实验7:基于REST API的SDN北向应用实践

实验7:基于REST API的SDN北向应用实践

一、实验目的

1.能够编写程序调用OpenDaylight REST API实现特定网络功能;
2.能够编写程序调用Ryu REST API实现特定网络功能。

二、实验环境

1.下载虚拟机软件Oracle VisualBox或VMware;
2.在虚拟机中安装Ubuntu 20.04 Desktop amd64,并完整安装Mininet、OpenDaylight(Carbon版本)、Postman和Ryu;

三、实验要求

(一)基本要求

OpenDaylight
(1) 利用Mininet平台搭建下图所示网络拓扑,并连接OpenDaylight;

img

(2) 编写Python程序,调用OpenDaylight的北向接口下发指令删除s1上的流表数据。

import requests
from requests.auth import HTTPBasicAuth
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    url = 'http://127.0.0.1:8181/restconf/config/opendaylight-inventory:nodes/node/openflow:1/'
    headers = {'Content-Type': 'application/json'}
    res = requests.delete(url, headers=headers, auth=HTTPBasicAuth('admin', 'admin'))
    print (res.content)

执行结果

(3) 编写Python程序,调用OpenDaylight的北向接口下发硬超时流表,实现拓扑内主机h1和h3网络中断20s。

import requests
from requests.auth import HTTPBasicAuth
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    url = 'http://127.0.0.1:8181/restconf/config/opendaylight-inventory:nodes/node/openflow:1/flow-node-inventory:table/0/flow/1'
    with open("./flowtable.json") as f:
        jstr = f.read()
    headers = {'Content-Type': 'application/json'}
    res = requests.put(url, jstr, headers=headers, auth=HTTPBasicAuth('admin', 'admin'))
    print (res.content)

flowtable.json文件

{
  "flow": [
    {
      "id": "1",
      "match": {
        "in-port": "1",
        "ethernet-match": {
          "ethernet-type": {
            "type": "0x0800"
          }
        },
        "ipv4-destination": "10.0.0.3/32"
      },
      "instructions": {
        "instruction": [
          {
            "order": "0",
            "apply-actions": {
              "action": [
                {
                  "order": "0",
                  "drop-action": {}
                }
              ]
            }
          }
        ]
      },
      "flow-name": "flow1",
      "priority": "65535",
      "hard-timeout": "20",
      "cookie": "2",
      "table_id": "0"
    }
  ]
}

结果如下

(4) 编写Python程序,调用OpenDaylight的北向接口获取s1上活动的流表数。

import requests
from requests.auth import HTTPBasicAuth
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    url = 'http://127.0.0.1:8181/restconf/operational/opendaylight-inventory:nodes/node/openflow:1/flow-node-inventory:table/0/opendaylight-flow-table-statistics:flow-table-statistics'
    headers = {'Content-Type': 'application/json'}
    res = requests.get(url,headers=headers, auth=HTTPBasicAuth('admin', 'admin'))
    print (res.content)

结果如下

Ryu
(1) 编写Python程序,调用Ryu的北向接口,实现上述OpenDaylight实验拓扑上相同的硬超时流表下发。

import requests
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    url = 'http://127.0.0.1:8080/stats/flowentry/add'
    with open("./flowtable2.json") as f:
        jstr = f.read()
    headers = {'Content-Type': 'application/json'}
    res = requests.put(url, jstr, headers=headers)
    print (res.content)

flowtable2.json文件

{
    "dpid": 1,
    "cookie": 1,
    "cookie_mask": 1,
    "table_id": 0,
    "hard_timeout": 20,
    "priority": 65535,
    "flags": 1,
    "match":{
        "in_port":1
    },
    "actions":[
 
    ]
 }

结果如下

(2) 利用Mininet平台搭建下图所示网络拓扑,要求支持OpenFlow 1.3协议,主机名、交换机名以及端口对应正确。拓扑生成后需连接Ryu,且Ryu应能够提供REST API服务

img
拓扑代码

from mininet.topo import Topo
 
class MyTopo(Topo):
    def __init__(self):
        # initilaize topology
        Topo.__init__(self)
 
        self.addSwitch("s1")
        self.addSwitch("s2")
 
        self.addHost("h1")
        self.addHost("h2")
        self.addHost("h3")
        self.addHost("h4")
 
        self.addLink("s1", "h1")
        self.addLink("s1", "h2")
        self.addLink("s2", "h3")
        self.addLink("s2", "h4")
        self.addLink("s1", "s2")
 
topos = {'mytopo': (lambda: MyTopo())}

创建拓扑


(3) 整理一个Shell脚本,参考Ryu REST API的文档,利用curl命令,实现和实验2相同的VLAN。

VLAN_ID Hosts
0 h1 h3
1 h2 h4

删除流表

curl -X DELETE http://localhost:8080/stats/flowentry/clear/1
curl -X DELETE http://localhost:8080/stats/flowentry/clear/2

shell脚本

# 将主机1,2发送来的包打上vlan标记
curl -X POST -d '{
    "dpid": 1,
    "priority": 1,
    "match":{
        "in_port": 1
    },
    "actions":[
        {
            "type": "PUSH_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
            "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
        },
        {
            "type": "SET_FIELD",
            "field": "vlan_vid",     # Set VLAN ID
            "value": 4096            # Describe sum of vlan_id(e.g. 6) | OFPVID_PRESENT(0x1000=4096)
        },
        {
            "type": "OUTPUT",
            "port": 3
        }
    ]
 }' http://localhost:8080/stats/flowentry/add
 
 curl -X POST -d '{
    "dpid": 1,
    "priority": 1,
    "match":{
        "in_port": 2
    },
    "actions":[
        {
            "type": "PUSH_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
            "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
        },
        {
            "type": "SET_FIELD",
            "field": "vlan_vid",     # Set VLAN ID
            "value": 4097            # Describe sum of vlan_id(e.g. 6) | OFPVID_PRESENT(0x1000=4096)
        },
        {
            "type": "OUTPUT",
            "port": 3
        }
    ]
 }' http://localhost:8080/stats/flowentry/add
 
# 将主机3,4发送来的包取出vlan标记
 curl -X POST -d '{
    "dpid": 1,
    "priority": 1,
    "match":{
        "vlan_vid": 0
    },
    "actions":[
        {
            "type": "POP_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
            "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
        },
        {
            "type": "OUTPUT",
            "port": 1
        }
    ]
 }' http://localhost:8080/stats/flowentry/add
 
 curl -X POST -d '{
    "dpid": 1,
    "priority": 1,
    "match":{
        "vlan_vid": 1
    },
    "actions":[
        {
            "type": "POP_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
            "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
        },
        {
            "type": "OUTPUT",
            "port": 2
        }
    ]
 }' http://localhost:8080/stats/flowentry/add
 
# 将主机3,4发送来的包打上vlan标记
 curl -X POST -d '{
    "dpid": 2,
    "priority": 1,
    "match":{
        "in_port": 1
    },
    "actions":[
        {
            "type": "PUSH_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
            "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
        },
        {
            "type": "SET_FIELD",
            "field": "vlan_vid",     # Set VLAN ID
            "value": 4096            # Describe sum of vlan_id(e.g. 6) | OFPVID_PRESENT(0x1000=4096)
        },
        {
            "type": "OUTPUT",
            "port": 3
        }
    ]
 }' http://localhost:8080/stats/flowentry/add
 
 curl -X POST -d '{
    "dpid": 2,
    "priority": 1,
    "match":{
        "in_port": 2
    },
    "actions":[
        {
            "type": "PUSH_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
            "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
        },
        {
            "type": "SET_FIELD",
            "field": "vlan_vid",     # Set VLAN ID
            "value": 4097            # Describe sum of vlan_id(e.g. 6) | OFPVID_PRESENT(0x1000=4096)
        },
        {
            "type": "OUTPUT",
            "port": 3
        }
    ]
 }' http://localhost:8080/stats/flowentry/add
 
 curl -X POST -d '{
    "dpid": 2,
    "priority": 1,
    "match":{
        "vlan_vid": 0
    },
    "actions":[
        {
            "type": "POP_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
            "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
        },
        {
            "type": "OUTPUT",
            "port": 1
        }
    ]
 }' http://localhost:8080/stats/flowentry/add
 
 curl -X POST -d '{
    "dpid": 2,
    "priority": 1,
    "match":{
        "vlan_vid": 1
    },
    "actions":[
        {
            "type": "POP_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
            "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
        },
        {
            "type": "OUTPUT",
            "port": 2
        }
    ]
 }' http://localhost:8080/stats/flowentry/add

结果如下

(二)进阶要求

编程实现基本要求第2部分Ryu(3)中的VLAN划分。

import json
 
import requests
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    url = 'http://127.0.0.1:8080/stats/flowentry/add'
    headers = {'Content-Type': 'application/json'}
    flow1 = {
        "dpid": 1,
        "priority": 1,
        "match":{
            "in_port": 1
        },
        "actions":[
            {
                "type": "PUSH_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
                "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
            },
            {
                "type": "SET_FIELD",
                "field": "vlan_vid",     # Set VLAN ID
                "value": 4096            # Describe sum of vlan_id(e.g. 6) | OFPVID_PRESENT(0x1000=4096)
            },
            {
                "type": "OUTPUT",
                "port": 3
            }
        ]
    }
    flow2 = {
        "dpid": 1,
        "priority": 1,
        "match":{
            "in_port": 2
        },
        "actions":[
            {
                "type": "PUSH_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
                "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
            },
            {
                "type": "SET_FIELD",
                "field": "vlan_vid",     # Set VLAN ID
                "value": 4097            # Describe sum of vlan_id(e.g. 6) | OFPVID_PRESENT(0x1000=4096)
            },
            {
                "type": "OUTPUT",
                "port": 3
            }
        ]
    }
    flow3 = {
        "dpid": 1,
        "priority": 1,
        "match":{
            "vlan_vid": 0
        },
        "actions":[
            {
                "type": "POP_VLAN",     # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
                "ethertype": 33024       # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
            },
            {
                "type": "OUTPUT",
                "port": 1
            }
        ]
    }
    flow4 = {
        "dpid": 1,
        "priority": 1,
        "match": {
            "vlan_vid": 1
        },
        "actions": [
            {
                "type": "POP_VLAN",  # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
                "ethertype": 33024  # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
            },
            {
                "type": "OUTPUT",
                "port": 2
            }
        ]
    }
    flow5 = {
        "dpid": 2,
        "priority": 1,
        "match": {
            "in_port": 1
        },
        "actions": [
            {
                "type": "PUSH_VLAN",  # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
                "ethertype": 33024  # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
            },
            {
                "type": "SET_FIELD",
                "field": "vlan_vid",  # Set VLAN ID
                "value": 4096  # Describe sum of vlan_id(e.g. 6) | OFPVID_PRESENT(0x1000=4096)
            },
            {
                "type": "OUTPUT",
                "port": 3
            }
        ]
    }
    flow6 = {
        "dpid": 2,
        "priority": 1,
        "match": {
            "in_port": 2
        },
        "actions": [
            {
                "type": "PUSH_VLAN",  # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
                "ethertype": 33024  # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
            },
            {
                "type": "SET_FIELD",
                "field": "vlan_vid",  # Set VLAN ID
                "value": 4097  # Describe sum of vlan_id(e.g. 6) | OFPVID_PRESENT(0x1000=4096)
            },
            {
                "type": "OUTPUT",
                "port": 3
            }
        ]
    }
    flow7 = {
        "dpid": 2,
        "priority": 1,
        "match": {
            "vlan_vid": 0
        },
        "actions": [
            {
                "type": "POP_VLAN",  # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
                "ethertype": 33024  # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
            },
            {
                "type": "OUTPUT",
                "port": 1
            }
        ]
    }
    flow8 = {
        "dpid": 2,
        "priority": 1,
        "match": {
            "vlan_vid": 0
        },
        "actions": [
            {
                "type": "POP_VLAN",  # Push a new VLAN tag if a input frame is non-VLAN-tagged
                "ethertype": 33024  # Ethertype 0x8100(=33024): IEEE 802.1Q VLAN-tagged frame
            },
            {
                "type": "OUTPUT",
                "port": 1
            }
        ]
    }
    res1 = requests.post(url, json.dumps(flow1), headers=headers)
    res2 = requests.post(url, json.dumps(flow2), headers=headers)
    res3 = requests.post(url, json.dumps(flow3), headers=headers)
    res4 = requests.post(url, json.dumps(flow4), headers=headers)
    res5 = requests.post(url, json.dumps(flow5), headers=headers)
    res6 = requests.post(url, json.dumps(flow6), headers=headers)
    res7 = requests.post(url, json.dumps(flow7), headers=headers)
    res8 = requests.post(url, json.dumps(flow8), headers=headers)

结果如下

四、个人总结

  • 实验难度
    这次实验难度比之前的实验难度来得更大,需要阅读并编写很多代码。

  • 实验过程遇到的困难及解决办法

    • 在执行删除流表数据操作时,报错说没有 requests 模块,通过 pip install requests 命令安装却发现 requests 模块已经存在了
    • 通过反馈的消息发现 requests 存在 python3 中,于是通过 python3 delete.py 成功执行删除流表数据操作
    • 运行 shell 脚本不成功

    • 原因是用到了 curl, 但是我没有安装。通过命令 sudo apt install curl 安装后能够运行 shell 脚本
    • 在做 ryu 硬超时流表下发实验过程中还遇到了下面这个错误,但是我把这个文件重新复制一遍又可以了,不清楚发生这个错误的原因是什么
  • 个人感想
    这次实验通过 ODL 和 RYU 实现了对流表的相关操作,强化了我对这两个工具的使用,但是对于这两个工具的 py 源码的理解还是存在难度,需要用上大量的时间去阅读以及查找资料。

posted @ 2021-10-26 23:21  Coleman_huang  阅读(9)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报