profile文件的错误加载与基本命令间的映射

一、绪论

  【因为这篇心得是原创的,所以如果有哪处总结或者意见不足的地方,欢迎各位大神的批评和意见,共同学习,谢谢了!】

  早些时候,需要在centos6.4系统中配置单机版和集群版单节点的hadoop HDFS,由于那时候一边跟老师学hadoop一边自学Linux。初学的自己懂得也不多,别人都用普通用户登录,在需要root权限时才sudo或者切换root用户进行配置,而我呢? 从一开始就使用了root登录,在给java和hadoop配置了profile文件环境变量,等到重启之后,出现了下图的现象:进入系统用户登录界面后,原本的鼠标小指针一直都是小时钟的样子,无论怎么点击都是能移动但是指针的形状偏偏就变不回来,也无法登录。

 

  那无法登陆了,肿么办?下意识就问老师吧,可他说他也没碰到过这种奇怪的现象。也对,但凡是规范的操作又怎么会碰到我的这种现象呢?想必极为少数吧!没有了老师的帮助,那时候我一贯的做法就是:强制关机-重启=不行,正常关机-重启=不行,之后便干脆直接放弃了整个系统,启用新系统从头开始配置HDFS。这个鼠标指针变成小时钟而无法登陆的现象,到现在前前后后碰到不下十遍,也由此令我一直耿耿于心,希望这篇心得能帮到更多与我类似困窘的人吧!

  这几个月来,其实,我一直都在追寻是什么原因导致的系统用户无法登陆,以及系统的各个配置文件都有些什么作用?下面先讲该怎么恢复系统的登录先吧!

二、恢复正常登录

  profile文件的错误加载而导致系统用户无法登录的现象,主要有两类:profile文件的内容配置错误、profile文件在进行vi时被挂起。如果是profile文件的内容配置错误,解决的办法:一是删除所有自定义配置的内容,但这种方法个人很不推荐;二是没有加载系统变量。至于profile文件在进行vi时被挂起,解决的办法就是恢复该文件,再删除生成的临时挂起文件。

(1)加载系统变量恢复

  1、切换到字符界面。可按Ctrl+Alt+F6,由用户图形界面切换到字符界面。

  2、登陆用户。这里由于用户图形界面本身就是一个应用程序,而不是Linux内核的一部分,所以即使图形用户界面完完全全地崩溃了,也是丝毫不影响我们使用字符界面进行常规的操作。这里,因为是系统的登录界面损坏,所以建议登录最高权限用户root。

 

 

   

  3、编辑profile文件。执行如下错误,查找并修改错误配置内容:

/usr/bin/vim /etc/profile

  可以看到我这里缺少了明显的系统传递参数:$PATH   。需要注意的是:如果 export PATH=  后面有多个变量值,在值与值之间需要使用英文的“ : ”符号隔开。具体修改如下:

  如果打开的profile文件中,已经存在了$PATH,那么导致图形界面无法进行用户登录的原因,很可能就是自定义部分的内容存在手动输入错误。如:缺少某个字符或者字符错误。倘若,仍然无法找到错误的根源,建议将所有自定义配置的内容进行删除。

  4、保存退出后,输入一下内容进行重启,重启后便可恢复正常登录。

/usr/bin/reboot

  如果不进行重启的话,也可以使用source命令让profile文件进行生效,但是不建议。因为这种方式容易导致profile文件的配置生效不完全。

 

 

 

 (2)恢复挂起的profile文件

   如果在配置profile文件内容时,中途断电或者强迫退出vim编辑,那么就会在/etc/目录下,临时生成profile.swp的隐藏文件,可以使用ll -a或者ls -a来查看是否存在.swp文件。在确保profile配置信息没有错误之后,记得删除该文件。删除的命令不再是" rm -rf profile.swp ",因为在profile文件错误加载的情况下rm命令不可直接使用,要在前面加上路径名称。具体的步骤类似上面的过程,区别在于第3步后,需要删除该隐藏文件再重启。

 

三、基本映射作用

  没错,前面所执行的命令,如简单的重启:

/usr/bin/reboot

  都在命令前加了路径名称。那么为什么需要加路径名称而不能直接使用呢?这和profile配置文件又有什么关联呢?如果每个命令都需要加前缀路径,这些前缀都相同吗?如果命令相同那么为什么执行下面的命令,会提示“No such file or directory”呢?

yang@cMaster:~]#/usr/bin/ls /etc/profile 
bash: /usr/bin/ls: No such file or directory

(1)profile文件的映射类型

   我们知道profile文件可进行环境变量的配置,那么对于命令的映射类型有两种:用户变量和系统变量,类似于我们win10的系统环境一样:

   我们先看一下Linux系统下的$PATH都有哪些内容?使用前面修复过的系统,登录并进入命令终端,输入如下命令并查看返回信息:

yang@cMaster:~]#which $PATH
/usr/bin/which: no bin in (/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/java/jdk1.8.0_161/bin:/home/yang)

  可见,“which”这个命令是属于/usr/bin/ 目录下的。至于每个常用的命令都在哪个目录下,这里先不讨论。我想说的是,我这里需要提出两个概念词,或许早有人为此下过定义,这里姑且暂用。我提出的概念是:权限比重、优先度。在权限比重方面,例如:“ /bin ”要比 “ /usr/local/bin ”权限大的多,但是“ /usr/local/bin ”的优先度级别比“ /bin ”还大。简而言之,就是用户登录系统后先使用的命令默认是 “ /usr/local/bin ”下的,当 “ /usr/local/bin ”找不到才到第二级别更高权限的“ /bin ”去找,这对于“/sbin”和“usr/sbin”一样的道理。这是对于单用户来说,如果我这里的yang用户需要root的权限,当sudo一下时,会跳出这些目录而去使用root用户“ /bin ”、 “ /usr/local/bin ”目录下的命令等等。

  我们完全可以这样来假设,“ /bin ”和“/sbin”是系统环境下的指令库,而“ /usr/local/bin ”和“usr/sbin”为用户环境下的指令集。也就是,可以大胆地假设一下,对于centos6.4来说:每个Linux用户都存在一个系统环境和一个用户环境。

  但其实在centos8里,“ /bin ”就是 “/usr/bin”的链接,“/sbin”也是 “/usr/sbin”的链接。

 

(2)profile文件的映射作用

  1、root用户所定义下的profile环境内容,其他用户环境可继承性较大;

  2、profile文件用于登录设置的全系统环境和启动程序。利用vi查看一下profile文件,内容如下:

# /etc/profile

# System wide environment and startup programs, for login setup
# Functions and aliases go in /etc/bashrc

# It's NOT a good idea to change this file unless you know what you
# are doing. It's much better to create a custom.sh shell script in
# /etc/profile.d/ to make custom changes to your environment, as this
# will prevent the need for merging in future updates.

pathmunge () {
    case ":${PATH}:" in
        *:"$1":*)
            ;;
        *)
            if [ "$2" = "after" ] ; then
                PATH=$PATH:$1
            else
                PATH=$1:$PATH
            fi
    esac
}


if [ -x /usr/bin/id ]; then
    if [ -z "$EUID" ]; then
        # ksh workaround
        EUID=`id -u`
        UID=`id -ru`
    fi
    USER="`id -un`"
    LOGNAME=$USER
    MAIL="/var/spool/mail/$USER"
fi

# Path manipulation
profile文件部分信息

    将“# /etc/profile# System wide environment and startup programs, for login setup# Functions and aliases go in /etc/bashrc# It's NOT a good idea to change this file unless you know what you# are doing. It's much better to create a custom.sh shell script in# /etc/profile.d/ to make custom changes to your environment, as this# will prevent the need for merging in future updates.”粘贴到百度翻译一下:

    这也恰恰说明了,为什么profile文件配置不好,会出现鼠标指针变成小时钟而无法登陆的现象。

  3、profile配置文件所自定义的内容,如:export PATH= 后面必须必须跟随传递参数:$PATH 。当不配置export PATH=的值时,$PATH为隐藏属性。当export PATH=的值被配置时,$PATH的作用是将“ /bin ”、“/sbin”、“ /usr/local/bin ”和“usr/sbin”等目录下的命令进行聚集和简化路径。这也正是,为什么当profile配置文件损坏时,必须在命令前加路径名称的缘故。但是每个命令的路径名称又是什么呢?

 

 (3)常用命令的映射目录

  还记得前边说到的,在profile文件不起作用时,要删除profile挂起的临时文件,必须要在rm命令的前面加了上命令的路径名称,不然会提示No such file or directory相类似的错误。当which $PATH一下,也看到过列举了一些路径,我们逐个进去看看:

yang@cMaster:~]#ll /usr/local/bin
total 0
ll /usr/local/bin

 

-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      87352 Jul 11  2012 pulseaudio
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1420 Sep 11  2012 pv.sh
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10152 Nov 15  2012 pwdx
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         78 Feb 21  2013 pydoc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        188 Aug 20  2010 pygtk-demo
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root       9032 Feb 21  2013 python
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          6 May 14  2018 python2 -> python
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root       9032 Feb 21  2013 python2.6
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      82752 Nov 20  2012 quota
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      65856 Nov 20  2012 quotasync
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      60984 Feb 21  2013 ranlib
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10168 Aug 18  2010 rarian-example
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1495 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-config
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        563 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-extract
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       9288 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-gen-uuid
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      80856 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-get-cl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        399 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-get-content-list
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        419 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-get-extended-content-list
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        382 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-get-scripts
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1171 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-install
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      89280 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-migrate
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      78568 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-preinstall
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        821 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-rebuild
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       9525 Aug 18  2010 rarian-sk-update
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14672 Dec 18  2012 ras2tiff
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      20056 Dec 18  2012 raw2tiff
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         28 Jun  6  2018 rcs2log -> ../share/cvs/contrib/rcs2log
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      13560 Nov 11  2010 rdate
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      12480 Feb 21  2013 rdjpgcom
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         33 May 14  2018 readcd -> /etc/alternatives/cdrecord-readcd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     303984 Feb 21  2013 readelf
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         18 May 14  2018 readlink -> ../../bin/readlink
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        800 Nov 12  2012 readmult
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     195632 Nov 12  2012 readom
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 reboot -> consolehelper
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15528 Jun  2  2014 recode-sr-latin
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     128936 Nov 11  2010 refer
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       9896 Feb 21  2013 rename
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10624 Feb 21  2013 renice
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      11619 Jun 22  2012 repoclosure
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      11707 Jun 22  2012 repodiff
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       4196 Jun 22  2012 repo-graph
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       7048 Jun 22  2012 repomanage
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      45778 Jun 22  2012 repoquery
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10225 Jun 22  2012 repo-rss
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10952 Feb 22  2013 report
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      31144 Feb 22  2013 report-cli
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      22896 Feb 22  2013 reporter-kerneloops
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14656 Feb 22  2013 reporter-mailx
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      13528 Feb 22  2013 reporter-print
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      40272 Feb 22  2013 reporter-rhtsupport
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      26744 Feb 22  2013 reporter-upload
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     127784 Feb 22  2013 report-gtk
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      20960 Feb 22  2013 report-newt
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      13626 Jun 22  2012 reposync
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       8740 Jun 22  2012 repotrack
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          4 May 14  2018 reset -> tset
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      19520 Nov 11  2010 resizecons
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10168 Feb 21  2013 rev
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      36136 Nov 10  2010 rfcomm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      16072 Dec 18  2012 rgb2ycbcr
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         18 May 14  2018 rhgb-client -> ../../bin/plymouth
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      54984 Nov 11  2010 rhythmbox
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      33144 Nov 11  2010 rhythmbox-client
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         27 May 14  2018 rmail -> /etc/alternatives/mta-rmail
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        262 Dec  2  2011 rmail.postfix
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         22 Jul  5  2018 rmic -> /etc/alternatives/rmic
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         22 Jul  5  2018 rmid -> /etc/alternatives/rmid
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         29 Jul  5  2018 rmiregistry -> /etc/alternatives/rmiregistry
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         15 May 14  2018 rnano -> ../../bin/rnano
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      16848 Dec 17  2011 rngtest
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      95704 Feb 21  2013 rpcgen
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      16040 Feb 21  2013 rpm2cpio
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 rpmdb -> ../../bin/rpm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 rpmquery -> ../../bin/rpm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 rpmsign -> ../../bin/rpm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 rpmverify -> ../../bin/rpm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       2500 Feb 24  2012 rsvg
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      28896 Feb 24  2012 rsvg-convert
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      44080 Feb 24  2012 rsvg-view
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     415000 Apr 11  2012 rsync
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      31888 Jun 22  2012 runcon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1411 Sep 26  2011 run-parts
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          3 May 14  2018 rvim -> vim
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      53325 Mar 22  2017 s2p
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     111496 Jun 22  2012 sadf
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     139480 Nov 11  2010 sane-find-scanner
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      81192 Jun 22  2012 sar
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       5896 Nov 10  2010 saytime
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      52304 Nov 11  2010 scanimage
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         27 Jul  5  2018 schemagen -> /etc/alternatives/schemagen
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15640 Feb 21  2013 scl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        258 Feb 21  2013 scl_enabled
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      59456 Feb 21  2013 scp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      16632 Feb 21  2013 script
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      11176 Feb 21  2013 scriptreplay
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         16 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-config -> rarian-sk-config
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         17 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-extract -> rarian-sk-extract
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         18 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-gen-seriesid -> rarian-sk-gen-uuid
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         16 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-get-cl -> rarian-sk-get-cl
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         26 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-get-content-list -> rarian-sk-get-content-list
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         35 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-get-extended-content-list -> rarian-sk-get-extended-content-list
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         21 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-get-index-from-docpath -> rarian-sk-get-scripts
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         21 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-get-toc-from-docpath -> rarian-sk-get-scripts
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         21 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-get-toc-from-id -> rarian-sk-get-scripts
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         17 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-install -> rarian-sk-install
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         20 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-preinstall -> rarian-sk-preinstall
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         17 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-rebuilddb -> rarian-sk-rebuild
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         17 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-uninstall -> rarian-sk-install
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         16 May 14  2018 scrollkeeper-update -> rarian-sk-update
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      29000 Nov 10  2010 sdiff
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      81048 Nov 10  2010 sdptool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     819768 Aug 22  2010 seahorse
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     668224 Aug 22  2010 seahorse-daemon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      18832 Feb 21  2013 secon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     173496 Nov 10  2010 sedismod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     145400 Nov 10  2010 sedispol
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     195536 Feb 21  2013 semodule_deps
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10584 Feb 21  2013 semodule_expand
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10512 Feb 21  2013 semodule_link
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14944 Feb 21  2013 semodule_package
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      13576 Aug 16  2010 sendiso
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        238 Mar 27  2018 sentry
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      43944 Jun 22  2012 seq
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         27 Jul  5  2018 serialver -> /etc/alternatives/serialver
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         28 Jul  5  2018 servertool -> /etc/alternatives/servertool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14720 Feb 23  2013 sessreg
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      13920 Feb 21  2013 setarch
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      37016 Dec  7  2011 setfacl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      18448 Sep 23  2011 setfattr
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10472 Nov 11  2010 setkeycodes
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      12272 Nov 11  2010 setleds
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       9976 Nov 11  2010 setmetamode
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       8800 Feb 21  2013 setsid
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      25704 Feb 21  2013 setterm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 setup -> consolehelper
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1539 Feb 22  2013 setup-nsssysinit.sh
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      23880 Feb 23  2013 setxkbmap
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      96328 Feb 21  2013 sftp
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          6 May 14  2018 sg -> newgrp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        265 Nov 17  2000 sgmlwhich
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      39920 Jun 22  2012 sha1sum
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      45776 Jun 22  2012 sha224sum
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      45776 Jun 22  2012 sha256sum
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      51112 Jun 22  2012 sha384sum
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      51112 Jun 22  2012 sha512sum
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10353 Jun 22  2012 show-changed-rco
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       2567 Aug 22  2010 showchar
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      17672 Nov 11  2010 showconsolefont
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      16570 Jun 22  2012 show-installed
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14112 Nov 11  2010 showkey
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       9464 Feb 23  2013 showrgb
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      51432 Jun 22  2012 shred
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      38944 Jun 22  2012 shuf
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     171768 Feb 22  2013 signtool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      91664 Feb 22  2013 signver
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      33728 Feb 21  2013 size
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      18752 Nov 15  2012 skill
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      17568 Nov 15  2012 slabtop
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       2034 Nov 10  2010 sliceprint
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          5 May 14  2018 slogin -> ./ssh
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    1635136 Feb 21  2013 smbcontrol
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    6221904 Feb 21  2013 smbcquotas
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    6246408 Feb 21  2013 smbpasswd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      32512 Nov 11  2010 smp_conf_general
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      32608 Nov 11  2010 smp_conf_route_info
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      45368 Nov 11  2010 smp_discover
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      48832 Nov 11  2010 smp_discover_list
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      33936 Nov 11  2010 smp_phy_control
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      32856 Nov 11  2010 smp_phy_test
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      32920 Nov 11  2010 smp_read_gpio
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      34144 Nov 11  2010 smp_rep_exp_route_tbl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      35392 Nov 11  2010 smp_rep_general
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      32416 Nov 11  2010 smp_rep_manufacturer
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      32416 Nov 11  2010 smp_rep_phy_err_log
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      32896 Nov 11  2010 smp_rep_phy_sata
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      33728 Nov 11  2010 smp_rep_route_info
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      33816 Nov 11  2010 smp_write_gpio
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10672 Sep 23  2011 sndfile-cmp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      19280 Sep 23  2011 sndfile-convert
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14536 Sep 23  2011 sndfile-info
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      12920 Sep 23  2011 sndfile-metadata-get
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      18608 Sep 23  2011 sndfile-metadata-set
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      18208 Sep 23  2011 sndfile-play
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      20008 Sep 23  2011 sndfile-regtest
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14448 Aug 19  2010 sndfile-resample
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root      18752 Nov 15  2012 snice
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      26137 Feb 21  2013 snmpconf
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      26192 Nov 11  2010 soelim
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        247 Mar 27  2018 solrctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     210576 Nov 11  2010 sound-juicer
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        140 Mar 27  2018 spark-shell
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        141 Mar 27  2018 spark-submit
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      31296 Feb 21  2013 speaker-test
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      48336 Feb 21  2013 spice-vdagent
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      17452 Mar 22  2017 splain
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      55360 Jun 22  2012 split
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      26832 Feb 21  2013 sprof
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      59552 Aug 17  2010 sqlite3
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        486 Mar 27  2018 sqoop
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        494 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-codegen
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        504 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-create-hive-table
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        491 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-eval
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        493 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-export
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        491 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-help
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        493 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-import
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        504 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-import-all-tables
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        490 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-job
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        501 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-list-databases
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        498 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-list-tables
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        492 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-merge
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        496 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-metastore
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        494 Mar 27  2018 sqoop-version
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     376920 Feb 21  2013 ssh
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     130288 Feb 21  2013 ssh-add
-rwxr-sr-x. 1 root nobody   112704 Feb 21  2013 ssh-agent
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1389 Feb 21  2013 ssh-copy-id
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     154864 Feb 21  2013 ssh-keygen
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     216864 Feb 21  2013 ssh-keyscan
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      44952 Feb 22  2013 ssltap
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10264 Feb 21  2013 stap-merge
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        912 Feb 21  2013 stap-report
---s--x---. 1 root stapusr  162584 Feb 21  2013 staprun
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      18480 Feb 21  2013 stapsh
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1184 Jul 11  2012 start-pulseaudio-x11
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       4423 Aug 16  2010 startx
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      50400 Jun 22  2012 stat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      97840 Nov 10  2010 states
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      63464 Jun 22  2012 stdbuf
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     309088 Feb 21  2013 strace
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      32464 Feb 21  2013 strings
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     219064 Feb 21  2013 strip
---s--x--x. 1 root root     123832 Feb 21  2013 sudo
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          4 May 14  2018 sudoedit -> sudo
---x--x--x. 1 root root      59744 Feb 21  2013 sudoreplay
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      34632 Jun 22  2012 sum
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      23536 Feb 23  2013 synclient
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      19096 Feb 23  2013 syndaemon
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 system-config-authentication -> consolehelper
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 system-config-date -> consolehelper
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1217 Sep 23  2011 system-config-firewall
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1155 Sep 23  2011 system-config-firewall-tui
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 system-config-keyboard -> consolehelper
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 system-config-network -> consolehelper
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 system-config-network-cmd -> consolehelper
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         95 Apr  3  2012 system-config-printer
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         80 Apr  3  2012 system-config-printer-applet
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         13 May 14  2018 system-config-users -> consolehelper
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      17792 Nov 11  2010 system-setup-keyboard
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14480 Aug 18  2010 tabs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      96256 Jun 22  2012 tac
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      59696 Jun 22  2012 tail
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      11936 Feb 21  2013 tailf
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     105704 Nov 11  2010 tbl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      27752 Jun 22  2012 tee
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      33808 Jun 22  2012 test
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14360 Aug 16  2010 testlibraw
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    1614264 Feb 21  2013 testparm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       6843 Aug 22  2010 test_ppa
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      23280 Nov 11  2010 test-speech
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       6465 Nov 10  2010 text2wave
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      30888 Nov 11  2010 tfmtodit
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       2295 Aug 16  2010 tgz
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      19784 Dec 18  2012 thumbnail
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      53784 Aug 18  2010 tic
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      16304 Dec 18  2012 tiff2bw
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      69064 Dec 18  2012 tiff2pdf
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      46056 Dec 18  2012 tiff2ps
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15840 Dec 18  2012 tiff2rgba
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      19088 Dec 18  2012 tiffcmp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      36000 Dec 18  2012 tiffcp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     103296 Dec 18  2012 tiffcrop
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14712 Dec 18  2012 tiffdither
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      20944 Dec 18  2012 tiffdump
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      18384 Dec 18  2012 tiffinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      19280 Dec 18  2012 tiffmedian
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      13072 Dec 18  2012 tiffset
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15208 Dec 18  2012 tiffsplit
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      17944 Aug 18  2010 time
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      50176 Jun 22  2012 timeout
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      11808 Nov 15  2012 tload
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         23 May 14  2018 tmpwatch -> ../../usr/sbin/tmpwatch
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         27 Jul  5  2018 tnameserv -> /etc/alternatives/tnameserv
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     228568 Nov 10  2010 toc2cddb
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     229096 Nov 10  2010 toc2cue
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15496 Aug 18  2010 toe
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      68392 Nov 15  2012 top
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     522584 Nov 11  2010 totem
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     175176 Nov 11  2010 totem-audio-preview
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     175104 Nov 11  2010 totem-video-indexer
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     187008 Nov 11  2010 totem-video-thumbnailer
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15272 Aug 18  2010 tput
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         35 Jun  7  2018 tpvmlp -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/bin/appLoader
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         35 Jun  7  2018 tpvmlpd -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/bin/appLoader
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      41424 Jun 22  2012 tr
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     363616 Nov 11  2010 troff
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      51160 Jun 22  2012 truncate
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      22464 Aug 18  2010 tset
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      35864 Jun 22  2012 tsort
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      25464 Jun 22  2012 tty
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       7131 Feb 21  2013 tzselect
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      21856 Dec  7  2011 ucs2any
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      48648 Dec  7  2011 udisks
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      17528 Feb 21  2013 ul
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         20 May 14  2018 ulockmgr_server -> /bin/ulockmgr_server
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      31752 Jun 22  2012 unexpand
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      39008 Jun 22  2012 uniq
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       4206 Sep 11  2012 unix-lpr.sh
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          2 May 14  2018 unlzma -> xz
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         27 Jul  5  2018 unpack200 -> /etc/alternatives/unpack200
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      61592 Feb 21  2013 unprotoize
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10208 Feb 21  2013 unshare
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          2 May 14  2018 unxz -> xz
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root     164128 Nov 11  2010 unzip
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      76784 Nov 11  2010 unzipsfx
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      40720 Oct 10  2012 updatedb
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      17584 Aug 25  2010 update-desktop-database
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1275 Feb 21  2013 update-gdk-pixbuf-loaders
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1260 Feb 21  2013 update-gtk-immodules
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      50360 Nov 11  2010 update-mime-database
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       8360 Nov 15  2012 uptime
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      12437 Jul 19  2011 urlgrabber
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       4202 Mar 17  2010 usb-devices
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      23952 Dec  7  2011 usbhid-dump
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          9 May 14  2018 userformat -> usermount
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      45720 Aug 22  2010 userinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      29896 Aug 22  2010 usermount
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      39176 Aug 22  2010 userpasswd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      27712 Jun 22  2012 users
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14192 Jul 19  2011 utmpdump
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       9360 Feb 21  2013 uuidgen
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       2220 Aug 16  2010 uz
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     117024 Jun 22  2012 vdir
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       9096 Dec  7  2011 verify_blkparse
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       9415 Jun 22  2012 verifytree
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    1967072 Apr  5  2012 vim
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          3 May 14  2018 vimdiff -> vim
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       2084 Apr  5  2012 vimtutor
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      16520 Jan 21  2013 vino-passwd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      75688 Jan 21  2013 vino-preferences
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         37 Jun  7  2018 vmhgfs-fuse -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/bin64/appLoader
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       8328 Feb 23  2013 vmmouse_detect
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      24880 Nov 15  2012 vmstat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       9202 Jun  7  2018 vm-support
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     421976 Jun  7  2018 vmware-config-tools.pl
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         37 Jun  7  2018 vmware-guestproxycerttool -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/bin64/appLoader
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         37 Jun  7  2018 vmware-hgfsclient -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/bin64/appLoader
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         37 Jun  7  2018 vmware-toolbox-cmd -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/bin64/appLoader
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     221099 Jun  7  2018 vmware-uninstall-tools.pl
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         52 Jun  7  2018 vmware-user -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/bin64/vmware-user-suid-wrapper
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         43 Jun  7  2018 vmware-xferlogs -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/bin64/vmware-xferlogs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       8912 Nov 10  2010 volname
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      31776 Aug 17  2010 vorbiscomment
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15096 Nov 15  2012 w
-r-xr-sr-x. 1 root tty       15224 Jul 19  2011 wall
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      16792 Nov 15  2012 watch
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14176 Nov 11  2010 watchgnupg
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      46328 Aug 18  2010 wavpack
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    1729376 Feb 21  2013 wbinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      36408 Jun 22  2012 wc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      68640 Feb 21  2013 wdaemon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        284 Sep 11  2012 wftopfa
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     362456 Oct 10  2012 wget
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1784 Feb 21  2013 whatis
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      14616 Feb 21  2013 whereis
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      25528 Sep 23  2011 which
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      30304 Sep 23  2011 whiptail
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      48952 Jun 22  2012 who
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      26280 Jun 22  2012 whoami
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      18368 Jul 18  2011 wnck-urgency-monitor
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     410728 Nov 12  2012 wodim
-rwxr-sr-x. 1 root tty       12016 Feb 21  2013 write
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      13200 Feb 21  2013 wrjpgcom
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         23 Jul  5  2018 wsgen -> /etc/alternatives/wsgen
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         26 Jul  5  2018 wsimport -> /etc/alternatives/wsimport
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      32720 Aug 18  2010 wvgain
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      44128 Aug 18  2010 wvunpack
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          4 May 14  2018 X -> Xorg
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          7 May 14  2018 x86_64 -> setarch
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root     268160 Feb 21  2013 x86_64-redhat-linux-gcc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      46648 Nov 10  2010 xargs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      43176 Aug 18  2010 xauth
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15050 Sep 23  2011 xdg-desktop-icon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      37949 Sep 23  2011 xdg-desktop-menu
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      19059 Sep 23  2011 xdg-email
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      24459 Sep 23  2011 xdg-icon-resource
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      29569 Sep 23  2011 xdg-mime
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      11201 Sep 23  2011 xdg-open
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      21062 Sep 23  2011 xdg-screensaver
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      25055 Sep 23  2011 xdg-settings
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        234 Nov 11  2010 xdg-user-dir
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      26936 Aug 24  2010 xdg-user-dirs-gtk-update
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      21768 Nov 11  2010 xdg-user-dirs-update
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      38112 Feb 23  2013 xdpyinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      12800 Feb 21  2013 xdriinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      25976 Feb 23  2013 xev
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      13072 Feb 23  2013 xgamma
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     224960 Jun  2  2014 xgettext
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      17736 Feb 23  2013 xhost
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      22576 Aug 16  2010 xinit
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      51072 Feb 23  2013 xinput
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root         21 Jul  5  2018 xjc -> /etc/alternatives/xjc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     183296 Feb 23  2013 xkbcomp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15368 Feb 23  2013 xkill
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      12720 Feb 23  2013 xlsatoms
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      16576 Feb 23  2013 xlsclients
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      21208 Feb 23  2013 xlsfonts
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      19552 Nov 29  2012 xmlcatalog
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      64864 Nov 29  2012 xmllint
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      26080 Jun 13  2012 xmlwf
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      35744 Feb 23  2013 xmodmap
-rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root    2261800 Feb 22  2013 Xorg
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      40544 Feb 23  2013 xprop
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      53336 Feb 23  2013 xrandr
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      28368 Feb 23  2013 xrdb
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      13336 Feb 23  2013 xrefresh
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      34064 Feb 23  2013 xset
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      10784 Feb 23  2013 xsetmode
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      11544 Feb 23  2013 xsetpointer
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      19776 Feb 23  2013 xsetroot
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      46592 Feb 23  2013 xsetwacom
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      29568 Sep 13  2012 xsltproc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      16600 Feb 23  2013 xstdcmap
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       4093 Mar 22  2017 xsubpp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1573 Jan  8  2013 xulrunner
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      12752 Aug 22  2010 xvattr
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15000 Feb 23  2013 xvinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      44176 Feb 23  2013 xwininfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      17592 Apr  5  2012 xxd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      51840 Aug 22  2010 xz
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          2 May 14  2018 xzcat -> xz
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          6 May 14  2018 xzcmp -> xzdiff
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      15464 Aug 22  2010 xzdec
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       5220 Aug 22  2010 xzdiff
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          6 May 14  2018 xzegrep -> xzgrep
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          6 May 14  2018 xzfgrep -> xzgrep
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       5207 Aug 22  2010 xzgrep
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1806 Aug 22  2010 xzless
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       2167 Aug 22  2010 xzmore
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        245 May 24  2018 yarn
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     329320 Feb 24  2012 yelp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      25664 Jun 22  2012 yes
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        801 Feb 22  2013 yum
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       9056 Jun 22  2012 yum-builddep
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       8007 Jun 22  2012 yum-config-manager
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       7603 Jun 22  2012 yum-debug-dump
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       7931 Jun 22  2012 yum-debug-restore
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      13580 Jun 22  2012 yumdownloader
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      11030 Jun 22  2012 yum-groups-manager
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         67 Nov 11  2010 zcmp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       4441 Nov 11  2010 zdiff
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         62 Nov 11  2010 zegrep
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      92296 Aug 16  2010 zenity
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         62 Nov 11  2010 zfgrep
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       2022 Nov 11  2010 zforce
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       4975 Nov 11  2010 zgrep
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     216008 Nov 11  2010 zip
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     110376 Nov 11  2010 zipcloak
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       2953 Oct 10  2008 zipgrep
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root     164128 Nov 11  2010 zipinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     101856 Nov 11  2010 zipnote
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     105280 Nov 11  2010 zipsplit
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       1731 Nov 11  2010 zless
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       2605 Nov 11  2010 zmore
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       5246 Nov 11  2010 znew
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        413 Mar 27  2018 zookeeper-client
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        739 Mar 27  2018 zookeeper-server
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        740 Mar 27  2018 zookeeper-server-cleanup
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        750 Mar 27  2018 zookeeper-server-initialize
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          6 May 14  2018 zsoelim -> soelim
ll /usr/bin部分内容

 

yang@cMaster:~]#ll /bin
total 7800
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    123 Feb 21  2013 alsaunmute
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  27776 Jun 22  2012 arch
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      4 May 14  2018 awk -> gawk
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  26264 Jun 22  2012 basename
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 938768 Feb 21  2013 bash
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  48568 Jun 22  2012 cat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  55472 Jun 22  2012 chgrp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  52472 Jun 22  2012 chmod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  57464 Jun 22  2012 chown
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 122736 Jun 22  2012 cp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 135744 Oct 30  2012 cpio
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      4 May 14  2018 csh -> tcsh
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  45408 Jun 22  2012 cut
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 109672 Oct 17  2012 dash
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  59488 Jun 22  2012 date
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  12600 Sep 13  2012 dbus-cleanup-sockets
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 339080 Sep 13  2012 dbus-daemon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  18560 Sep 13  2012 dbus-monitor
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  22456 Sep 13  2012 dbus-send
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  11008 Sep 13  2012 dbus-uuidgen
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  53944 Jun 22  2012 dd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  77424 Jun 22  2012 df
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   9944 Feb 21  2013 dmesg
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      8 May 14  2018 dnsdomainname -> hostname
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      8 May 14  2018 domainname -> hostname
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  81120 Nov 11  2010 dumpkeys
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  28176 Jun 22  2012 echo
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root  53400 Nov 10  2010 ed
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 106400 Mar  7  2012 egrep
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  26368 Jun 22  2012 env
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      2 May 14  2018 ex -> vi
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  25120 Jun 22  2012 false
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  71392 Mar  7  2012 fgrep
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 238952 Nov 10  2010 find
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  41896 Feb 21  2013 findmnt
-rwsr-x---. 1 root fuse  32336 Dec  7  2011 fusermount
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 382456 Aug  7  2012 gawk
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  33488 Jun  2  2014 gettext
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 111360 Mar  7  2012 grep
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      3 May 14  2018 gtar -> tar
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     61 Nov 11  2010 gunzip
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  68616 Nov 11  2010 gzip
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  17848 May 10  2012 hostname
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  14920 Feb 22  2013 ipcalc
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root     41 May 14  2018 iptables-xml -> /etc/alternatives/bin-iptables-xml.x86_64
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root     20 May 14  2018 iptables-xml-1.4.7 -> /sbin/iptables-multi
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  11296 Nov 11  2010 kbd_mode
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  15224 Feb 21  2013 kill
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  26256 Jun 22  2012 link
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  49504 Jun 22  2012 ln
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 112208 Nov 11  2010 loadkeys
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  31592 Feb 21  2013 login
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 117024 Jun 22  2012 ls
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  59848 Feb 21  2013 lsblk
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      5 May 14  2018 mail -> mailx
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 391224 Aug 22  2010 mailx
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  49384 Jun 22  2012 mkdir
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  32496 Jun 22  2012 mknod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  38048 Jun 22  2012 mktemp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  41216 Feb 21  2013 more
-rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root  77208 Feb 21  2013 mount
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   9848 Jul 19  2011 mountpoint
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 113328 Jun 22  2012 mv
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 178896 Nov 11  2010 nano
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 128192 May 10  2012 netstat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  28784 Jun 22  2012 nice
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      8 May 14  2018 nisdomainname -> hostname
-rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root  40760 Jul 18  2011 ping
-rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root  36488 Jul 18  2011 ping6
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  36808 Feb 22  2013 plymouth
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  87088 Nov 15  2012 ps
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  31656 Jun 22  2012 pwd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  11576 Feb 21  2013 raw
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  40056 Jun 22  2012 readlink
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root  53400 Nov 10  2010 red
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    576 Apr 16  2008 redhat_lsb_init
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  57440 Jun 22  2012 rm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  40480 Jun 22  2012 rmdir
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      4 May 14  2018 rnano -> nano
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  30600 Feb 21  2013 rpm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      2 May 14  2018 rvi -> vi
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      2 May 14  2018 rview -> vi
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  72248 Jun 22  2012 sed
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  42384 Nov 11  2010 setfont
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  23672 Aug 22  2010 setserial
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      4 May 14  2018 sh -> bash
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  27848 Jun 22  2012 sleep
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  98968 Jun 22  2012 sort
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  65032 Jun 22  2012 stty
-rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root  34904 Jun 22  2012 su
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  25432 Jun 22  2012 sync
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 395472 Feb 21  2013 tar
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  14880 Feb 21  2013 taskset
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 387328 Feb 21  2013 tcsh
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  52656 Jun 22  2012 touch
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  11392 Jul 18  2011 tracepath
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  12288 Jul 18  2011 tracepath6
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  57480 Nov 11  2010 traceroute
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root     10 May 14  2018 traceroute6 -> traceroute
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  25120 Jun 22  2012 true
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  15008 Dec  7  2011 ulockmgr_server
-rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root  53472 Feb 21  2013 umount
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  27776 Jun 22  2012 uname
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   2555 Nov 11  2010 unicode_start
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    363 Nov 11  2010 unicode_stop
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  25760 Jun 22  2012 unlink
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  10256 Feb 22  2013 usleep
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 770248 Apr  5  2012 vi
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      2 May 14  2018 view -> vi
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      8 May 14  2018 ypdomainname -> hostname
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     62 Nov 11  2010 zcat
ll /bin

 

yang@cMaster:~]#ll /usr/local/sbin
total 0
ll /usr/local/sbin

 

yang@cMaster:~]#ll /usr/sbin
total 28472
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       28488 Feb 22  2013 abrtd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       24224 Feb 22  2013 abrt-dbus
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        2832 Feb 22  2013 abrt-install-ccpp-hook
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       19208 Feb 22  2013 abrt-server
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          10 May 14  2018 accept -> cupsaccept
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          17 May 14  2018 accton -> ../../sbin/accton
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root       27312 Aug 18  2010 acpid
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        3126 Sep 21  2009 addgnupghome
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root           7 May 14  2018 adduser -> useradd
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          18 May 14  2018 alsactl -> ../../sbin/alsactl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       18199 Sep 12  2012 alsa-delay
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       27496 Jun 22  2012 alternatives
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       38968 Jul 18  2011 anacron
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        3916 Feb 22  2013 apachectl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        2264 Dec 18  2009 applygnupgdefaults
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       42704 Feb 21  2013 arpd
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          12 May 14  2018 arping -> /sbin/arping
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       23968 Jan 30  2012 atd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root          67 Jan 30  2012 atrun
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          35 May 14  2018 authconfig -> /usr/share/authconfig/authconfig.py
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          39 May 14  2018 authconfig-gtk -> /usr/share/authconfig/authconfig-gtk.py
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          39 May 14  2018 authconfig-tui -> /usr/share/authconfig/authconfig-tui.py
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       38688 Feb 21  2013 avahi-autoipd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       13968 Jun 22  2012 avcstat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      109472 Nov 10  2010 bccmd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       18200 Dec  7  2011 biosdecode
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      500176 Nov 10  2010 bluetoothd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       18984 Jun 22  2012 bonobo-activation-sysconf
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       37696 Feb 21  2013 brctl
-rwx------. 1 root root      753736 Feb 21  2013 build-locale-archive
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         644 Feb 21  2013 cacertdir_rehash
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       16616 Dec  7  2011 capsh
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       27936 Aug 22  2010 chat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       42616 Dec  7  2011 chpasswd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       31776 Jun 22  2012 chroot
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       18936 Nov 10  2010 ck-log-system-restart
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       19232 Nov 10  2010 ck-log-system-start
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       18936 Nov 10  2010 ck-log-system-stop
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       15520 Jul 18  2011 clockdiff
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      155016 Nov 10  2010 console-kit-daemon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       70056 Nov 20  2012 convertquota
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       22576 Feb 21  2013 cpuspeed
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        9008 Jun 24  2011 cracklib-check
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         218 Jun 24  2011 cracklib-format
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        9536 Jun 24  2011 cracklib-packer
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        8648 Jun 24  2011 cracklib-unpacker
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         990 Jun 24  2011 create-cracklib-dict
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       59832 Jul 18  2011 crond
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10488 Nov 20  2012 cupsaccept
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10544 Nov 20  2012 cupsaddsmb
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10528 Nov 20  2012 cupsctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      435896 Nov 20  2012 cupsd
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          10 May 14  2018 cupsdisable -> cupsaccept
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          10 May 14  2018 cupsenable -> cupsaccept
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       28728 Nov 20  2012 cupsfilter
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       65912 Nov 11  2010 cups-genppd.5.2
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       35062 Nov 11  2010 cups-genppdupdate
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          10 May 14  2018 cupsreject -> cupsaccept
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       80856 Dec  7  2011 dmidecode
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      185888 Feb 21  2013 dnsmasq
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14632 Jul 17  2012 dump-acct
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14712 Jul 17  2012 dump-utmp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14456 Feb 21  2013 e2freefrag
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       78560 Nov 20  2012 edquota
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       50984 Jun 21  2012 efibootmgr
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       32112 Nov 10  2010 eject
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          18 May 14  2018 ethtool -> ../../sbin/ethtool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       11416 Feb 21  2013 fdformat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       13608 Feb 21  2013 filefrag
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        8538 Feb 21  2013 firstboot
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       29858 Sep 23  2011 foomatic-addpjloptions
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        1371 Sep 23  2011 foomatic-cleanupdrivers
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        4570 Sep 23  2011 foomatic-extract-text
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        1539 Sep 23  2011 foomatic-fix-xml
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        2140 Sep 23  2011 foomatic-getpjloptions
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        3247 Sep 23  2011 foomatic-kitload
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        4497 Sep 23  2011 foomatic-nonumericalids
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        9322 Sep 23  2011 foomatic-preferred-driver
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        5105 Sep 23  2011 foomatic-printermap-to-gutenprint-xml
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        2606 Sep 23  2011 foomatic-replaceoldprinterids
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         388 Feb 21  2013 gdm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      170784 Feb 21  2013 gdm-binary
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root          33 Feb 21  2013 genhomedircon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10264 Dec  7  2011 getcap
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        8728 Jun 22  2012 getenforce
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        9272 Dec  7  2011 getpcaps
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10648 Jun 22  2012 getsebool
-rwx------. 1 root root      686480 Feb 21  2013 glibc_post_upgrade.x86_64
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root       54968 Dec  7  2011 groupadd
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root       46512 Dec  7  2011 groupdel
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root       50800 Dec  7  2011 groupmems
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root       61360 Dec  7  2011 groupmod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       50600 Dec  7  2011 grpck
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       42416 Dec  7  2011 grpconv
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       42416 Dec  7  2011 grpunconv
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      359064 Jul 19  2011 hald
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       33416 Nov 10  2010 hciattach
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      115032 Nov 10  2010 hciconfig
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       19984 Feb 22  2013 htcacheclean
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      354816 Feb 22  2013 httpd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      368168 Feb 22  2013 httpd.event
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      367240 Feb 22  2013 httpd.worker
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       11192 Feb 22  2013 httxt2dbm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          18 May 14  2018 hwclock -> ../../sbin/hwclock
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root       26520 Feb 21  2013 iconvconfig
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root       26520 Feb 21  2013 iconvconfig.x86_64
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       39952 Feb 21  2013 irqbalance
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       31800 Apr  5  2012 lchage
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       13552 Feb 21  2013 ldattach
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       52808 Feb 21  2013 ledctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       55168 Feb 21  2013 ledmon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       27976 Apr  5  2012 lgroupadd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       26888 Apr  5  2012 lgroupdel
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       32800 Apr  5  2012 lgroupmod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       16024 Apr  5  2012 lid
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       32632 Apr  5  2012 lnewusers
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       18064 Feb 21  2013 lnstat
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          17 May 14  2018 load_policy -> /sbin/load_policy
-rwx--s--x. 1 root lock       15808 Aug 18  2010 lockdev
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       59744 Aug 15  2012 logrotate
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        2197 Sep 23  2011 lokkit
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       27208 Nov 20  2012 lpadmin
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       30800 Apr  5  2012 lpasswd
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          27 May 14  2018 lpc -> /etc/alternatives/print-lpc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14688 Nov 20  2012 lpc.cups
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14576 Nov 20  2012 lpinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10560 Nov 20  2012 lpmove
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      145872 Apr  3  2012 lsof
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          14 May 14  2018 lsusb -> /usr/bin/lsusb
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       33040 Apr  5  2012 luseradd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       28784 Apr  5  2012 luserdel
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       35144 Apr  5  2012 lusermod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      248760 Feb 21  2013 makedumpfile
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14118 Feb 21  2013 makewhatis
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          23 May 14  2018 matchpathcon -> ../../sbin/matchpathcon
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          15 May 14  2018 mkdict -> cracklib-format
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        9624 Feb 21  2013 mklost+found
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10640 Nov 10  2010 mksock
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      317096 Nov 10  2010 modem-manager
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       64512 Aug 16  2010 mtr
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      112912 Nov 12  2012 netscsid
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      858456 Feb 21  2013 NetworkManager
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       65432 Dec  7  2011 newusers
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       20352 Feb 21  2013 nstat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      614144 Feb 22  2013 ntpd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       70864 Feb 22  2013 ntpdate
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      190160 Feb 22  2013 ntpdc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      107456 Feb 22  2013 ntp-keygen
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      179728 Feb 22  2013 ntpq
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       19896 Feb 22  2013 ntptime
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       31192 Jun 22  2012 ntsysv
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14632 Feb 21  2013 open_init_pty
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       12144 Dec  7  2011 ownership
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      353928 Feb 21  2013 packagekitd
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          15 May 14  2018 packer -> cracklib-packer
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        9156 Feb 21  2013 pethtool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        2932 Feb 21  2013 pifconfig
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          10 May 14  2018 ping6 -> /bin/ping6
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       15536 Feb 21  2013 pk-device-rebind
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       18704 Nov 27  2012 pluginviewer
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        6349 Feb 22  2013 plymouth-set-default-theme
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          33 May 14  2018 pm-hibernate -> /usr/lib64/pm-utils/bin/pm-action
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        1570 Jul 18  2012 pm-powersave
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          33 May 14  2018 pm-suspend -> /usr/lib64/pm-utils/bin/pm-action
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          33 May 14  2018 pm-suspend-hybrid -> /usr/lib64/pm-utils/bin/pm-action
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      213736 Dec  2  2011 postalias
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      119400 Dec  2  2011 postcat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      304200 Dec  2  2011 postconf
-rwxr-sr-x. 1 root postdrop  180808 Dec  2  2011 postdrop
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      110536 Dec  2  2011 postfix
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      118792 Dec  2  2011 postkick
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      114664 Dec  2  2011 postlock
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      110728 Dec  2  2011 postlog
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      217800 Dec  2  2011 postmap
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      127400 Dec  2  2011 postmulti
-rwxr-sr-x. 1 root postdrop  213736 Dec  2  2011 postqueue
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      127400 Dec  2  2011 postsuper
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root      359592 Aug 22  2010 pppd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       53512 Aug 22  2010 pppdump
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root       19672 Aug 22  2010 pppoe-discovery
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       17088 Aug 22  2010 pppstats
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     1320696 Dec  7  2011 prelink
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       42416 Dec  7  2011 pwck
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       38296 Dec  7  2011 pwconv
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       29016 Dec  7  2011 pwunconv
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       74400 Nov 20  2012 quota_nld
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       11480 Nov 20  2012 quotastats
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        3443 Dec  6  2012 raid-check
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       15616 Feb 21  2013 readprofile
-rwx------. 1 root root        2896 Feb 22  2013 redhat_lsb_trigger.x86_64
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          10 May 14  2018 reject -> cupsaccept
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       70304 Nov 20  2012 repquota
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       31648 Feb 21  2013 restorecond
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       16744 Feb 22  2013 rotatelogs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       74664 Nov 20  2012 rpc.rquotad
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       36416 Feb 21  2013 rtacct
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       17856 Feb 21  2013 rtcwake
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       12432 Aug 20  2010 rtkitctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10568 Feb 21  2013 run_init
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       32288 Jul 17  2012 sa
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        8896 Dec  7  2011 safe_finger
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       75784 Nov 11  2010 saned
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       88496 Nov 27  2012 saslauthd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       20320 Nov 27  2012 sasldblistusers2
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       18088 Nov 27  2012 saslpasswd2
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10256 Jun 22  2012 selinuxconlist
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10616 Jun 22  2012 selinuxdefcon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        7968 Jun 22  2012 selinuxenabled
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       19352 Feb 21  2013 semodule
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          21 May 14  2018 sendmail -> /etc/alternatives/mta
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      213616 Dec  2  2011 sendmail.postfix
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14784 Feb 21  2013 sestatus
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       11032 Dec  7  2011 setcap
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        9296 Jun 22  2012 setenforce
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       82720 Nov 20  2012 setquota
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14720 Feb 21  2013 setsebool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       15976 Aug 25  2010 setup
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       15184 May 31  2012 skdump
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        9544 May 31  2012 sktest
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      525072 Feb 21  2013 smartctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      500400 Feb 21  2013 smartd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       82472 Dec  2  2011 smtp-sink
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       69168 Dec  2  2011 smtp-source
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       30744 Feb 21  2013 snmpd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       30776 Feb 21  2013 snmptrapd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         926 Feb 22  2013 sosreport
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       42480 Feb 21  2013 spice-vdagentd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       75056 Feb 21  2013 ss
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      526008 Feb 21  2013 sshd
-r-s--x---. 1 root apache     13984 Feb 22  2013 suexec
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          39 May 14  2018 system-config-authentication -> /usr/share/authconfig/authconfig-gtk.py
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         142 Jun 22  2012 system-config-keyboard
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         188 Nov 11  2010 system-config-network
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          45 May 14  2018 system-config-network-cmd -> ../share/system-config-network/netconf_cmd.py
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          45 May 14  2018 system-config-network-tui -> ../share/system-config-network/netconf_tui.py
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root         180 Feb 22  2013 sys-unconfig
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       35648 Dec  7  2011 tcpd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      742032 Mar 26  2012 tcpdump
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       24568 Mar 26  2012 tcpslice
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14824 Nov 27  2012 testsaslauthd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      248872 Jun 22  2012 thin_check
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      365240 Jun 22  2012 thin_dump
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      370200 Jun 22  2012 thin_restore
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        5816 Feb 22  2013 tickadj
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       21656 Sep 23  2011 tmpwatch
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       10656 Jun 22  2012 togglesebool
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          14 May 14  2018 tracepath -> /bin/tracepath
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          15 May 14  2018 tracepath6 -> /bin/tracepath6
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       19680 Dec  7  2011 try-from
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       12536 Feb 21  2013 tunelp
-rwx------. 1 root root        3784 Feb 21  2013 tzdata-update
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          12 May 14  2018 update-alternatives -> alternatives
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        1755 Feb 21  2013 update-pciids
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        3582 Feb 21  2013 update-smart-drivedb
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       51560 Aug 22  2010 usbmuxd
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root      103096 Dec  7  2011 useradd
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root       69560 Dec  7  2011 userdel
-rws--x--x. 1 root root       41112 Aug 22  2010 userhelper
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root       98680 Dec  7  2011 usermod
-rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root        9000 Feb 22  2013 usernetctl
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root           4 May 14  2018 vigr -> vipw
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       53160 Dec  7  2011 vipw
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        6768 Feb 21  2013 virt-what
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      154680 Feb 21  2013 visudo
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          37 Jun  7  2018 vmtoolsd -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/sbin64/vmtoolsd
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          43 Jun  7  2018 vmware-checkvm -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/sbin64/vmware-checkvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          37 Jun  7  2018 vmware-namespace-cmd -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/bin64/appLoader
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          43 Jun  7  2018 vmware-rpctool -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/sbin64/vmware-rpctool
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root          37 Jun  7  2018 vmware-vmblock-fuse -> /usr/lib/vmware-tools/bin64/appLoader
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       14840 Dec  7  2011 vpddecode
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       82656 Nov 20  2012 warnquota
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     7892520 Feb 21  2013 winbindd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       48464 Feb  4  2013 wpa_cli
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       35904 Feb  4  2013 wpa_passphrase
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      712768 Feb  4  2013 wpa_supplicant
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        9416 Jun 22  2012 yum-complete-transaction
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root        8022 Jun 22  2012 yumdb
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       17392 Feb 21  2013 zdump
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root       50256 Feb 21  2013 zic
ll /usr/sbin

 

yang@cMaster:~]#ll /sbin
total 15320
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   10704 Jul 17  2012 accton
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    8456 Feb 21  2013 addpart
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   23952 Feb 21  2013 agetty
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   94168 Feb 21  2013 alsactl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   62816 May 10  2012 arp
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   17776 Jul 18  2011 arping
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root   92192 Jun 22  2012 audispd
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root  133072 Jun 22  2012 auditctl
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root  174168 Jun 22  2012 auditd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  149120 Jun 22  2012 aureport
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  167648 Jun 22  2012 ausearch
-rwxr-x---. 1 root root   91720 Jun 22  2012 autrace
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   29752 Feb 21  2013 badblocks
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   36560 Feb 21  2013 biosdevname
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root    9722 Feb 21  2013 blkdeactivate
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   27824 Feb 21  2013 blkid
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   17336 Feb 21  2013 blockdev
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 1045992 Jun 22  2012 busybox
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   33559 Feb 21  2013 cbq
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   61416 Feb 21  2013 cfdisk
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   29072 Feb 21  2013 chcpu
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   35264 Jun 22  2012 chkconfig
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 clock -> hwclock
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    7896 Feb 22  2013 consoletype
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   14632 Jul 19  2011 crda
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   41640 Jun 22  2012 cryptsetup
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    8592 Feb 21  2013 ctrlaltdel
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   96336 Feb 21  2013 debugfs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    8416 Feb 21  2013 delpart
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  135344 Feb 21  2013 depmod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  572256 Feb 22  2013 dhclient
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   25352 Sep 25  2012 dhclient-script
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   13168 Jun 22  2012 dm_dso_reg_tool
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root   40008 Feb 21  2013 dmeventd
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   13168 Jun 22  2012 dmevent_tool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   26256 Jun 22  2012 dmraid
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       6 May 14  2018 dmraid.static -> dmraid
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   73760 Feb 21  2013 dmsetup
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   55344 Dec  7  2011 dosfsck
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   52288 Dec  7  2011 dosfslabel
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   11979 Feb 21  2013 dracut
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   23288 Feb 21  2013 dumpe2fs
-rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root  197256 Feb 21  2013 e2fsck
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   28296 Feb 21  2013 e2image
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   42728 Feb 21  2013 e2label
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   14592 Feb 21  2013 e2undo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   14712 May 10  2012 ether-wake
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  236848 Feb 21  2013 ethtool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   15016 Feb 21  2013 faillock
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  106008 Feb 21  2013 fdisk
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    9608 Feb 21  2013 findfs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    6049 Feb 21  2013 fixfiles
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root   14083 Feb 21  2013 fsadm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   34680 Feb 21  2013 fsck
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   15976 Feb 21  2013 fsck.cramfs
-rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root  197256 Feb 21  2013 fsck.ext2
-rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root  197256 Feb 21  2013 fsck.ext3
-rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root  197256 Feb 21  2013 fsck.ext4
-rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root  197256 Feb 21  2013 fsck.ext4dev
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 fsck.msdos -> dosfsck
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 fsck.vfat -> dosfsck
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   10512 Feb 21  2013 fsfreeze
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    8336 Feb 22  2013 fstab-decode
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   18384 Feb 21  2013 fstrim
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   29160 Jun 24  2011 fuser
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    8096 Feb 22  2013 genhostid
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   11992 Feb 22  2013 getkey
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  754248 Feb 21  2013 grub
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   50456 Jun 22  2012 grubby
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    2463 Feb 21  2013 grub-crypt
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   17989 Feb 21  2013 grub-install
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    2293 Feb 21  2013 grub-md5-crypt
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    2473 Feb 21  2013 grub-terminfo
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       6 May 14  2018 halt -> reboot
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  100664 Nov 11  2010 hdparm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   48144 Feb 21  2013 hwclock
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    3056 Feb 21  2013 ifcfg
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   73936 May 10  2012 ifconfig
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    1331 Jan  9  2013 ifdown
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   22168 Jul 18  2011 ifenslave
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   32216 Aug 18  2010 ifrename
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    4367 Jan  9  2013 ifup
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  150352 Jun 22  2012 init
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  138784 Jun 22  2012 initctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   14120 Feb 21  2013 insmod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  797088 Feb 21  2013 insmod.static
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   43584 Aug 19  2010 install-info
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    2670 Jun 22  2012 installkernel
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  236152 Feb 21  2013 ip
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      34 May 14  2018 ip6tables -> /etc/alternatives/ip6tables.x86_64
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      15 May 14  2018 ip6tables-1.4.7 -> ip6tables-multi
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      45 May 14  2018 ip6tables-multi -> /etc/alternatives/sbin-ip6tables-multi.x86_64
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   50040 Feb 21  2013 ip6tables-multi-1.4.7
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      47 May 14  2018 ip6tables-restore -> /etc/alternatives/sbin-ip6tables-restore.x86_64
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      15 May 14  2018 ip6tables-restore-1.4.7 -> ip6tables-multi
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      44 May 14  2018 ip6tables-save -> /etc/alternatives/sbin-ip6tables-save.x86_64
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      15 May 14  2018 ip6tables-save-1.4.7 -> ip6tables-multi
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   19352 May 10  2012 ipmaddr
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      33 May 14  2018 iptables -> /etc/alternatives/iptables.x86_64
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      14 May 14  2018 iptables-1.4.7 -> iptables-multi
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      44 May 14  2018 iptables-multi -> /etc/alternatives/sbin-iptables-multi.x86_64
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   58872 Feb 21  2013 iptables-multi-1.4.7
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      46 May 14  2018 iptables-restore -> /etc/alternatives/sbin-iptables-restore.x86_64
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      14 May 14  2018 iptables-restore-1.4.7 -> iptables-multi
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      43 May 14  2018 iptables-save -> /etc/alternatives/sbin-iptables-save.x86_64
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      14 May 14  2018 iptables-save-1.4.7 -> iptables-multi
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   23272 May 10  2012 iptunnel
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   79112 Aug 22  2010 iw
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   30288 Aug 18  2010 iwconfig
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   18664 Aug 18  2010 iwevent
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   14400 Aug 18  2010 iwgetid
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   36504 Aug 18  2010 iwlist
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   15224 Aug 18  2010 iwpriv
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   14272 Aug 18  2010 iwspy
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   11088 Feb 21  2013 kdump
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  180624 Feb 21  2013 kexec
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   19080 Jul 19  2011 killall5
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   38008 Feb 21  2013 kpartx
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  893872 Feb 21  2013 ldconfig
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   10456 Feb 21  2013 load_policy
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   13104 Feb 21  2013 logsave
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   31952 Feb 21  2013 losetup
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    2365 Feb 21  2013 lsinitrd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    9096 Feb 21  2013 lsmod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   71800 Feb 21  2013 lspci
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       9 May 14  2018 lspcmcia -> pccardctl
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvchange -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvconvert -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvcreate -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvdisplay -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvextend -> lvm
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root 1013336 Feb 21  2013 lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvmchange -> lvm
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root    6691 Feb 21  2013 lvmconf
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvmdiskscan -> lvm
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root    7301 Feb 21  2013 lvmdump
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root   49480 Feb 21  2013 lvmetad
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvmsadc -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvmsar -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvreduce -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvremove -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvrename -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvresize -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvs -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 lvscan -> lvm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   28792 Nov 10  2010 MAKEDEV
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   12024 Jun 22  2012 matchpathcon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  467208 Feb 21  2013 mdadm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  307128 Feb 21  2013 mdmon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   11696 Feb 21  2013 microcode_ctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   21760 May 10  2012 mii-diag
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   18200 May 10  2012 mii-tool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   19144 Sep 23  2011 mingetty
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   30592 Dec  7  2011 mkdosfs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  109796 Feb 21  2013 mkdumprd
-rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root   68960 Feb 21  2013 mke2fs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   10336 Feb 21  2013 mkfs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   26208 Feb 21  2013 mkfs.cramfs
-rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root   68960 Feb 21  2013 mkfs.ext2
-rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root   68960 Feb 21  2013 mkfs.ext3
-rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root   68960 Feb 21  2013 mkfs.ext4
-rwxr-xr-x. 5 root root   68960 Feb 21  2013 mkfs.ext4dev
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 mkfs.msdos -> mkdosfs
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 mkfs.vfat -> mkdosfs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   22608 Feb 21  2013 mkhomedir_helper
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    3412 Feb 21  2013 mkinitrd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   22648 Feb 21  2013 mkswap
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   97624 Feb 21  2013 modinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  123184 Feb 21  2013 modprobe
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   11616 Dec  7  2011 mount.fuse
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    1338 Feb 21  2013 mount.tmpfs
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root   67536 Jun  7  2018 mount.vmhgfs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   15600 May 10  2012 nameif
-rwxr-sr-x. 1 root root    8792 Feb 22  2013 netreport
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   13818 Jun 22  2012 new-kernel-pkg
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    7816 Feb 21  2013 nologin
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   43512 Feb 21  2013 pam_console_apply
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   17272 Feb 21  2013 pam_tally2
-rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root   10272 Feb 21  2013 pam_timestamp_check
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   86984 Feb 21  2013 parted
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   14656 Feb 21  2013 partprobe
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   25496 Feb 21  2013 partx
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   36176 Nov 11  2010 pccardctl
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       8 May 14  2018 pidof -> killall5
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    7792 Feb 21  2013 pivot_root
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   10752 May 10  2012 plipconfig
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   76208 Feb 22  2013 plymouthd
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      11 May 14  2018 portrelease -> portreserve
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   14664 Apr  3  2012 portreserve
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       6 May 14  2018 poweroff -> reboot
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   29560 Feb 22  2013 ppp-watch
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 pvchange -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 pvck -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 pvcreate -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 pvdisplay -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 pvmove -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 pvremove -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 pvresize -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 pvs -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 pvscan -> lvm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  103080 Nov 20  2012 quotacheck
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 quotaoff -> quotaon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   74240 Nov 20  2012 quotaon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   20576 Jul 18  2011 rdisc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   26976 Aug 23  2010 readahead
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   28392 Aug 23  2010 readahead-collector
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   14832 Jun 22  2012 reboot
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   11488 Jul 19  2011 regdbdump
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 reload -> initctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   41712 Feb 21  2013 resize2fs
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 restart -> initctl
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       8 May 14  2018 restorecon -> setfiles
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   12416 Aug 22  2010 rfkill
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   16672 Feb 21  2013 rmmod
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   17632 Dec 17  2011 rngd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   59784 May 10  2012 route
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  391968 Feb 21  2013 rsyslogd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   38248 Feb 21  2013 rtmon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   14352 Jun 22  2012 runlevel
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   32696 Jun 22  2012 runuser
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      19 May 14  2018 scsi_id -> ../lib/udev/scsi_id
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   10600 Feb 22  2013 securetty
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    1694 Feb 22  2013 service
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   23168 Feb 21  2013 setfiles
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   23928 Feb 21  2013 setpci
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    1503 Feb 25  2010 setregdomain
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root     850 Feb 22  2013 setsysfont
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   64928 Feb 21  2013 sfdisk
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   16752 Aug 22  2010 sgpio
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   60400 Jun 22  2012 shutdown
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   38224 May 10  2012 slattach
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  686520 Feb 21  2013 sln
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 start -> initctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    8109 Feb 21  2013 start_udev
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 status -> initctl
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       7 May 14  2018 stop -> initctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   17040 Jul 19  2011 sulogin
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root      67 Feb 22  2013 sushell
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       6 May 14  2018 swapoff -> swapon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   28792 Feb 21  2013 swapon
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   12232 Feb 21  2013 switch_root
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   16768 Nov 15  2012 sysctl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  259232 Feb 21  2013 tc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   51536 Jun 22  2012 telinit
-rwxr-xr-x. 2 root root   42728 Feb 21  2013 tune2fs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  137256 Feb 21  2013 udevadm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  129120 Feb 21  2013 udevd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   12224 Jul 19  2011 umount.hal
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   12440 Dec  7  2011 umount.udisks
-rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root   34840 Feb 21  2013 unix_chkpwd
-rwx------. 1 root root   34840 Feb 21  2013 unix_update
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   13480 Aug 18  2010 vconfig
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgcfgbackup -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgcfgrestore -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgchange -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgck -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgconvert -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgcreate -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgdisplay -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgexport -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgextend -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgimport -> lvm
-r-xr-xr-x. 1 root root   10399 Feb 21  2013 vgimportclone
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgmerge -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgmknodes -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgreduce -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgremove -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgrename -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgs -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgscan -> lvm
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root       3 May 14  2018 vgsplit -> lvm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   17400 Feb 21  2013 vmcore-dmesg
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   15410 Feb 21  2013 weak-modules
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   16576 Feb 21  2013 wipefs
ll /sbin

 

yang@cMaster:~]#ll /usr/java/jdk1.8.0_161/bin
total 732
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7965 Dec 19  2017 appletviewer
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root      8 Jul  5  2018 ControlPanel -> jcontrol
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 extcheck
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7973 Dec 19  2017 idlj
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7925 Dec 19  2017 jar
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7957 Dec 19  2017 jarsigner
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7734 Dec 19  2017 java
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 javac
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 javadoc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   2293 Dec 19  2017 javafxpackager
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 javah
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 javap
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   2293 Dec 19  2017 javapackager
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   1809 Dec 19  2017 java-rmi.cgi
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 132017 Dec 19  2017 javaws
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7925 Dec 19  2017 jcmd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   8013 Dec 19  2017 jconsole
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   6264 Dec 19  2017 jcontrol
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7981 Dec 19  2017 jdb
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 jdeps
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 jhat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   8109 Dec 19  2017 jinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 jjs
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   8109 Dec 19  2017 jmap
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  28262 Dec 19  2017 jmc
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root    402 Nov 24  2016 jmc.ini
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7925 Dec 19  2017 jps
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7949 Dec 19  2017 jrunscript
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7981 Dec 19  2017 jsadebugd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   8109 Dec 19  2017 jstack
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 jstat
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 jstatd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   5110 Jan 14  2017 jvisualvm
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 keytool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7949 Dec 19  2017 native2ascii
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   8149 Dec 19  2017 orbd
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7957 Dec 19  2017 pack200
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7997 Dec 19  2017 policytool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7925 Dec 19  2017 rmic
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 rmid
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7949 Dec 19  2017 rmiregistry
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7957 Dec 19  2017 schemagen
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 serialver
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7965 Dec 19  2017 servertool
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   8181 Dec 19  2017 tnameserv
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 231482 Dec 19  2017 unpack200
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7941 Dec 19  2017 wsgen
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7957 Dec 19  2017 wsimport
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root   7957 Dec 19  2017 xjc
ll /usr/java/jdk1.8.0_161/bin

 

yang@cMaster:~]#ll /home/yang
total 80
drwxr-xr-x. 2 yang yang  4096 May 30 02:50 Desktop
drwxr-xr-x. 2 yang yang  4096 May 14  2018 Documents
drwxr-xr-x. 2 yang yang  4096 May 14  2018 Downloads
-rw-rw-r--. 1 yang yang 11103 Jun  6  2018 log-pig-flume.txt
-rw-rw-r--. 1 yang yang     0 Jun  6  2018 log-pig-flume.txt~
-rw-rw-r--. 1 yang yang 30161 Jun  6  2018 log-proxy.txt
drwxr-xr-x. 2 yang yang  4096 May 14  2018 Music
drwxr-xr-x. 2 yang yang  4096 May 30 02:11 Pictures
drwxr-xr-x. 2 yang yang  4096 May 14  2018 Public
drwxr-xr-x. 2 yang yang  4096 May 14  2018 Templates
drwxr-xr-x. 2 yang yang  4096 May 14  2018 Videos
drwxrwxr-x. 4 yang yang  4096 Jul  5  2018 workspac
ll /home/yang

  

小结

  可见,我们经常使用的命令,如:reboot ,其完整的名称为“ /usr/bin/reboot ”,它的简化功劳得亏于profile配置文件和其他文件的组合应用。同时,profile配置文件主要用于登录设置的全系统环境和启动程序。如果profile配置文件出现问题会直接影响到图形界面的使用,但不影响字符界面的正常操作。

 

posted @ 2019-10-04 21:39 王者★孤傲 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏