源码

2.1 创建线程池

ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor继承了ThreadPoolExecutor,直接使用了父类的底层数据结构,但是为其中某些核心参数设置的固定值:

public ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor(int corePoolSize,  
                                   ThreadFactory threadFactory,  
                                   RejectedExecutionHandler handler) {  
    super(corePoolSize, Integer.MAX_VALUE, 0, NANOSECONDS,  
          new DelayedWorkQueue(), threadFactory, handler);  
}

核心参数:

  • 核心工作线程:corePoolSize
  • 任务队列:固定为DelayedWorkQueue
  • 额外工作线程:固定为Integer.MAX_VALUE
  • 拒绝策略:handler
  • 工作线程存活时间:固定为0

2.2 提交任务

2.2.1 延时任务

通过ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor#schedule()方法可以提交延时任务,需要指定延迟时间。该方法会返回ScheduledFuture对象,如果任务有返回值,可以通过Future#get()方法获取:

public ScheduledFuture<?> schedule(Runnable command,  
                                   long delay,  
                                   TimeUnit unit) {  
    // 参数校验
    if (command == null || unit == null) throw new NullPointerException();  
    // 封装任务
    RunnableScheduledFuture<?> t = decorateTask(command,  
        new ScheduledFutureTask<Void>(command, null,  
                                      // 计算下次执行时间戳
                                      triggerTime(delay, unit)));  
    // 延时执行任务
    delayedExecute(t);  
    return t;  
}

public <V> ScheduledFuture<V> schedule(Callable<V> callable,  
                                       long delay,  
                                       TimeUnit unit) {  
    // 参数校验
    if (callable == null || unit == null) throw new NullPointerException();  
    // 封装任务
    RunnableScheduledFuture<V> t = decorateTask(callable,  
        new ScheduledFutureTask<V>(callable,  
                                   triggerTime(delay, unit)));  
    // 延时执行任务
    delayedExecute(t);  
    return t;  
}

2.2.2 定时任务

通过ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor#scheduleAtFixedRate()方法可以提交定时任务,需要指定第一次延迟执行时间和定时执行周期。该方法会返回ScheduledFuture对象,如果任务有返回值,可以通过Future#get()方法获取:

public ScheduledFuture<?> scheduleAtFixedRate(Runnable command,  
                                              long initialDelay,  
                                              long period,  
                                              TimeUnit unit) {  
    // 参数校验
    if (command == null || unit == null) throw new NullPointerException();  
    if (period <= 0) throw new IllegalArgumentException();  
    // 封装任务
    ScheduledFutureTask<Void> sft =  
        new ScheduledFutureTask<Void>(command,  
                                      null,  
                                      // 计算下次执行时间戳
                                      triggerTime(initialDelay, unit),  
                                      // 计算定时执行周期
                                      unit.toNanos(period));  
    RunnableScheduledFuture<Void> t = decorateTask(command, sft);  
    sft.outerTask = t;  
    // 延迟执行任务
    delayedExecute(t);  
    return t;  
}

public ScheduledFuture<?> scheduleWithFixedDelay(Runnable command,  
                                                 long initialDelay,  
                                                 long delay,  
                                                 TimeUnit unit) {  
    // 参数校验
    if (command == null || unit == null) throw new NullPointerException();  
    if (delay <= 0) throw new IllegalArgumentException();  
    // 封装任务
    ScheduledFutureTask<Void> sft =  
        new ScheduledFutureTask<Void>(command,  
                                      null,  
                                      triggerTime(initialDelay, unit),  
                                      unit.toNanos(-delay));  
    RunnableScheduledFuture<Void> t = decorateTask(command, sft);  
    sft.outerTask = t;  
    // 延迟执行任务
    delayedExecute(t);  
    return t;  
}

2.3 第一次执行任务

提交任务时,会通过ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor#delayedExecute()方法执行任务:

private void delayedExecute(RunnableScheduledFuture<?> task) {  
    // 如果线程池已停止:执行拒绝策略
    if (isShutdown())  
        reject(task);  
    else {  
        // 将任务入队
        super.getQueue().add(task);  
        // 判断线程池状态
        if (isShutdown() &&  
            !canRunInCurrentRunState(task.isPeriodic()) &&  
            remove(task))  
            task.cancel(false);  
        // 创建工作线程
        else  
            ensurePrestart();  
    }  
}

ThreadPoolExecutor#ensurePrestart()方法中会根据线程池状态来创建工作线程:

void ensurePrestart() {  
    int wc = workerCountOf(ctl.get());  
    // 创建核心工作线程
    if (wc < corePoolSize)  
        addWorker(null, true);  
    // 创建额外工作线程
    else if (wc == 0)  
        addWorker(null, false);  
}

在创建工作线程时,会调用ThreadPoolExecutor#addWorker()方法,创建Worker对象,并启动工作线程:

private boolean addWorker(Runnable firstTask, boolean core) {  
    retry:  
    for (;;) {  
        int c = ctl.get();  
        int rs = runStateOf(c);  
  
        // Check if queue empty only if necessary.  
        if (rs >= SHUTDOWN &&  
            ! (rs == SHUTDOWN &&  
               firstTask == null &&  
               ! workQueue.isEmpty()))  
            return false;  
  
        for (;;) {  
            int wc = workerCountOf(c);  
            if (wc >= CAPACITY ||  
                wc >= (core ? corePoolSize : maximumPoolSize))  
                return false;  
            if (compareAndIncrementWorkerCount(c))  
                break retry;  
            c = ctl.get();  // Re-read ctl  
            if (runStateOf(c) != rs)  
                continue retry;  
            // else CAS failed due to workerCount change; retry inner loop  
        }  
    }  
  
    boolean workerStarted = false;  
    boolean workerAdded = false;  
    Worker w = null;  
    try {  
        // 创建工作线程
        w = new Worker(firstTask);  
        final Thread t = w.thread;  
        if (t != null) {  
            final ReentrantLock mainLock = this.mainLock;  
            mainLock.lock();  
            try {  
                // Recheck while holding lock.  
                // Back out on ThreadFactory failure or if                
                // shut down before lock acquired.                
                int rs = runStateOf(ctl.get());  
  
                if (rs < SHUTDOWN ||  
                    (rs == SHUTDOWN && firstTask == null)) {  
                    if (t.isAlive()) // precheck that t is startable  
                        throw new IllegalThreadStateException();  
                    workers.add(w);  
                    int s = workers.size();  
                    if (s > largestPoolSize)  
                        largestPoolSize = s;  
                    workerAdded = true;  
                }  
            } finally {  
                mainLock.unlock();  
            }  
            if (workerAdded) {  
                // 启动工作线程
                t.start();  
                workerStarted = true;  
            }  
        }  
    } finally {  
        if (! workerStarted)  
            addWorkerFailed(w);  
    }  
    return workerStarted;  
}

启动工作线程后,会执行ThreadPoolExecutor.Worker#run()方法:

public void run() {  
    runWorker(this);  
}

实际线程执行逻辑位于ThreadPoolExecutor#runWorker(),会循环执行提交的ScheduledFutureTask任务:

final void runWorker(Worker w) {  
    Thread wt = Thread.currentThread();  
    Runnable task = w.firstTask;  // 获取当前开发人员提交的任务
    w.firstTask = null;  // 清空任务
    w.unlock(); // allow interrupts  
    boolean completedAbruptly = true;  
    try {  
        // 循环执行
        // 1、如果task存在,执行task
        // 2、否则,获取队列中任务task,如果存在,执行task
        while (task != null || (task = getTask()) != null) {  
            w.lock();  
            // If pool is stopping, ensure thread is interrupted;  
            // if not, ensure thread is not interrupted.  This            
            // requires a recheck in second case to deal with            
            // shutdownNow race while clearing interrupt            
            if ((runStateAtLeast(ctl.get(), STOP) ||  
                 (Thread.interrupted() &&  
                  runStateAtLeast(ctl.get(), STOP))) &&  
                !wt.isInterrupted())  
                wt.interrupt();  
            try {  
                beforeExecute(wt, task);  
                Throwable thrown = null;  
                try {  
                    // 在work线程中执行task的run()方法
                    task.run();  
                } catch (RuntimeException x) {  
                    thrown = x; throw x;  
                } catch (Error x) {  
                    thrown = x; throw x;  
                } catch (Throwable x) {  
                    thrown = x; throw new Error(x);  
                } finally {  
                    afterExecute(task, thrown);  
                }  
            } finally {  
                task = null;  
                w.completedTasks++;  
                w.unlock();  
            }  
        }  
        completedAbruptly = false;  
    } finally {  
        processWorkerExit(w, completedAbruptly);  
    }  
}

2.4 ScheduledFutureTask

所有提交的RunnableCallable任务,在内部都会被封装成ScheduledFutureTask对象。它继承了FutureTask,可以用来适配Callable任务。


ScheduledFutureTask核心成员变量如下:

  • time:下次执行时间戳。
  • period:执行周期(0:non-repeating task;正数:fixed-rate execution;负数:fixed-delay execution)
  • outerTask:代理的实际任务。

工作线程会执行ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor.ScheduledFutureTask#run()方法:

public void run() {  
    // 是否周期执行:period != 0
    boolean periodic = isPeriodic();  
    // 判断线程池状态:能否运行
    if (!canRunInCurrentRunState(periodic))  
        cancel(false);  
    // 非周期任务:执行任务
    else if (!periodic)  
        ScheduledFutureTask.super.run();  
    // 周期任务:执行任务,计算下次执行时间,任务再次入队
    else if (ScheduledFutureTask.super.runAndReset()) {  
        setNextRunTime();  
        reExecutePeriodic(outerTask);  
    }  
}

2.341 延时任务

如果是延时任务,会执行java.util.concurrent.FutureTask#run()方法:

public void run() {  
    if (state != NEW ||  
        !UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, runnerOffset,  
                                     null, Thread.currentThread()))  
        return;  
    try {  
        Callable<V> c = callable;  
        if (c != null && state == NEW) {  
            V result;  
            boolean ran;  
            try {  
                // 执行任务
                result = c.call();  
                ran = true;  
            } catch (Throwable ex) {  
                result = null;  
                ran = false;  
                setException(ex);  
            }  
            if (ran)  
                set(result);  
        }  
    } finally {  
        // runner must be non-null until state is settled to  
        // prevent concurrent calls to run()        
        runner = null;  
        // state must be re-read after nulling runner to prevent  
        // leaked interrupts        
        int s = state;  
        if (s >= INTERRUPTING)  
            handlePossibleCancellationInterrupt(s);  
    }  
}

2.4.2 定时任务

如果是定时任务,会执行FutureTask#runAndReset()

protected boolean runAndReset() {  
    // 判断任务状态
    if (state != NEW ||  
        !UNSAFE.compareAndSwapObject(this, runnerOffset,  
                                     null, Thread.currentThread()))  
        return false;  
    
    boolean ran = false;  
    int s = state;  
    try {  
        Callable<V> c = callable;  
        if (c != null && s == NEW) {  
            try {  
                // 执行任务
                c.call(); // don't set result  
                ran = true;  
            } catch (Throwable ex) {  
                setException(ex);  
            }  
        }  
    } finally {  
        // runner must be non-null until state is settled to  
        // prevent concurrent calls to run()        
        runner = null;  
        // state must be re-read after nulling runner to prevent  
        // leaked interrupts        
        s = state;  
        if (s >= INTERRUPTING)  
            handlePossibleCancellationInterrupt(s);  
    }  
    return ran && s == NEW;  
}

然后,计算下次执行时间ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor.ScheduledFutureTask#setNextRunTime()

private void setNextRunTime() {  
    long p = period;  
    if (p > 0)  
        time += p;  
    else  
        time = triggerTime(-p);  
}

最后,将任务重新入队,等待下次执行。ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor#reExecutePeriodic()

void reExecutePeriodic(RunnableScheduledFuture<?> task) {  
    if (canRunInCurrentRunState(true)) {  
        // 任务重新入队
        super.getQueue().add(task);  
        if (!canRunInCurrentRunState(true) && remove(task))  
            task.cancel(false);  
        else  
            ensurePrestart();  
    }  
}

2.5 延迟任务队列

ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor使用的任务队列是DelayedWorkQueue,它是基于堆的数据结构,是执行延时/定时任务的核心,主要用到了队列的add/pool/take()方法,以及任务的compareTo()方法。

2.5.1 compareTo

ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor.ScheduledFutureTask#compareTo()用于队列堆中的任务排序,主要是根据下次执行时间戳time进行从小到大排序:

public int compareTo(Delayed other) {  
    if (other == this) // compare zero if same object  
        return 0;  
    if (other instanceof ScheduledFutureTask) {  
        ScheduledFutureTask<?> x = (ScheduledFutureTask<?>)other;  
        long diff = time - x.time;  
        if (diff < 0)  
            return -1;  
        else if (diff > 0)  
            return 1;  
        else if (sequenceNumber < x.sequenceNumber)  
            return -1;  
        else  
            return 1;  
    }  
    long diff = getDelay(NANOSECONDS) - other.getDelay(NANOSECONDS);  
    return (diff < 0) ? -1 : (diff > 0) ? 1 : 0;  
}

2.5.2 add

ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor.DelayedWorkQueue#add()用于添加任务:

public boolean add(Runnable e) {  
    return offer(e);  
}

实际逻辑位于ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor.DelayedWorkQueue#offer()

public boolean offer(Runnable x) {  
    if (x == null) throw new NullPointerException();  
    RunnableScheduledFuture<?> e = (RunnableScheduledFuture<?>)x;  
    final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;  
    lock.lock();  
    try {  
        int i = size;  
        // 数组扩容
        if (i >= queue.length)  
            grow();  
        size = i + 1;  
        // 第一个节点,直接添加
        if (i == 0) {  
            queue[0] = e;  
            setIndex(e, 0);  
        // 子节点,根据下一次执行时间戳进行堆排序
        } else {  
            siftUp(i, e);  
        }  
        if (queue[0] == e) {  
            leader = null;  
            available.signal();  
        }  
    } finally {  
        lock.unlock();  
    }  
    return true;  
}

2.5.3 pool

ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor.DelayedWorkQueue#poll()方法用于获取任务,该方法会阻塞timeout时间,如果超时会返回空:

public RunnableScheduledFuture<?> poll(long timeout, TimeUnit unit)  
    throws InterruptedException {  
    long nanos = unit.toNanos(timeout);  
    final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;  
    lock.lockInterruptibly();  
    try {  
        for (;;) {  
            // 获取第一个任务
            RunnableScheduledFuture<?> first = queue[0];  
            // 如果任务为空,阻塞线程nanos
            if (first == null) {  
                if (nanos <= 0)  
                    return null;  
                else  
                    nanos = available.awaitNanos(nanos);  
            } 
            // 如果任务不为空,判断延时
            else {  
                // 获取延时时间:当前时间-下次执行时间
                long delay = first.getDelay(NANOSECONDS);  
                // 任务需要执行:获取任务,堆排序
                if (delay <= 0)  
                    return finishPoll(first);  
                // 任务不需要执行:返回null或阻塞线程
                if (nanos <= 0)  
                    return null;  
                first = null; // don't retain ref while waiting  
                if (nanos < delay || leader != null)  
                    nanos = available.awaitNanos(nanos);  
                else {  
                    Thread thisThread = Thread.currentThread();  
                    leader = thisThread;  
                    try {  
                        long timeLeft = available.awaitNanos(delay);  
                        nanos -= delay - timeLeft;  
                    } finally {  
                        if (leader == thisThread)  
                            leader = null;  
                    }  
                }  
            }  
        }  
    } finally {  
        if (leader == null && queue[0] != null)  
            available.signal();  
        lock.unlock();  
    }  
}

2.5.4 take

ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor.DelayedWorkQueue#take()方法用于获取任务,该方法会阻塞线程:

public RunnableScheduledFuture<?> take() throws InterruptedException {  
    final ReentrantLock lock = this.lock;  
    lock.lockInterruptibly();  
    try {  
        for (;;) {  
            // 获取第一个任务
            RunnableScheduledFuture<?> first = queue[0];  
            // 如果任务为空,阻塞线程
            if (first == null)  
                available.await();  
            // 如果任务不为空,判断延时
            else {  
                // 获取延时时间:当前时间-下次执行时间
                long delay = first.getDelay(NANOSECONDS);  
                // 任务需要执行:获取任务,堆排序
                if (delay <= 0)  
                    return finishPoll(first);  
                // 任务不需要执行:阻塞线程
                first = null; // don't retain ref while waiting  
                if (leader != null)  
                    available.await();  
                else {  
                    Thread thisThread = Thread.currentThread();  
                    leader = thisThread;  
                    try {  
                        available.awaitNanos(delay);  
                    } finally {  
                        if (leader == thisThread)  
                            leader = null;  
                    }  
                }  
            }  
        }  
    } finally {  
        if (leader == null && queue[0] != null)  
            available.signal();  
        lock.unlock();  
    }  
}
posted @ 2023-02-20 20:59  Xianuii  阅读(343)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报