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公告

常见计算机英语词汇解释
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access arm 磁头臂,存取臂
  access time 存取时间
  adder 加法器
  address 地址
  alphanumeric 字母数字的
  analog computer 模拟计算机
  analyst 分析员
  area 区域
  array 数组,阵列
  assembler 汇编程序
  automation 自动化
  band 区
  batch processing 成批处理
  binary code 二进制码
  binary digit 二进制位,二进制数字
  bit 比特,二进制的一位
  branch 分支,支线
  brush 电刷
  buffer storage 缓冲存储器
  calculator 计算器
  call instruction 呼叫指令
  card punch 卡片穿孔机
  card reader 卡片阅读机,读卡机
  cell 单元
  channel 通道,信道
  character 字符
  check digit 校验数位
  circuit 电路,线路
  to clear 清除,清零
  clock 时钟
  code 代码
  to code 编码
  coder 编码员,编码器
  command 指令,命令
  compiler 编译程序
  computer language 计算机语言
  console 控制台
  control unit 控制部件,控制器
  core storage, core store 磁心存储器
  counter 计数器
  cybernetics 控制论
  cycle 循环
  data 数据
  data processing 数据处理
  debugging 调试
  decision 制定
  digit 数字,数位,位
  digital computer 数字计算机
  disc, disk 磁盘
  display unit 显示装置
  drum 磁鼓
  to edit 编辑
  electronics 电子学
  emitter 发射器
  to encode 编码
  to erase 擦除,清洗,抹除
  feed 馈送,供给
  to feed 馈送,供给
  feedback 反馈
  field 字段,信息组,域
  file 文件
  floppy disk 软磁盘
  floppy disk drive 软磁盘机
  flow chart 流程图
  frame 帧
  hardware 硬件
  identifier 标识符
  index 索引
  information 信息
  inline processing 内处理
  input 输入
  inquiry 询问
  instruction 指令
  integrated circuit 集成电路
  to interpret 解释
  item 项目,项
  jump 转移
  key 键,关键码
  keyboard 键盘
  latency time 等待时间 

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计算机英语名词简释

一、著名公司及其商标名

  Microsoft: 有时缩略为MS,是全球最著名的软件商,美国软件巨头微软公司的名字。Microsoft其实是由两个英语单词组成:Micro意为“微小”,Soft意为“软的”,此处应为“Software,软件”,顾名思义,微软(Microsoft)是专门生产软件的公司。当今90%以上的微机都是装载Microsoft的操作系统,如MS-DOS 6.22、Windows 3.2、Windows 95、Windows NT等。

  Intel:英特尔公司,是世界上最大的CPU(中央处理器,被人们称为电脑的心脏)及相关芯片制造商。80%左右的电脑都是使用Intel公司生产的CPU。其产品从早期的8088到目前流行的Pentium、Pentium Pro、Pentium MMX、Pentium Ⅱ等。

  Pentium、Pentium Pro、Intel Inside标志:都是英特尔公司的注册商标。Pentium(读音为/′pentj?m/)是著名的CPU商标名,汉译为“奔腾”。人们称赞不已、开口闭口所说的“奔腾”电脑,是因为电脑里安装有英特尔公司生产的“奔腾”CPU。

  AMD:世界第二大CPU制造商,主要产品有K5,K6 MMX CPU系列。

  Cyrix:CPU制造商,主要产品有M1,M2 MMX CPU系列。

  Epson:爱普生,日本爱普生打印机制造商。

  HP:惠普,Hewlett Packard的缩写,是美国著名的惠普打印机、电脑制造商。

  Canon:佳能,著名打印机商标。日本著名的佳能打印机制造商。Canon英文意思为“宗教法规,标准”,可以看出佳能公司在创业之初,就决心要把自己的产品作为业界的“标准”。

  Compaq:汉译为“康柏”,美国康柏电脑公司,它是世界上最大的电脑公司之一。

  IBM:是International Business Machine Company(美国国际商用机器公司)的缩写。IBM是美国老牌电脑制造商,其产品是国际知名品牌。

  Apple:英文为“苹果”之意,美国苹果电脑公司,该公司以生产高性能专业级电脑著称于世。

  Acer:台湾著名的宏?电脑公司。

  Tulip:英语意思为“郁金香”,来自欧洲的名牌电脑商,郁金香电脑公司。

  Sony:索尼,日本索尼公司。

  Toshiba:东芝,日本东芝电脑公司,主要生产笔记本电脑。

  Philips:飞利浦,荷兰飞利浦公司,主要生产彩显、光驱、家用电器等。

  Sumsung:三星,韩国三星公司,著名的彩显制造商,也生产光驱、家用电器等。

二、常见硬件名和设备名

  CPU:Central Processing Unit,中央处理单元,又叫中央处理器或微处理器,被喻为电脑的心脏。

  RAM:Random Access Memory,随机存储器,即人们常说的“内存”。

  ROM:Read-Only Memory,只读存储器。

  EDO:Extended Data Output,扩充数据输出。当CPU的处理速度不断提高时,也相应地要求不断提高DRAM传送数据速度,一般来说,FPM(Fast Page Model)DRAM传送数据速度在60-70ns,而EDO DRAM比FPM快3倍,达20ns。目前最快的是SDRAM(Synchronous DRAM,同步动态存储器),其存取速度高达10ns。

  SDRAM:Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory,同步动态随机存储器,又称同步DRAM,为新一代动态存储器。它可以与CPU总线使用同一个时钟,因此,SDRAM存储器较EDO存储器能使计算机的性能大大提高。

  Cache:英文含义为“(勘探人员等贮藏粮食、器材等的)地窖;藏物处”。电脑中为高速缓冲存储器,是位于CPU和主存储器DRAM(Dynamic Randon Access Memory)之间,规模较小,但速度很高的存储器,通常由SRAM(Static Random Access Memory静态存储器)组成。

  CMOS:是Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor的缩写,含义为互补金属氧化物半导体(指互补金属氧化物半导体存储器)。CMOS是目前绝大多数电脑中都使用的一种用电池供电的存储器(RAM)。它是确定系统的硬件配置,优化微机整体性能,进行系统维护的重要工具。它保存一些有关系统硬件设置等方面的信息,在关机以后,这些信息也继续存在(这一点与RAM完全不同)。开机时,电脑需要用这些信息来启动系统。如果不慎或发生意外而弄乱 了CMOS中保留的信息,电脑系统将不能正常启动。

  PCI:Peripheral Component Interconnection,局部总线( 总线是计算机用于把信息从一个设备传送到另一个设备的高速通道)。PCI总线是目前较为先进的一种总线结构,其功能比其他总线有很大的提高,可支持突发读写操作,最高传输率可达132Mbps,是数据传输最快的总线之一,可同时支持多组外围设备。PCI不受制于CPU处理器,并能兼容现有的各种总线,其主板插槽体积小,因此成本低,利于推广。

  Seagate:美国希捷硬盘生产商。Seagate英文意思为“通往海洋的门户”,常指通海的运河等。

  Quantum:英文含意为“定量,总量”。著名硬盘商标,美国昆腾硬盘生产商(Quantum Corporation)。

  Maxtor:“水晶”,美国Maxtor硬盘公司。

  LD:Laser Disk,镭射光盘,又称激光视盘。

  CD:Compact Disc,压缩光盘,又称激光唱盘。

  CD-ROM:Compact Disc-Read Only Memory,压缩光盘-只读记忆(存储),又叫“只读光盘”。

  VCD:Video Compact Disc,视频压缩光盘,即人们通常所说的“小影碟”。

  DVD:至今有许多人把DVD视为Digital Video Disc(数字视频光盘)的缩写,事实上,从1995年9月,索尼/飞利浦和东芝/时代华纳两大DVD开发集团达成DVD统一标准后,DVD的内涵有了很大的变化,它已成了数字通用光盘,即Digital Versatile Disc的英文缩写。Versatile“通用”的含义表明了DVD用途的多元化,它不仅可用于影视娱乐,还可用于多媒体计算机等领域。目前按其用途可分为5种类型:1?计算机用只读光盘——DVD-ROM;2?家用型影音光盘——DVD-Movie;3?专供音乐欣赏的DVD Audio;4?只写一次的光盘——DVD-R;5?可读写多次的光盘——DVD-RAM。

  Modem:调制解调器,家用电脑上Internet(国际互联网)网的必备工具,在一般英汉字典中是查不到Modem这个词的,它是调制器(MOdulator)与解调器(DEModulator)的缩写形式。Modem是实现计算机通信的一种必不可少的外部设备。因为计算机的数据是数字信号,欲将其通过传输线路(例如电话线)传送到远距离处的另一台计算机或其它终端(如电传打字机等),必须将数字信号转换成适合于传输的模拟信号(调制信号)。在接收端又要将接收到的模拟信号恢复成原来的数字信号,这就需要利用调制解调器。

  UPS:为Uninterruptible Power Supply(不间断电源)的英文缩写。它是伴随着计算机的诞生而出现的,是电脑的重要外围设备之一。UPS是一种含有储能装置,以逆变器为主要组成的恒压恒频的不间断电源,用以保护电脑在突然断电时不会丢失重要的数据。

  TFT:有源矩阵彩色显示器,简称TFT显示器,专用于笔记本电脑。TFT显示器具有刷新速度快、色彩逼真、亮度鲜明等优点。此外,它还具有无闪烁、无辐射、无静电等“绿色电脑”所必需的特点。

三、著名软件产品

  DOS:Disk Operating System,磁盘操作系统。提到DOS,只要稍有电脑知识的人对它都会有所了解。DOS的主要功能是管理电脑的硬件和软件资源,方便用户对电脑进行操作。使用DOS操作电脑,需要用户记住大量命令及其正确格式,比较难学。Windows(微软视窗操作系统)的出现,标志着DOS时代的结束,图形操作电脑时代的到来。

  Windows:在一般英文字典中查到Windows的意思为“窗户”。Window指微软公司(Microsoft)著名的新一代电脑主流“视窗操作系统”。它通过一些图形图标(Icon)、窗口(Window)和菜单(Menu)等的选择来实现对计算机的控制,极大地方便了用户。Windows视窗操作系统系列产品有Windows 3.1、Windows 3.2、Windows 95(因为该产品是1995年出品,因而取名为Windows 95,也可写成Win95。PWindows 95指中文版本的Windows 95),而功能更强大的最新产品为Windows 98和Windows 2000等。Windows 95是目前最著名、最受欢迎的图形化操作系统之一。

  Windows NT:微软公司的著名网络视窗操作系统。NT是New Technology(新技术)的缩写。

  OS/2 Warp:Operating System(操作系统)。它是IBM推出的一个性能卓越的纯32位操作系统,同时它也能提供完善的DOS支持,在总体技术上比Windows 95更优越,是Windows 95的一个强有力的竞争对手。OS/2 Warp中的Warp,英文含义为“弄弯;歪曲”,在这里指IBM为其新一代操作系统OS/2加入的别名。Warp是美国著名的科幻电影《星球大战》中的科学怪人,把软件比喻为《星球大战》中的科学怪人,既给人以出其不意的感觉,又希望用户把对《星球大战》的美好记忆移到OS/2软件上来。

  UNIX:一种多用户操作系统。

  UCDOS:北京希望电脑公司开发的一套中文磁盘操作集成系统,是目前使用人数最多、使用范围最广的中文平台。

  WPS:Word Processing System,文字处理系统,1989年由香港金山公司(Kingsun)开发的一套编辑、打印等功能为一体的DOS平台汉字处理系统,以其简单易学和实用方便等优势迅速占领市场。在昔日WPS的辉煌时期,国人一提到电脑无不与WPS联系在一起,真可谓“言电脑必提WPS”。WPS一度成为中文文字处理软件的代名词。在近几年的“全国计算机等级一级考试”中,WPS是指定的文字处理考试内容。

  WPS97:Word Processing System,文字处理系统,珠海金山公司(Kingsun)出品,因在1997年上市而命名为WPS97。它是WPS升级换代产品,是一个能运行在UCDOS、Windows 3?X和Windows 95等中文环境下的文字处理软件。它综合了WPS、电子词典、方正校对系统、多内码转换、条形码制作等功能,在保留原有的文字编辑方式的同时,支持所见即所得的文字处理方式,是一套图文并茂、功能强大的超级办公软件。

  Office 97:Office为“办公室”之意。这里指微软公司先进的办公集成软件,1997年出品,因此冠之为Office97。Office 97包括:Word 97(文字处理软件),Excel 97(电子表格处理软件),PowerPoint 97(电子幻灯演示软件),Outllook 97(集日程管理、邮件信息交换等功能于一体的个人事务管理软件)。

  Word 97:Word在英语中意思为“单词”。Word 97指微软高级文字处理软件。其系列产品还有Word 5.0、Word 6.0、Word 7.0等。

  Excel 97:Excel英文意为“胜过、优于”,Excel 97是Microsoft Office 97软件包中的一个电子表格软件。电子表格一开始只作为财务账表的电子版本,也就是利用电脑里的财务账表来替代印刷品的财务账表,并能对表格中一行或一列数据进行简单的算术运算。Microsoft Excel 97是被公认为目前功能最强大、技术最先进、使用最方便的电子表格软件。

  Lotus 1-2-3:Lotus是“莲花”之意。Lotus 1-2-3是美国莲花(Lotus)公司推出的在Windows环境下的集成软件,它把常用的电子数据表、文字处理、数据库、图形软件、文件管理功能组合在一个系统里,且可以互相传递和调用信息。

  Photoshop:由Photo(照片)和Shop(商店;工厂)两个单词组成,由此可知,Photoshop是“处理照片的工厂”。它是美国Adobe公司出品的在苹果机(Macintosh)和基于Windows的计算机上运行的最流行的图像编辑软件,可使人们编辑扫描到磁盘的绘画艺术品和图片等。此外,Photoshop还提供了类似在纸上绘画的工具,借助这些工具可以创造出如同水彩画和油画一样的自然主义风格的图画。

  CorelDraw:是一个功能强大的综合性绘画软件,许多专业电脑美术设计人员使用它制作各类图文并茂的桌面印刷品,如请柬、简报、宣传品、海报、广告等等。用CorelDraw可以画出任何东西:从商业区地图、机械结构装配图等技术图纸,到漫画、怪兽等计算机美术作品,CorelDraw几乎无所不能。它创作出的图形、文字具有线条光滑、轮郭清晰的特点。

  Authorware:由Author(作家;创造者)和Ware(商品;物品;器皿)两个英语单词组成,顾名思义为“作家用来创造商品的工具”。它是美国Macromedia公司开发的一种多媒体系统制作工具,在Windows环境下有专业版(Authorware Professional)与学习版(Authorware Star)。Authorware是一个图标导向式的多媒体制作工具,使非专业人员快速开发多媒体软件成为现实,其强大的功能令人惊叹不已。它无需传统的计算机语言编程,只通过对图标的调用来编辑一些控制程序走向的活动流程图,将文字、图形、声音、动画、视频等各种多媒体项目数据汇在一起,就可达到多媒体软件制作的目的。Authorware这种通过图标的调用来编辑流程图用以替代传统的计算机语言编程的设计思想,是它的主要特点。它的主要功能还在:1?编制的软件具有强大的交互功能,可任意控制程序流程。2?在人机对话中,它提供了按键、按鼠标、限时等多种应答方式。3?它还提供了许多系统变量和函数以根据用户响应的情况,执行特定功能。4?编制的软件除了能在其集成环境下运行外,还可以编译成扩展名为?EXE的文件,在Windows系统下脱离Authorware制作环境运行。

  Oracle:英文含义为“聪明人、贤人、哲人”,电脑英语中指美国Oracle公司开发的大型高性能关系型数据库系统软件,在众多的数据库系统中,如IBM公司的DB2数据库、Sybase公司的Sybase数据库等,唯有Oracle数据库系统,以其卓越稳定的性能,可靠的安全保障,强大的联网能力,丰富快捷的开发工具得到广泛的赞誉。因此,它一直占全球数据库销售额的40%以上,稳居数据库产业龙头地位,在众多的评比中几乎获得所有大奖,被美国最著名的计算机评论杂志《PC MAGAZINE》誉为“数据库行业的巨无霸”。在中国,Oracle数据库也伴随着我国计算机技术的发展,得到广泛应用和推广。

  PCTools:Personal Computer Tools,个人电脑工具。它是美国Central Point Software公司出口的一种电脑维护工具,集文件管理和磁盘管理为一体,精简和增强了常规应用程序,是一组多功能实用工具软件。使用PCTools可以取代DOS的许多命令,比起DOS来,其操作更加容易、直观、简便,是电脑这好者的常用工具软件。

  NU:是Norton Untilities的缩写,Norton是著名的计算机专家诺顿,Utility英文意思为“实用工具”,在这里是指Norton先生为解决DOS系统存在的问题而编写的个人计算机工具软件。用它的复数形式可以看成是个人电脑工具软件集。NU是在PCTools之后功能强大、受人喜爱的电脑维护工具。普通用户可利用NU中最著名的工具NDD(Norton Disk Doctor诺顿磁盘医生),解决大部分磁盘问题;专业人员则可利用操作灵活、功能强大的DiskEdit(磁盘编辑)工具解决专业数据维护问题。

  CSC:Clever Software Corporation,“聪明的软件公司”。这是由北京科利华教育软件公司开发的一套电脑家教软件。
四、著名的计算机语言

  VF:也写作VFP,Visual FoxPro的缩写,Visual在英语中意为“可视的”,Fox意为“狐狸”,原指美国狐狸数据库软件公司,该公司已被微软公司收购。Pro为Progress的略写,意为“更进一层”。Visual FoxPro是由Microsoft在FoxPro的基础上推出的功能强大、可视化、面向对象的数据库编程语言,同时它也是一种强大的数据库管理系统。

  VC:Visual C++,微软公司高级可视化计算机程序开发语言。C语言被人们称为近十年来对计算机程序设计最大的贡献之一。它有高级语言简单易用的特性,又可以完成汇编语言才能做的许多工作。因此,C语言特别适合用来编写各种复杂软件。如果说BASIC语言是初学者和业余爱好者的编程语言的话,那么C语言就是专业人员的编程语言了。

  VB:Visual Basic的缩写,微软公司高级可视化计算机程序开发语言。BASIC是Beginner’s All-purpose Sybolic Instruction Code(初学者通用符号指令代码)的缩写,从BASIC开始相继推出了Quick BASIC、Ture BASIC等,目前最新的是Microsoft公司推出的Visual Basic。这是一种功能极强的面向对象的可视化程序设计语言。

  Delphi:读音/′delfai/,特尔斐,古希腊城市名,被古希腊人当成世界的中心,因有阿波罗神殿而出名。在电脑英语中指美国宝兰(Borland)公司的一种可视化、面向对象、事件驱动的电脑编程语言。

  Java:读音/′d?a:v?/,《新英汉字典》译注为“爪哇岛(属印度尼西亚)、爪哇咖啡”。电脑英语指由美国太阳(Sun)公司推出的新型面向对象程序设计语言。Java集面向对象、平台无关性、稳固性、安全性、多线程等诸多特性于一体,增加了异常处理、网络编程等方面的功能,特别适合于Internet应用的开发,是实现“一个世界,一个网络”构想的关键。用Java编写的各类软件能真正做到“Write Once,Run anywhere(一次写成,到处运行)”,也就是说,相同的软件可在不同计算机上运行,无论是PC机、苹果机、UNIX计算机、还是顶置盒、PDA(个人数据助理)乃至智能元器件无一例外。

  SQL:Structure Query Language,结构化查询语言。SQL是关系数据库管理系统中的一种简明扼要、面向集合的语言,它对一个或多个数据表进行查询,产生一个结果数据表。

五、常见的重要电脑英语及其缩写

  PC:Personal Computer,个人计算机、个人电脑,又称微型计算机或微机。

  NC: Network Computer,网络计算机。

  MPC: Multimedia Personal Computer,多媒体个人电脑。

  MMX: 是MultiMedia eXtensions(多媒体扩展)的缩写,是第六代CPU芯片的重要特点。MMX技术是在CPU中加入了特地为视频信号(Video Signal),音频信号(Audio Signal)以及图像处理(Graphical Manipulation)而设计的57条指令,因此,MMX CPU极大地提高了电脑的多媒体(如立体声、视频、三维动画等)处理功能。

  Intel Pentium 166MHz MMXTM: Intel Pentium是英特尔(Intel)公司生产的“奔腾”CPU。?意为“Registered”(注册商标)。166MHz指CPU时钟频率,MHz即Mega Hertz的缩写。MMXTM中的TM是“Trade Mark”的简写,意为“注册商标”。

  OOP: Object Oriented Programming,面向对象的程序设计。所谓“对象”就是一个或一组数据以及处理这些数据的方法和过程的集合。面向对象的程序设计完全不同于传统的面向过程程序设计,它大大地降低了软件开发的难度,使编程就像搭积木一样简单,是当今电脑编程的一股势不可挡的潮流。

  28VGA: 28是指彩色显示器上的黄光网点间距(点距),点距越小的显示器,图像就越细腻、越好,这是因为彩色屏幕上的每个像点都是由一组红、绿、蓝光汇聚而成的,由于在技术上三束光还不能100%地汇聚在一点上,因此会产生一种黄光网点的间隔,这种间隔越小,屏幕上显示的图像越清晰。VGA是Video Graphics Array(视频图形阵列)的缩写。

  FAT:Allocation Table,文件分配表,它的作用是记录硬盘中有关文件如何被分散存储在不同扇区的信息。

  EPA:Environmental Protection Agency的简称,美国环境保护署。EPA于1992年宣布了“能源之星”(Energy Star)计划,并得到了国际社会的积极响应。只要启动电脑,过不了几秒钟就能见到屏幕上出现“能源之星”的标志。能源之星的目标是当电脑系统的各个部件不活动时自动进入低功耗状态,当部件的能动性恢复(即当键盘、鼠标等被使用)时,电脑系统自动回到完全清醒的状态。对于符合能源之星规范的产品,EPA将发给能源之星标志“EPA POLLUTION PREVENTER”,意为“美国环境保护署认可的防污染的节能产品”。

  IC卡:Intelligent Card,智能卡。

  ATX:一种新的电脑机箱、主板、电源的结构规范。

  IDE:集成电路设备或智能磁盘设备。

  DLL:Dynamic Link Library,动态链接库。

  KB:Kilo Byte,KB表示千字节。K=Kilo,构词成分,表示“千;千米;公斤;公里”。B=Byte,意为“字节”,是电脑中最小存贮单位(一个字节可以存贮一个英文字母,每两个字节可以存放一个汉字)。

  MB:Mega Byte,MB表示兆字节。M=Mega,构词成分,表示“兆;百万”。

  GB:Giga Byte,GB表示千兆字节。G=Giga,构词成分,表示千兆;十亿”。

  CAI:Computer-Asisted Instruction或Computer-Aided Instruction,计算机辅助教学。它将是二十一世纪最重要、最受欢迎的教学手段。

  CAD:Computer-Aided Design,计算机辅助设计。

  ISO:International Standard Organization,国际标准化组织。ISO于1987年推出有关质量管理和质量保证的ISO 9000系列国际标准,于1994年又发布了经过修订的标准。其中,构成ISO 9000系列标准的主要标准分别是:1.ISO 9000-1:1994《质量管理和质量保证标准—第一部分:选择和使用指南》。2.ISO 9001:1994《质量体系—设计、开发、生产、安装和服务的质量保证模式》。3.ISO 9002:1994《质量体系—最终检验和试验的质量保证模式》。

  3DS或3D Studio: Three Dimension Studio,三维摄影室。是美国Autodesk公司推出的一套多功能三维动画软件,集实体造型、静态着色和动画创作于一体,极大地普及了三维造型技术。它能够与AutoCAD进行图形信息交换,利用扫描仪输入图形,通过VGA与电视转换接口将动画输出至电视或录像带。

  VR:Virtual Reality,虚拟现实,又称投入3D,由空军模拟飞行装置演变而来,基本上是利用左、右视觉空间交替变换显示图像的原理产生立体效果,实际上已超出图像处理的范畴,是综合光、声、图像的计算机生成环境,人们能够像在实际生活中那样对虚拟环境中的对象进行交互式操作,虚拟现实应用前景极为广阔。

  OCR:Optical Character Recognition(光学字符识别)的缩写,是指将文字材料通过扫描仪输入作为计算机图像文件,通过软件识别为中文或英文内码,然后进行文字处理。由于手写体的随意性太大,目前OCR主要限于印刷文字的识别。目前代表中文OCR识别准确率最高水平的是清华文通公司出品的TH-OCR NT for Windows。

  SCSI:Small Computer System Interface,小型计算机系统接口,它是为解决众多的外部设备与计算机之间的连接问题而出现的。

  OEM:Original Equipment Manufacturer,原始设备制造商。

  Microsoft OEM: 微软OEM产品。它是指预安装在微机上的软件操作系统,包括Windows98、Windows NT、WorkStation、Windows3.X、MS-DOS。

  MIS:Management Information System,管理信息系统。它广泛地应用于各行各业,国内最有名的管理信息系统有“王特MIS”、“雅奇MIS”、“Quick MIS”。

  PNP:Plug and Play,即插即用,它是Window98的一个重要技术特性。所谓即插即用是指将符合PNP标准的PC插卡等外围设备安装到电脑时,操作系统自动设定系统结构的技术。这就是说,当用户安装新的硬件时,不必再设置任何跳线器开关,也不必用软件配置中断请求(IRQ)、内存地址或直接存储器存取(DMA)通道,Windows98会向应用程序通知硬件设备的新变化,并会自动协调IRQ、内存地址和DMA通道之间的冲突。

  OLE:Object Linking and Embedding,对象连接与嵌入,简称OLE技术。OLE不仅是桌面应用程序集成,而且还定义和实现了一种允许应用程序作为软件“对象”(数据集合和操作数据的函数)彼此进行“连接”的机制,这种连接机制和协议称为部件对象模型(Component Object Model),简称COM。OLE可以用来创建复合文档,复合文档包含了创建于不同源应用程序,有着不同类型的数据,因此它可以把文字、声音、图像、表格等组合在一起。

  MIDI:Musical Instrument Digital Interface,乐器数字接口。它是多媒体的基本术语之一,MIDI文件是用电子乐器如:电子琴、吉它、萨克斯等演奏并录制下来的,它能在大多数的多媒体计算机声音卡上播放,即使不去创建自己的MIDI文件,也可以使用现有的MIDI文件,作为多媒体演示的背景音乐。MIDI文件储存的只是对声音的描述,依靠声音卡的合成器(FM或者波形表)来产生人们想听的真实声音。

  MPEG:是Motion Picture Experts Group的缩写,意即“运动图像专家组”,它是多媒体计算机中的一种活动图像及其伴音的压缩编码标准,即人们通常所说的MPEG标准。它包括三部分:MPEG音频、MPEG视频、和MPEG系统。

六、网络英语

  Internet: 为International Net的简写,因特网,又称国际互联网。它最早产生于美国国防部的高级研究规划署,那是1969年的事了,最初的目的也只是远程计算机的数据共享,后来发展成将世界各地的计算机及计算机网络相互连接起来,形成了一个无边无际的超级大网。Internet的主要服务项目有:电子邮件(E-mail),远程登录(Telnet),查询服务(Finger),文件传输(FTP),文档服务器(Archive),新闻论坛(Usenet),电子公告牌(BBS),新闻群组(News Group),全球网(World Wide Web,缩写为WWW,又称万维网)等。

  BBS:Bulletin Board System,公告牌系统或电子公告板,又称Public Access Message System,公共访问信息系统。它是普通公告的电子版本,用户可以通过公告牌发布消息,任何用户都可以读取公告牌上的消息,也可以给某一特定的人或一组用户发送信息。公告牌系统被广泛地用于传播信息,咨询一个电子公告牌往往比使用交互信箱或公共邮政系统发送公告更加快捷、有效。

  E-mail: 电子邮件,这是一种利用Internet网交换文字信息的交互式服务,全世界Internet用户可以互相发送和接收电子邮件。

  WWW: World Wide Web的缩写,全球网,又称万维网。它是一个基于超文本方式的信息检索工具,提供一种友好的信息查询接口,是目前最受欢迎同时也是最先进的Internet检索工具之一。

  Remote Login: 远程登录(注册),它是在网络环境下实现资源共享的一种重要手段,采用这种方式,用户可连接到世界任何一台Internet主机。

  HTTP: Hyper Text Transmission Protocol,超文本传输协议。

  IP:IP国际互联网协议,即网际协议。

  FTP:是 Transfer Protocol的缩写,即文件传输协议,用于在Internet上传输文件。FTP的任务是从一台计算机将文件传送到另一台计算机。人们通过FTP可以获得很多免费的实用软件。

  Gopher: 读音/′g?uf?/,英文意为“地鼠”;(美国南部穴居的)可食用的龟”。它是Internet中基于菜单驱动的信息查询软件,可将用户的请求自动转换成FTP(文件传输协议)或Telnet(用于远程终端连接的标准IP协议)命令,在菜单的引导下,用户可对Internet上远程信息系统进行访问。

  Archive: 读音/′a:kaiv/,“档案;档案馆”之意。Internet中的文档服务器,可定期自动地访问众多的Internet FTP服务器,将这些服务器上的文件索引成一个可以检索的数据库。

  WAIS:是Wide Area Information Service的简写,广域信息服务器。它使得Internet上巨大的数据资源变得易于检索,并且可以获得远程数据库的信息。

  Luisitserv: 这是Internet上流行的用户之间交流信息的方式。

  IRC:Internet Relay Chat,互联网接力聊天。这是一种多用户聊天设施,允许多个用户通过文字实时地与其它人聊天。

  Hypertext: 超文本。本来用做表示所有超链接,也表示包含“链接”的文本。这是一种非线性的信息组织方法,文字、图形和其它数据做为单个元素都能够指向(链接)其它元素。

  Hyperlink: 超链接。一种与其它文件的“链接”,文件中图片、按钮、“热词”或短语都可以做为超链接,当用户选择超链接之后,所连接的信息就会显示出来。

  HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language,超文本标示语言。它是由欧洲粒子实验室一名想象力丰富的研究员Tim Bemers Lee发明的,是“WWW(全球网)世界”的通用语言。“WWW世界”的诸服务器与客户浏览器间,通过它互相沟通;信息资源也是由它描述而“表现”的,HTML可以 描述主页(Home Page)和静态的文本。全世界有几千万人在使用HTML语言,可以毫不夸张地说,没有HTML就没有“WWW世界”。

  Hypermedia: 超媒体。一种以计算机为基础的利用文字、图形、动画、声音和视频传送和显示信息的方法。这些文字等超媒体的组成元素既可以与其它文件连接,又可以做为单个对象处理。

  Navigator: 是美国网景(Netscape)公司出品的Internet浏览器软件之一。Navigator的英文意思是“航海者、海上探险者”,寓意人们可以使用该软件在Internet网络的海洋中航行、探险。Navigator不仅可以浏览万维网(WWW),还具有电子邮件(E-mail)、文件传输(FTP)、远程登录(Telnet)及新闻组(News Group)、信息浏览(Gopher)等多种功能。

  IE:Internet Explorer,Explorer意为“探险者”。


揭开“cookies”之谜

你喜欢cookie(小甜饼)吗?"小甜饼"现在有"大用途"了。

现在,互联网浏览器储存在电脑里面的文件夹就被称做cookies 。Cookies 是联网用户计算机硬盘中的一个记录用户个人资料、所用电脑系统的资料和该用户浏览过的网页等资料的资料卡。好多网站为了了解有多少人,什么样的人访问本站,要求第一次访问他们的用户输入自己的姓名、地址、电话号码、职业等个人资料,并将这些资料制作成一份访问者资料卡通过访问者的浏览器存储在访问者电脑的硬盘上,起名为cookies.txt。这就等于给初访者发了一张会员卡。当该用户下次重访该网站时,他的电脑浏览器就会自动出示这张会员卡,不必重重验关就可以进入该网站。

为何要将这种资料卡取名为cookies 没有人能说清楚。有人说cookies 可能源于海外中国餐馆在客人用完餐离开前向客人所赠"幸运小饼干"(fortune cookies)。这种说法不是没有道理,因为掰开每块"幸运小饼干",里面都有一张小字条,印有一句让客人看后开心一笑的警句之类的吉祥话。有的还描绘客人的个性特点,为客人卜算前程。想必这也是个人化的信息吧。

还有一种说法,认为cookies 成为电脑术语和《艾丽斯奇境历险记》中出现的magic cookie有关系。 Magic cookie可以神奇地使艾丽斯变大或变小,这和新用户登录网站时,电脑中的某一程序就会因cookie记录相关信息而增加容量有共通之处。不过这个类比似乎站不住脚。因为艾丽斯变大后要想再缩回去的话,必须饮用装在写着"DRINK ME"的瓶子里面装的东西或把"白兔扇"握在手里才行,而电脑术语中的cookie对此没有什么对应。可见,小说情节里的magic cookie和电脑术语里的 cookie还不能完全对不上号。

话说回来,"幸运小饼干"给网上用户带来的未必是好运,因为它窥探用户的隐私,使人如芒刺在背,感到不安。如果你想知道你电脑中的"小饼干"记录了你哪些资料,不妨打开你的电脑硬盘浏览器目录中?quot;小饼干"文件看一看。


常见Internet术语表(Ⅰ)

ADN
(Advanced Digital Network) -- Usually refers to a 56Kbps leased-line.

Applet
A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network. The current rule is that an applet can only make an Internet connection to the computer from which the applet was sent.

Archie
A tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a substring of it.

ARPANet
(Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) -- The precursor to the Internet. Developed in the late 60’s and early 70’s by the US Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking that would survive a nuclear war.

ASCII
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange) -- This is the de facto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111.

Backbone
A high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.

Bandwidth
How much stuff you can send through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second. A full page of English text is about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about 15,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.

Baud
In common usage the baud rate of a modem is how many bits it can send or receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300 = 1200 bits per second).

BBS
(Bulletin Board System) -- A computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without the people being connected to the computer at the same time. There are many thousands (millions?) of BBS’s around the world, most are very small, running on a single IBM clone PC with 1 or 2 phone lines. Some are very large and the line between a BBS and a system like CompuServe gets crossed at some point, but it is not clearly drawn.

Binhex
(BINary HEXadecimal) -- A method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII) into ASCII. This is needed because Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.

Bit
(Binary DigIT) -- A single digit number in base-2, in other words, either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.

BITNET
(Because It’s Time NETwork (or Because It’s There NETwork)) -- A network of educational sites separate from the Internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET and the Internet. Listservs?, the most popular form of e-mail discussion groups, originated on BITNET. BITNET machines are usually mainframes running the VMS operating system, and the network is probably the only international network that is shrinking.

Bps
(Bits-Per-Second) -- A measurement of how fast data is moved from one place to another. A 28.8 modem can move 28,800 bits per second.

Browser
A Client program (software) that is used to look at various kinds of Internet resources.

BTW
(By The Way) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an online forum.

Byte
A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is being made.

网络广告常用术语

  Page views(综合浏览量):网站各网页被浏览的总次数。一个访客有可能创造十几个甚至更多的PAGEVIEWS。

  Impression(印象):放置广告图像的网页每一次显示, 就是一次印象。

  Clicks(点击次数):每一次当访客通过点击这个横幅广告访问一次商家网页,称点击一次。点击次数可以客观准确地反映广告效果。

  Clicks Ratio(点击率):是广告吸引力的一个标志。如果这个网页出现了一万次,而网页上的广告的点击次数为五百次,那么点击率即为5%。

  CPM(Cost per Thousand Impressions)网上广告产生每1000个广告印象(显示)数的费用。按访问人次收费已经成为网络广告的惯例。目前国际上每个CPM收费从$20到$80不等。

 

目录允许网络

Almost three years ago ,cisco and microsoft annouced the directory enabled network(DEN) initiative ,which sought to develop a standard for storing information about network devices, applications and users in a single directory.

This directory would bind a user's name and network resource access profile to policies for granting or restricting that access, and delegating bandwidth priorities and privileges.work on standardizing specifications for the directory were handed off to the distributed manage-ment task force (DMTF).

In march , the DMTF announced it had completed work on a new version of the common infor-mation model that facilitates the mapping of the CIM schema into a lightweight directory access protocol(LDAP)-compliant directory .CIM defines how to represent network device ,system and application data in a directory so it can be easily shared for DEN and enter-prise management purposes.

By mapping the CIM schema into an LDAP directory , users will be able to further integrate directory information into an overall enterprise management system , the DMTF says .

Customers will make DEN-compliant products a priority once the DMTF makes a little more progress on DEN specifications-such as defining a pollicy schema that would specify data structures for binding directory profiles to network security and quality -of -service (QOS)policies and products soon follow.

Perhaps , vendors still have to determine how to use directories to prompt network and applications to configure themselves based on business policies .for example , when a user logs on to a network , the directroy would recognize the user's name , department , location and rank within the company , and bind this information with the user's network access or restriction policies. then the IT infrastructure would configure itself accordingly to enable or disable that a access.

One of the killer applications for DEN when it was announced was the ability to link QoS policies to users via dircetories . but bandwidth has become cheaper and more plentiful in the LAN over the past two years , and that's made QOS much less of an issue.

Instead of prioritizing bandwidth allocation, users can inexpensively overprovision band-width when they need to support delay-sensitive traffic such as voice and video. Also , simple mechanisms such as setting 802.1p bits on ethernet frame or type-of -service bits in IP headers are enough for LAN QOS.

Nonetheless , there 's still a huge demand among enterprise users for directories to enable self-configuring networks based on business policy.

DEN for QOS may still apply for WAN applications, edholm says . indeed cisco has made more strides with DEN in the service provider market than in the enterprise arena.

Service providers are looking to DEN to integrate multivendor products into an interoperable operational support system .

So despite the silnece , progress on DEN is being the silnece, progress on DEN is being made and activty is expected to pick up once standards become a little more solidiffed.

差不多三年前,思科公司和微软公司宣布了目录允许网络(DEN)倡议,该公司要求开发一个在单一目录中存储有关网络设备、应用程序和用户等信息的标准。

此目录把用户的名字和网络资源访问简表与允许或限制访问的政策和安排带宽优先级别及特权挂起钩来。此目标标准规范的研究工作交给了分布管理任务组(DMTF)。

今年三月,DETF 宣布完成了新版公共信息模型(CIM) 的研究工作,此模型实现了CIM模式映射到简便目录访问协议(LDAP)的相应目录中, CIM 定义如何在目录中表示网络设备,系统和应用数据,因而它很容易为DEN 和企业管理目的而被共享。

DMTF 称, 通过把CIM 模式映射到LDAP 目录,用户就能进一步把目录信息与整个企业管理系统结合起来。

一旦DMTF在DEN 规范上取得更多一些进展,如定义一个为把目录简表与网络安全和服务质量(QOS)政策捆绑在一起而规定数据结构的政策模式,以及随之而来的产品,客户将优先使用符合DEN的产品。

厂商们也许还不得不确定怎样利用目录来提示网络和应用程序以便依据商业政策来配置他们自己。例如:当一用户登录上网时,目录将会识别出用户的名字、所在的部门、地点及在公司中的级别,把这些信息与用户的网络访问或限制政策捆绑在一起。然后,IT 基础设施就能相应地配置自己,以便实现或不让实现访问。

当年宣布DEN 的最具冲击力的应用之一是通过目录把QOS 政策与用户联系起来的能力,但在过去两年局域网中带宽变的更为便宜和充足,是QOS不再是个问题。

当用户需要支持对延迟敏感的流量,如声音和视频图象时,他们可以廉价地获得很大的带宽,而不用对带宽进行优先等级分配。同时,在以太网桢上设置802.1P 位或者在IP 报头中设服务类型位等简单机制对局域网的QOS 来说已经足够了。

然而,在企业用户中对目录还存在着巨大需求,以便能够依据商业政策自行配置网络。


EDHOLM说:“实现QOS 的DEN 还可以应用于广域网上的应用程序。实际上。思科公司利用DEN 在服务供应商市场上取得了比企业市场更大的进步。服务供应商正期待着把DEN 做进更多厂商产品中去,成为一个可互用的运行支持系统。

尽管(DEN)比较沉默,但DEN 正在取得进步,一旦此标准变的更为稳定,DEN 可望会有所作为。


新的无线局域网标准

With portable computers and wireless LANs,users can enjoy greater productivity while away from their desks ,whether they are in conference rooms, public areas or remote offices.
Until recently , however,wireless LANs were too slow for most enterprise applications.based on the IEEE 802.11 standdrd,they ran at 1M to 2M bit/sec.

Now a new high -rate extension to the standard ,802.11b, lets wireless networks support data rates to 11M bit/sec.

Ratified in 1997 ,the original 802.11 standardunited the wireless industury by defining a low-level protocol architecture that worked with conventional upper-layer enterprise protocol stacks . also, 802.11 maintained compatibility with the three most popular radio transmission types: direct sequence spread spectrum,frequency-hopping spread spectrum,and infrared.

Essentially,this new architecture added intelligence at the medium access control(MAC) layer 2 and at the physical (PHY) layer 1, fosteing cooperation between the two layers in performing the critical tasks involved with initiating and maintaining wireless communi-cations.

For instance ,to ensure reliability of the wireless link ,MAC and PHY work together to determine if a clear path exists before they start a transmission.

During transmission, they employ special collision -avoidance and arrival-acknowledgment techniques that are not required in wired ethernet LANs.

in september 1999,the IEEE approved a new designation, known as 802.11.intended to retain the error-correction,security,powermanagement and other advantages of the original , a key ingredient-a thchnique for increasing bandwidth to 11M bit/sec.

Called complementary code keying (CCK) the technique works only in conjunction with the DSSS technology sprcified in the original standard . it does net work with frequency-hopping or infrared transmissions.

What CCK does is apply sophisticated mathematical formulas to the DSSS codes, a permitting the code to represent a greater volume of informitter is now able to send multiple bits of information with each DSSS code ,enough to make possible the 11M bit /sec in the original standard .

The 802.11b standard benefits users by delivering wireless ethernet speeds of 11M bit/sec that can reliably support everyday business applications,e-mail,internet and server network access.

With support from the new wireless ethernet from the new wireless ethernet compatibility alliance ,founded by 3com,lucent,nokia and several other companies in the wireless LAN business,the new standard will also promise certified interoperability across multivendor platforms.

Finally, the 802.11b standard serves as a clamoring for a simplified wireless LAN landscpape.

Vendors can now focus on a single ,high-speed standard , and users can cut through the clutter of wireless options by fovusing on a standard that delivers multibvendor interoperability and the performance to meet their application needs.


有了便携式和无线局域网,用户在离开其办公桌的时候,不管是在会议室、公共区域还是在远处办公室,都能享有更高的生产效率。

然而,时至今日,无线局域网对多数企业应用来说还是太慢。依据IEEE802.11标准,他们运行速度为1兆至2兆位/秒。

现在对此标准的一个新的更高速扩展,能让无线网支持高达11兆位/秒的数据速率。

最初的802.11标准是在1997年提出的,通过定义能与常规的上层企业协议组一起工作的低级协议体系结构,把无线行业团结起来了。802.11也保持了与三种最流行的无线电传输方式(直接顺序扩频、跳频扩频和红外线)的兼容性。

本质上,这种新的体系结构在介质接入控制(MAC)层(第二层)和物理层(第一层)增加了智能,建立这两层之间在执行及开始和保持无线通讯的关键任务时的协作关系。

例如:为确保无线连接的可靠性,MAC层和物理层一起工作,以确定在他们开始传输之前是否有一条清晰的路径。

在传输过程中,他们采用有线以太网不需要的、特殊的避免碰撞和到达应答技术。

1999年9月,IEEE批准了称作802.11B的新名称,作为802.11的高速扩展。此新的802.11B标准在保留原标准的纠错、安全、电源管理和其他优点的情况下,增加了一项关键内容,即把带宽增加到11兆位/秒的技术。

此项技术叫做互补码键控(CCK),他只与原标准中规定的直接顺序扩频(DSSS)技术一起工作,不能用跳频或红外线传输方式工作。

CCK所做的工作是把复杂的数学公式应用于DSSS代码,以允许该代码在每个时钟周期表示更多的信息。现在发射机能在每个DSSS代码中发送多个信息位,足以实现每秒11兆位/秒的数据传输率,而不是原标准的2兆位/秒。

802.11B 标准给出11兆位/秒的无线以太网速度,给用户带来好处,速度能可靠地支持日常的业务应用、电子邮件、因特网和服务器网络的接入。

由3COM、LUCENT、NOKIA和其他几家有无线局域网业务的公司组成的“无线以太网兼容性联盟”支持新的标准,此标准也有望实现跨多厂商与用户团结起来的作用。

现在,厂商能专注在单一的高速标准上,用户也能以通过关注给出厂商互用性和性能。以满足他们应用要求的标准上,解决了从一大堆无线网中作选择的难题。

 

了解kerberos协议

kerberos was developed at MIT in 1998s. it was named after the three-headed watchdog in classical Greek mythology that guards the gates to Hades .the name is apt because Kerberos is a three-way process , depending on a thrid-party service called the Key distribution center(KDC) to verify one computer's identity to another and to set up encryption keys for a secure connection between them .basically,kerberos works because each computer shares a secret with the KDC, which has two components:a Kerberos authentication server and a ticket-granting server , it a KDC doesn't know the requested target server, it refers the authentication transaction to another KDC that does .Kerberos is a network authentication protocol that allows one computer to prove its identity to another across an insecure network through an exchange of encrypted messages. once identity is verified, kerberos provides the two computer with encryption keys for a secure communication session. kerberos authenticates the identity and encrypts their communications through secret-key cryptography.


kerberos协议是80年代由MIT开发的一种协议。其命名是根据希腊神话中守卫冥王大门的长有三头的看门狗做的。定名是贴切的,因为KERBEROS是一个三路处理方法,根据称为密匙分配中心(KDC)的第三方服务来验证计算机相互的身份,并建立密匙以保证计算机间安全连接。KERBEROS协议基本上是可行的,因为每台计算机分享KDC一个秘密,KDC有两个部件:一个KEBEROS 认证服务器和一个授票服务器。如果KDC不知请求的目标服务器,则求助于另一个KDC完成认证交易。KERBEROS 是一种网络认证协议,允许一台计算机通过交换加密消息在整个非安全网络上与另一台计算机互相证明身份。一旦身份得到验证,KERBEROS协议给这两台计算机提供密匙,以进行安全通讯对话。KERBEROS 协议认证试图等录上网用户的身份,并通过使用密匙密码为用户间的通信加密。


名词解释:base address

base address 基址:

the part of a two-part memory address that remains constant and provides a reference point from which the location of a byte of data can be calculated. a base address is accompanied by an offset value that is added to the base to determine the exact location(the absolute address)of the information. the concept is similar to a street address system . for example, "2010 main street " plus an offset(10from the beginning of the block ).base address are known as segment address in IBM pcs and compatibles; data in these computers is identified by its position as a relative offset the start of the segment.

保持恒定的两部分内存地址的一部分并提供一个基准点,从这里可以计算一个字节数据的位置。基址伴随着一个加到基上的偏移值来确定信息准确的位置(绝对地址)。这一概念与街道地址系统雷同。例如:“大街2010号”由基(大街2000街段)加上偏移值(从街段开始的10号)。在IBMPC和兼容机中的数据按其相对于由段开始的相对偏移位置被识别。


常见硬件名和设备名

  CPU:Central Processing Unit,中央处理单元,又叫中央处理器或微处理器,被喻为电脑的心脏。

  RAM:Random Access Memory,随机存储器,即人们常说的“内存”。

  ROM:Read-Only Memory,只读存储器。

  EDO:Extended Data Output,扩充数据输出。当CPU的处理速度不断提高时,也相应地要求不断提高DRAM传送数据速度,一般来说,FPM(Fast Page Model)DRAM传送数据速度在60-70ns,而EDO DRAM比FPM快3倍,达20ns。目前最快的是SDRAM(Synchronous DRAM,同步动态存储器),其存取速度高达10ns。

  SDRAM:Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory,同步动态随机存储器,又称同步DRAM,为新一代动态存储器。它可以与CPU总线使用同一个时钟,因此,SDRAM存储器较EDO存储器能使计算机的性能大大提高。

  Cache:英文含义为“(勘探人员等贮藏粮食、器材等的)地窖;藏物处”。电脑中为高速缓冲存储器,是位于CPU和主存储器DRAM(Dynamic Randon Access Memory)之间,规模较小,但速度很高的存储器,通常由SRAM(Static Random Access Memory静态存储器)组成。

  CMOS:是Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor的缩写,含义为互补金属氧化物半导体(指互补金属氧化物半导体存储器)。CMOS是目前绝大多数电脑中都使用的一种用电池供电的存储器(RAM)。它是确定系统的硬件配置,优化微机整体性能,进行系统维护的重要工具。它保存一些有关系统硬件设置等方面的信息,在关机以后,这些信息也继续存在(这一点与RAM完全不同)。开机时,电脑需要用这些信息来启动系统。如果不慎或发生意外而弄乱 了CMOS中保留的信息,电脑系统将不能正常启动。

  PCI:Peripheral Component Interconnection,局部总线( 总线是计算机用于把信息从一个设备传送到另一个设备的高速通道)。PCI总线是目前较为先进的一种总线结构,其功能比其他总线有很大的提高,可支持突发读写操作,最高传输率可达132Mbps,是数据传输最快的总线之一,可同时支持多组外围设备。PCI不受制于CPU处理器,并能兼容现有的各种总线,其主板插槽体积小,因此成本低,利于推广。

  Seagate:美国希捷硬盘生产商。Seagate英文意思为“通往海洋的门户”,常指通海的运河等。

  Quantum:英文含意为“定量,总量”。著名硬盘商标,美国昆腾硬盘生产商(Quantum Corporation)。

  Maxtor:“水晶”,美国Maxtor硬盘公司。

  LD:Laser Disk,镭射光盘,又称激光视盘。

  CD:Compact Disc,压缩光盘,又称激光唱盘。

  CD-ROM:Compact Disc-Read Only Memory,压缩光盘-只读记忆(存储),又叫“只读光盘”。

  VCD:Video Compact Disc,视频压缩光盘,即人们通常所说的“小影碟”。

  DVD:至今有许多人把DVD视为Digital Video Disc(数字视频光盘)的缩写,事实上,从1995年9月,索尼/飞利浦和东芝/时代华纳两大DVD开发集团达成DVD统一标准后,DVD的内涵有了很大的变化,它已成了数字通用光盘,即Digital Versatile Disc的英文缩写。Versatile“通用”的含义表明了DVD用途的多元化,它不仅可用于影视娱乐,还可用于多媒体计算机等领域。目前按其用途可分为5种类型:1?计算机用只读光盘——DVD-ROM;2?家用型影音光盘——DVD-Movie;3?专供音乐欣赏的DVD Audio;4?只写一次的光盘——DVD-R;5?可读写多次的光盘——DVD-RAM。

  Modem:调制解调器,家用电脑上Internet(国际互联网)网的必备工具,在一般英汉字典中是查不到Modem这个词的,它是调制器(MOdulator)与解调器(DEModulator)的缩写形式。Modem是实现计算机通信的一种必不可少的外部设备。因为计算机的数据是数字信号,欲将其通过传输线路(例如电话线)传送到远距离处的另一台计算机或其它终端(如电传打字机等),必须将数字信号转换成适合于传输的模拟信号(调制信号)。在接收端又要将接收到的模拟信号恢复成原来的数字信号,这就需要利用调制解调器。

  UPS:为Uninterruptible Power Supply(不间断电源)的英文缩写。它是伴随着计算机的诞生而出现的,是电脑的重要外围设备之一。UPS是一种含有储能装置,以逆变器为主要组成的恒压恒频的不间断电源,用以保护电脑在突然断电时不会丢失重要的数据。

  TFT:有源矩阵彩色显示器,简称TFT显示器,专用于笔记本电脑。TFT显示器具有刷新速度快、色彩逼真、亮度鲜明等优点。此外,它还具有无闪烁、无辐射、无静电等“绿色电脑”所必需的特点。


网络英语词汇漫谈

  Internet: 为International Net的简写,因特网,又称国际互联网。它最早产生于美国国防部的高级研究规划署,那是1969年的事了,最初的目的也只是远程计算机的数据共享,后来发展成将世界各地的计算机及计算机网络相互连接起来,形成了一个无边无际的超级大网。Internet的主要服务项目有:电子邮件(E-mail),远程登录(Telnet),查询服务(Finger),文件传输(FTP),文档服务器(Archive),新闻论坛(Usenet),电子公告牌(BBS),新闻群组(News Group),全球网(World Wide Web,缩写为WWW,又称万维网)等。

  BBS:Bulletin Board System,公告牌系统或电子公告板,又称Public Access Message System,公共访问信息系统。它是普通公告的电子版本,用户可以通过公告牌发布消息,任何用户都可以读取公告牌上的消息,也可以给某一特定的人或一组用户发送信息。公告牌系统被广泛地用于传播信息,咨询一个电子公告牌往往比使用交互信箱或公共邮政系统发送公告更加快捷、有效。

  E-mail: 电子邮件,这是一种利用Internet网交换文字信息的交互式服务,全世界Internet用户可以互相发送和接收电子邮件。

  WWW: World Wide Web的缩写,全球网,又称万维网。它是一个基于超文本方式的信息检索工具,提供一种友好的信息查询接口,是目前最受欢迎同时也是最先进的Internet检索工具之一。

  Remote Login: 远程登录(注册),它是在网络环境下实现资源共享的一种重要手段,采用这种方式,用户可连接到世界任何一台Internet主机。

  HTTP: Hyper Text Transmission Protocol,超文本传输协议。

  IP:IP国际互联网协议,即网际协议。

  FTP:是 Transfer Protocol的缩写,即文件传输协议,用于在Internet上传输文件。FTP的任务是从一台计算机将文件传送到另一台计算机。人们通过FTP可以获得很多免费的实用软件。

  Gopher: 读音/′g?uf?/,英文意为“地鼠”;(美国南部穴居的)可食用的龟”。它是Internet中基于菜单驱动的信息查询软件,可将用户的请求自动转换成FTP(文件传输协议)或Telnet(用于远程终端连接的标准IP协议)命令,在菜单的引导下,用户可对Internet上远程信息系统进行访问。

  Archive: 读音/′a:kaiv/,“档案;档案馆”之意。Internet中的文档服务器,可定期自动地访问众多的Internet FTP服务器,将这些服务器上的文件索引成一个可以检索的数据库。

  WAIS:是Wide Area Information Service的简写,广域信息服务器。它使得Internet上巨大的数据资源变得易于检索,并且可以获得远程数据库的信息。

  Luisitserv: 这是Internet上流行的用户之间交流信息的方式。

  IRC:Internet Relay Chat,互联网接力聊天。这是一种多用户聊天设施,允许多个用户通过文字实时地与其它人聊天。

  Hypertext: 超文本。本来用做表示所有超链接,也表示包含“链接”的文本。这是一种非线性的信息组织方法,文字、图形和其它数据做为单个元素都能够指向(链接)其它元素。

  Hyperlink: 超链接。一种与其它文件的“链接”,文件中图片、按钮、“热词”或短语都可以做为超链接,当用户选择超链接之后,所连接的信息就会显示出来。

  HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language,超文本标示语言。它是由欧洲粒子实验室一名想象力丰富的研究员Tim Bemers Lee发明的,是“WWW(全球网)世界”的通用语言。“WWW世界”的诸服务器与客户浏览器间,通过它互相沟通;信息资源也是由它描述而“表现”的,HTML可以 描述主页(Home Page)和静态的文本。全世界有几千万人在使用HTML语言,可以毫不夸张地说,没有HTML就没有“WWW世界”。

  Hypermedia: 超媒体。一种以计算机为基础的利用文字、图形、动画、声音和视频传送和显示信息的方法。这些文字等超媒体的组成元素既可以与其它文件连接,又可以做为单个对象处理。

  Navigator: 是美国网景(Netscape)公司出品的Internet浏览器软件之一。Navigator的英文意思是“航海者、海上探险者”,寓意人们可以使用该软件在Internet网络的海洋中航行、探险。Navigator不仅可以浏览万维网(WWW),还具有电子邮件(E-mail)、文件传输(FTP)、远程登录(Telnet)及新闻组(News Group)、信息浏览(Gopher)等多种功能。

  IE:Internet Explorer,Explorer意为“探险者”。


常见的重要电脑英语及其缩写

??PC:Personal Computer,个人计算机、个人电脑,又称微型计算机或微机。

??NC: Network Computer,网络计算机。

  MPC: Multimedia Personal Computer,多媒体个人电脑。

  MMX: 是MultiMedia eXtensions(多媒体扩展)的缩写,是第六代CPU芯片的重要特点。MMX技术是在CPU中加入了特地为视频信号(Video Signal),音频信号(Audio Signal)以及图像处理(Graphical Manipulation)而设计的57条指令,因此,MMX CPU极大地提高了电脑的多媒体(如立体声、视频、三维动画等)处理功能。

  Intel Pentium 166MHz MMXTM: Intel Pentium是英特尔(Intel)公司生产的“奔腾”CPU。?意为“Registered”(注册商标)。166MHz指CPU时钟频率,MHz即Mega Hertz的缩写。MMXTM中的TM是“Trade Mark”的简写,意为“注册商标”。

  OOP: Object Oriented Programming,面向对象的程序设计。所谓“对象”就是一个或一组数据以及处理这些数据的方法和过程的集合。面向对象的程序设计完全不同于传统的面向过程程序设计,它大大地降低了软件开发的难度,使编程就像搭积木一样简单,是当今电脑编程的一股势不可挡的潮流。

  28VGA: 28是指彩色显示器上的黄光网点间距(点距),点距越小的显示器,图像就越细腻、越好,这是因为彩色屏幕上的每个像点都是由一组红、绿、蓝光汇聚而成的,由于在技术上三束光还不能100%地汇聚在一点上,因此会产生一种黄光网点的间隔,这种间隔越小,屏幕上显示的图像越清晰。VGA是Video Graphics Array(视频图形阵列)的缩写。

  FAT:Allocation Table,文件分配表,它的作用是记录硬盘中有关文件如何被分散存储在不同扇区的信息。

  EPA:Environmental Protection Agency的简称,美国环境保护署。EPA于1992年宣布了“能源之星”(Energy Star)计划,并得到了国际社会的积极响应。只要启动电脑,过不了几秒钟就能见到屏幕上出现“能源之星”的标志。能源之星的目标是当电脑系统的各个部件不活动时自动进入低功耗状态,当部件的能动性恢复(即当键盘、鼠标等被使用)时,电脑系统自动回到完全清醒的状态。对于符合能源之星规范的产品,EPA将发给能源之星标志“EPA POLLUTION PREVENTER”,意为“美国环境保护署认可的防污染的节能产品”。

  IC卡:Intelligent Card,智能卡。

  ATX:一种新的电脑机箱、主板、电源的结构规范。

  IDE:集成电路设备或智能磁盘设备。

  DLL:Dynamic Link Library,动态链接库。

  KB:Kilo Byte,KB表示千字节。K=Kilo,构词成分,表示“千;千米;公斤;公里”。B=Byte,意为“字节”,是电脑中最小存贮单位(一个字节可以存贮一个英文字母,每两个字节可以存放一个汉字)。

  MB:Mega Byte,MB表示兆字节。M=Mega,构词成分,表示“兆;百万”。

  GB:Giga Byte,GB表示千兆字节。G=Giga,构词成分,表示千兆;十亿”。

  CAI:Computer-Asisted Instruction或Computer-Aided Instruction,计算机辅助教学。它将是二十一世纪最重要、最受欢迎的教学手段。

  CAD:Computer-Aided Design,计算机辅助设计。

  ISO:International Standard Organization,国际标准化组织。ISO于1987年推出有关质量管理和质量保证的ISO 9000系列国际标准,于1994年又发布了经过修订的标准。其中,构成ISO 9000系列标准的主要标准分别是:1.ISO 9000-1:1994《质量管理和质量保证标准—第一部分:选择和使用指南》。2.ISO 9001:1994《质量体系—设计、开发、生产、安装和服务的质量保证模式》。3.ISO 9002:1994《质量体系—最终检验和试验的质量保证模式》。

  3DS或3D Studio: Three Dimension Studio,三维摄影室。是美国Autodesk公司推出的一套多功能三维动画软件,集实体造型、静态着色和动画创作于一体,极大地普及了三维造型技术。它能够与AutoCAD进行图形信息交换,利用扫描仪输入图形,通过VGA与电视转换接口将动画输出至电视或录像带。

  VR:Virtual Reality,虚拟现实,又称投入3D,由空军模拟飞行装置演变而来,基本上是利用左、右视觉空间交替变换显示图像的原理产生立体效果,实际上已超出图像处理的范畴,是综合光、声、图像的计算机生成环境,人们能够像在实际生活中那样对虚拟环境中的对象进行交互式操作,虚拟现实应用前景极为广阔。

  OCR:Optical Character Recognition(光学字符识别)的缩写,是指将文字材料通过扫描仪输入作为计算机图像文件,通过软件识别为中文或英文内码,然后进行文字处理。由于手写体的随意性太大,目前OCR主要限于印刷文字的识别。目前代表中文OCR识别准确率最高水平的是清华文通公司出品的TH-OCR NT for Windows。

  SCSI:Small Computer System Interface,小型计算机系统接口,它是为解决众多的外部设备与计算机之间的连接问题而出现的。

  OEM:Original Equipment Manufacturer,原始设备制造商。

  Microsoft OEM: 微软OEM产品。它是指预安装在微机上的软件操作系统,包括Windows98、Windows NT、WorkStation、Windows3.X、MS-DOS。

  MIS:Management Information System,管理信息系统。它广泛地应用于各行各业,国内最有名的管理信息系统有“王特MIS”、“雅奇MIS”、“Quick MIS”。

  PNP:Plug and Play,即插即用,它是Window98的一个重要技术特性。所谓即插即用是指将符合PNP标准的PC插卡等外围设备安装到电脑时,操作系统自动设定系统结构的技术。这就是说,当用户安装新的硬件时,不必再设置任何跳线器开关,也不必用软件配置中断请求(IRQ)、内存地址或直接存储器存取(DMA)通道,Windows98会向应用程序通知硬件设备的新变化,并会自动协调IRQ、内存地址和DMA通道之间的冲突。

  OLE:Object Linking and Embedding,对象连接与嵌入,简称OLE技术。OLE不仅是桌面应用程序集成,而且还定义和实现了一种允许应用程序作为软件“对象”(数据集合和操作数据的函数)彼此进行“连接”的机制,这种连接机制和协议称为部件对象模型(Component Object Model),简称COM。OLE可以用来创建复合文档,复合文档包含了创建于不同源应用程序,有着不同类型的数据,因此它可以把文字、声音、图像、表格等组合在一起。

  MIDI:Musical Instrument Digital Interface,乐器数字接口。它是多媒体的基本术语之一,MIDI文件是用电子乐器如:电子琴、吉它、萨克斯等演奏并录制下来的,它能在大多数的多媒体计算机声音卡上播放,即使不去创建自己的MIDI文件,也可以使用现有的MIDI文件,作为多媒体演示的背景音乐。MIDI文件储存的只是对声音的描述,依靠声音卡的合成器(FM或者波形表)来产生人们想听的真实声音。

  MPEG:是Motion Picture Experts Group的缩写,意即“运动图像专家组”,它是多媒体计算机中的一种活动图像及其伴音的压缩编码标准,即人们通常所说的MPEG标准。它包括三部分:MPEG音频、MPEG视频、和MPEG系统。

世界知名软件产品简介

??DOS:Disk Operating System,磁盘操作系统。提到DOS,只要稍有电脑知识的人对它都会有所了解。DOS的主要功能是管理电脑的硬件和软件资源,方便用户对电脑进行操作。使用DOS操作电脑,需要用户记住大量命令及其正确格式,比较难学。Windows(微软视窗操作系统)的出现,标志着DOS时代的结束,图形操作电脑时代的到来。

? Windows:在一般英文字典中查到Windows的意思为“窗户”。Window指微软公司(Microsoft)著名的新一代电脑主流“视窗操作系统”。它通过一些图形图标(Icon)、窗口(Window)和菜单(Menu)等的选择来实现对计算机的控制,极大地方便了用户。Windows视窗操作系统系列产品有Windows 3.1、Windows 3.2、Windows 95(因为该产品是1995年出品,因而取名为Windows 95,也可写成Win95。PWindows 95指中文版本的Windows 95),而功能更强大的最新产品为Windows 98和Windows 2000等。Windows 95是目前最著名、最受欢迎的图形化操作系统之一。

  Windows NT:微软公司的著名网络视窗操作系统。NT是New Technology(新技术)的缩写。

  OS/2 Warp:Operating System(操作系统)。它是IBM推出的一个性能卓越的纯32位操作系统,同时它也能提供完善的DOS支持,在总体技术上比Windows 95更优越,是Windows 95的一个强有力的竞争对手。OS/2 Warp中的Warp,英文含义为“弄弯;歪曲”,在这里指IBM为其新一代操作系统OS/2加入的别名。Warp是美国著名的科幻电影《星球大战》中的科学怪人,把软件比喻为《星球大战》中的科学怪人,既给人以出其不意的感觉,又希望用户把对《星球大战》的美好记忆移到OS/2软件上来。

  UNIX:一种多用户操作系统。

  UCDOS:北京希望电脑公司开发的一套中文磁盘操作集成系统,是目前使用人数最多、使用范围最广的中文平台。

  WPS:Word Processing System,文字处理系统,1989年由香港金山公司(Kingsun)开发的一套编辑、打印等功能为一体的DOS平台汉字处理系统,以其简单易学和实用方便等优势迅速占领市场。在昔日WPS的辉煌时期,国人一提到电脑无不与WPS联系在一起,真可谓“言电脑必提WPS”。WPS一度成为中文文字处理软件的代名词。在近几年的“全国计算机等级一级考试”中,WPS是指定的文字处理考试内容。

  WPS97:Word Processing System,文字处理系统,珠海金山公司(Kingsun)出品,因在1997年上市而命名为WPS97。它是WPS升级换代产品,是一个能运行在UCDOS、Windows 3?X和Windows 95等中文环境下的文字处理软件。它综合了WPS、电子词典、方正校对系统、多内码转换、条形码制作等功能,在保留原有的文字编辑方式的同时,支持所见即所得的文字处理方式,是一套图文并茂、功能强大的超级办公软件。

  Office 97:Office为“办公室”之意。这里指微软公司先进的办公集成软件,1997年出品,因此冠之为Office97。Office 97包括:Word 97(文字处理软件),Excel 97(电子表格处理软件),PowerPoint 97(电子幻灯演示软件),Outllook 97(集日程管理、邮件信息交换等功能于一体的个人事务管理软件)。

  Word 97:Word在英语中意思为“单词”。Word 97指微软高级文字处理软件。其系列产品还有Word 5.0、Word 6.0、Word 7.0等。

  Excel 97:Excel英文意为“胜过、优于”,Excel 97是Microsoft Office 97软件包中的一个电子表格软件。电子表格一开始只作为财务账表的电子版本,也就是利用电脑里的财务账表来替代印刷品的财务账表,并能对表格中一行或一列数据进行简单的算术运算。Microsoft Excel 97是被公认为目前功能最强大、技术最先进、使用最方便的电子表格软件。

  Lotus 1-2-3:Lotus是“莲花”之意。Lotus 1-2-3是美国莲花(Lotus)公司推出的在Windows环境下的集成软件,它把常用的电子数据表、文字处理、数据库、图形软件、文件管理功能组合在一个系统里,且可以互相传递和调用信息。

  Photoshop:由Photo(照片)和Shop(商店;工厂)两个单词组成,由此可知,Photoshop是“处理照片的工厂”。它是美国Adobe公司出品的在苹果机(Macintosh)和基于Windows的计算机上运行的最流行的图像编辑软件,可使人们编辑扫描到磁盘的绘画艺术品和图片等。此外,Photoshop还提供了类似在纸上绘画的工具,借助这些工具可以创造出如同水彩画和油画一样的自然主义风格的图画。

  CorelDraw:是一个功能强大的综合性绘画软件,许多专业电脑美术设计人员使用它制作各类图文并茂的桌面印刷品,如请柬、简报、宣传品、海报、广告等等。用CorelDraw可以画出任何东西:从商业区地图、机械结构装配图等技术图纸,到漫画、怪兽等计算机美术作品,CorelDraw几乎无所不能。它创作出的图形、文字具有线条光滑、轮郭清晰的特点。

  Authorware:由Author(作家;创造者)和Ware(商品;物品;器皿)两个英语单词组成,顾名思义为“作家用来创造商品的工具”。它是美国Macromedia公司开发的一种多媒体系统制作工具,在Windows环境下有专业版(Authorware Professional)与学习版(Authorware Star)。Authorware是一个图标导向式的多媒体制作工具,使非专业人员快速开发多媒体软件成为现实,其强大的功能令人惊叹不已。它无需传统的计算机语言编程,只通过对图标的调用来编辑一些控制程序走向的活动流程图,将文字、图形、声音、动画、视频等各种多媒体项目数据汇在一起,就可达到多媒体软件制作的目的。Authorware这种通过图标的调用来编辑流程图用以替代传统的计算机语言编程的设计思想,是它的主要特点。它的主要功能还在:1?编制的软件具有强大的交互功能,可任意控制程序流程。2?在人机对话中,它提供了按键、按鼠标、限时等多种应答方式。3?它还提供了许多系统变量和函数以根据用户响应的情况,执行特定功能。4?编制的软件除了能在其集成环境下运行外,还可以编译成扩展名为?EXE的文件,在Windows系统下脱离Authorware制作环境运行。

  Oracle:英文含义为“聪明人、贤人、哲人”,电脑英语中指美国Oracle公司开发的大型高性能关系型数据库系统软件,在众多的数据库系统中,如IBM公司的DB2数据库、Sybase公司的Sybase数据库等,唯有Oracle数据库系统,以其卓越稳定的性能,可靠的安全保障,强大的联网能力,丰富快捷的开发工具得到广泛的赞誉。因此,它一直占全球数据库销售额的40%以上,稳居数据库产业龙头地位,在众多的评比中几乎获得所有大奖,被美国最著名的计算机评论杂志《PC MAGAZINE》誉为“数据库行业的巨无霸”。在中国,Oracle数据库也伴随着我国计算机技术的发展,得到广泛应用和推广。

  PCTools:Personal Computer Tools,个人电脑工具。它是美国Central Point Software公司出口的一种电脑维护工具,集文件管理和磁盘管理为一体,精简和增强了常规应用程序,是一组多功能实用工具软件。使用PCTools可以取代DOS的许多命令,比起DOS来,其操作更加容易、直观、简便,是电脑这好者的常用工具软件。

  NU:是Norton Untilities的缩写,Norton是著名的计算机专家诺顿,Utility英文意思为“实用工具”,在这里是指Norton先生为解决DOS系统存在的问题而编写的个人计算机工具软件。用它的复数形式可以看成是个人电脑工具软件集。NU是在PCTools之后功能强大、受人喜爱的电脑维护工具。普通用户可利用NU中最著名的工具NDD(Norton Disk Doctor诺顿磁盘医生),解决大部分磁盘问题;专业人员则可利用操作灵活、功能强大的DiskEdit(磁盘编辑)工具解决专业数据维护问题。

  CSC:Clever Software Corporation,“聪明的软件公司”。这是由北京科利华教育软件公司开发的一套电脑家教软件。

E-mail地址中的符号@是什么意思

  That little "a" with a circle curling around it that is found in email addresses is most commonly referred to as the "at" symbol.
  小写字母a外加个圆圈,这一符号常出现在email(电子邮件)地址中,通常是作为"at"(在)的标记。

  Surprisingly though, there is no official, universal name for this sign. There are dozens of strange terms to describe the @ symbol.
  然而令人感到惊奇的是,这一标记居然没有官方的,通用的名称。有几十个奇怪的术语用来描绘@这一符号。

  Before it became the standard symbol for electronic mail, the @ symbol was used to represent the cost or weight of something. For instance, if you purchased 6 apples, you might write it as 6 apples @ $1.10 each.
  @这一符号在成为电子邮件的标准符号之前,曾被用来表示物品的单价或质量。例如,你买6只苹果。就可以写成"六只苹果,每只@$1.10,表示每只苹果1.10美元。

  With the introduction of e-mail came the popularity of the @ symbol. The @ symbol or the "at sign" separates a person's online user name from his mail server address. For instance, joe@uselessknowledge.com. Its widespread use on the Internet made it necessary to put this symbol on keyboards in other countries that have never seen or used the symbol before. As a result, there is really no official name for this symbol.
  随着电子邮件的使用,@这一符号越来越普及了。符号@或'at'标记将上网用户的姓名与其邮件的服务器地址分开。例如:joe@uselessknowledge.com。 这一符号在因特网上的广泛使用使得许多以前从未见过或使用过它的国家必须在它们的电脑键盘上加上这一符号键,结果造成这一符号并没有真正的官方名称。

  The actual origin of the @ symbol remains an enigma.
  @符号的确切起源仍然是谜。

  History tells us that the @ symbol stemmed from the tired hands of the medieval monks. During the Middle Ages before the invention of printing presses, every letter of a word had to be painstakingly transcribed by hand for each copy of a published book. The monks that performed these long, tedious copying duties looked for ways to reduce the number of individual strokes per word for common words. Although the word "at" is quite short to begin with, it was a common enough word in texts and documents that medieval monks thought it would be quicker and easier to shorten the word "at" even more. As a result, the monks looped the "t" around the "a" and created it into a circle-eliminating two strokes of the pen.
  历史告诉我们,@这一符号起源于中世纪僧侣疲劳的双手。中世纪时印刷机尚未发明,要出版一本书,每一个单词的每一个字母都得用手工辛苦的刻出来。从事这项长时间辛苦誊写刻画的僧侣们就开始寻找减少每一个常用字笔画数的方法。虽然"at"这一单词开始写起来很短,但它在文本和文件中频繁出现。中世纪的僧侣们就想到如果能进一步简化它,就可以写起来更快更容易。结果,僧侣们就在a四周画了一个圈,从而省却了字母"t"的两个笔划。

 

了解到底什么是多媒体

  The answer is neither simple nor easy. Multimedia is the combination of computer and video technology. Multimedia really just two media sound and pictures, or in today's term, audio and video. Multimedia itself has its binary aspects. As with all modern technologies, it is made from a mix of hardware and software, machine and ideas. More importantly, you can conceptually divide technology and function of multimedia into control systems and information. The enabling force behind multimedia is digital technology. Multimedia represents the convergence of digital control and digital media---the PC as the digital control system and the digital media being today's most advanced form of audio and video storage and transmission. In fact, some people see multimedia simply as the marriage of PCs and video. PC power has reached a level close to that needed for procession television and sound data streams in real time, multimedia was born. Multimedia PC needs to be more powerful than mainstream computer---at least the multimedia PC defines the mainstream. Among contemporary PCs, about the only things that separate an ordinary computer from multimedia are a soundboard and a CD- ROM driver. The CD serves as multimedia 's chief storage and exchange medium. Without the convenient CD, the PC industry would lack a means of distributing the hundreds of megabytes of audio, visual, and textual data that make up today's multimedia titles. Without CD, you couldn't buy multimedia because publishers have no way of getting it to you.

  So what is multimedia? By now you should agree that multimedia isn't any one thing but a complex entity that involves the many things: hardware, software, and the interface where they meet. But we've forgotten the most important thing that multimedia involves: you. Yeah, sure. With multimedia, you don' t have to be a passive recipient. You can control. You can interact. You can make it do what you want it to do. It means you can tailor a multimedia presentation to your own needs. You can cut through the chaff and dig directly into the important data in a report, pull together reports and video clips from around the world that interest you. That's the strength of multimedia and what distinguishes it from traditional media like books and television.

  What does multimedia do? It presents information, shares ideas and elicits emotions. It enables you to see, hear, and understand the thoughts of others. In other words, it is a form of communication.

  要回答这个问题不那么容易。多媒体是计算机和视频技术的结合,实际上它是两个媒体;声音和图像,或者用现在的术语:音响和电视。多媒体本身有两个方面,和所有现代技术一样它是由硬件和软件,或机器和思想混合组成。可以将多媒体技术和功能在概念上区分为控制系统和信息。 多媒体之所以能够实现是依靠数字技术。多媒体代表数字控制和数字媒体的汇合,电脑是数字控制系统,而数字媒体是当今音频和视频最先进的存储和传播形式。事实上有人就简单地认为多媒体是电脑和电视的结合。电脑的能力达到实时处理电视和声音数据流的水平,这时多媒体就诞生了。多媒体电脑需要具有比主流电脑更强的能力,多媒体电脑决定了主流电脑的发展。区别普通电脑和多媒体电脑的主要东西是声卡和只读光盘驱动器。光盘是多媒体的主要存储和交换媒体。没有这种方便的光盘,电脑工业就无法销售构成多媒体节目的几百兆字节的音频、可视的和文字的数据,你也无法买到多媒体。

  现在可以回答什么是多媒体。它不只是一件东西,而是包括许多东西的复杂的组合:硬件、软件和这两者相遇时的界面。不,我们还忘了一件最重要的事情.多媒体还包括你。咳,就是!对于多媒体,你不再是一个被动的观众,你可以控制,可以交互作用,可以让它按你的需要去做。在一个报告中,你可以不管那些无用的东西而直接进入重要的数据,可以将感兴趣的全世界的报告和图片收集汇编到一起。这就是多媒体的力量和它与传统媒体(如书本和电视)的区别所在。

  多媒体能做什么?它展示信息、交流思想和抒发情感。它让你看到、听到和理解其他人的思想。也就是说,它是一种通讯的方式。

常见计算机英语词汇解释(1)

  access arm 磁头臂,存取臂
  access time 存取时间
  adder 加法器
  address 地址
  alphanumeric 字母数字的
  analog computer 模拟计算机
  analyst 分析员
  area 区域
  array 数组,阵列
  assembler 汇编程序
  automation 自动化
  band 区
  batch processing 成批处理
  binary code 二进制码
  binary digit 二进制位,二进制数字
  bit 比特,二进制的一位
  branch 分支,支线
  brush 电刷
  buffer storage 缓冲存储器
  calculator 计算器
  call instruction 呼叫指令
  card punch 卡片穿孔机
  card reader 卡片阅读机,读卡机
  cell 单元
  channel 通道,信道
  character 字符
  check digit 校验数位
  circuit 电路,线路
  to clear 清除,清零
  clock 时钟
  code 代码
  to code 编码
  coder 编码员,编码器
  command 指令,命令
  compiler 编译程序
  computer language 计算机语言
  console 控制台
  control unit 控制部件,控制器
  core storage, core store 磁心存储器
  counter 计数器
  cybernetics 控制论
  cycle 循环
  data 数据
  data processing 数据处理
  debugging 调试
  decision 制定
  digit 数字,数位,位
  digital computer 数字计算机
  disc, disk 磁盘
  display unit 显示装置
  drum 磁鼓
  to edit 编辑
  electronics 电子学
  emitter 发射器
  to encode 编码
  to erase 擦除,清洗,抹除
  feed 馈送,供给
  to feed 馈送,供给
  feedback 反馈
  field 字段,信息组,域
  file 文件
  floppy disk 软磁盘
  floppy disk drive 软磁盘机
  flow chart 流程图
  frame 帧
  hardware 硬件
  identifier 标识符
  index 索引
  information 信息
  inline processing 内处理
  input 输入
  inquiry 询问
  instruction 指令
  integrated circuit 集成电路
  to interpret 解释
  item 项目,项
  jump 转移
  key 键,关键码
  keyboard 键盘
  latency time 等待时间  

常见计算机英语词汇解释(2)

  library 库,程序库
  linkage 连接
  to load 装入,寄存,写入,加载
  location 存储单元
  logger 登记器,记录器
  loop 循环
  machine language 机器语言
  magnetic storage 磁存储器
  magnetic tape 磁带
  matrix 矩阵
  memory 存储器
  message 信息,报文
  microcomputer 微型计算机
  module 组件,模块
  monitor 监视器,监督程序,管程
  nanosecond 毫微秒
  network 网络,网
  numeric, numerical 数字的,数值的
  octet 八位位组,八位字节
  operator 操作员
  optical character reader 光符阅读机
  optical scanner 光扫描器
  output 输出
  overflow 溢出,上溢
  panel 平板
  parameter 参数,参量
  perforator 穿孔机
  peripheral equipment 外围设备,外部设备
  personal computer 个人计算机
  printed circuit 印制电路
  printer 打印机
  printout 打印输出
  to process 处理
  processing unit 处理部件
  program 程序
  to program 程序编制
  programmer 程序设计员
  programming 程序设计,程序编制
  pulse 脉冲
  punch 穿孔
  to punch 穿孔
  punched card, punch card 穿孔卡片
  punched tape, punch tape 穿孔纸带
  punch hole 孔,穿孔
  random access 随机存取
  to read 读
  reader 阅读程序
  reading 阅读
  real time 实时
  record, register 记录
  redundancy 冗余
  routine 例行程序
  selector 选择器,选择符
  sentinel 标记
  sequence 序列,顺序
  sequential 顺序的
  serial 串行的.连续的
  shift 移位,移数
  signal 信号
  simulation 模拟
  simulator 模拟器,模拟程序
  software 软件,软设备
  sort 分类,排序
  sorter 分类人员,分类机,分类程序,排序程序
  storage 存储器
  to store 存储
  subroutine, subprogram 子程序
  switch 开关
  symbol 符号
  symbolic language 符号语言
  system 系统
  tabulator 制表机
  teleprinter 电传打字机
  terminal 终端
  terminal unit 终端设备  
  timer 时钟,精密计时器
  time sharing 分时
  timing 定时
  track 磁道
  transducer 传感器,翻译机
  translator 翻译程序,翻译器
  to update 更新
  Winchester disk drive 温彻斯特磁盘机,硬盘机
  working storage 工作存储器
与服务器相关的术语

C2C: card-to-card interleaving,卡到卡交错存取
cc-NUMA:(cache-coherent non uniform memory access,连贯缓冲非统一内存寻址)
CHRP(Common Hardware Reference Platform,共用硬件平台,IBM为PowerPC制定的标准,可以兼容Mac OS,   Windows NT, Solaris, OS/2, Linux和AIX等多种操作系统)
EMP: Emergency Management Port,紧急事件管理端口
ICMB: Inter-Chassis Management Bus, 内部管理总线
MPP(Massive Parallel Processing,巨量平行处理架构)
MUX: Data Path Multiplexor,多重路径数据访问
SOS(Server Operating Systems,服务器操作系统)
TPS:transactions per second,每秒处理事项数
UPA: Ultra Port Architecture,超级端口结构

 

认识常见计算机语言的缩略表达

CSS: Cascading Style Sheets,层叠格式表
DCD: Document Content Description for XML: XML文件内容描述
DTD: Document Type Definition,文件类型定义
HTML(HyperText Markup Language,超文本标记语言)
JVM: Java Virtual Machine, Java虚拟机
OJI: Open Java VM Interface,开放JAVA虚拟机接口
SGML: Standard Generalized Markup Language,标准通用标记语言
SMIL: Synchronous Multimedia Integrate Language(同步多媒体集成语言)
VRML:Virtual Reality Makeup Language,虚拟现实结构化语言
VXML(Voice eXtensible Markup Language,语音扩展标记语言)
XML: Extensible Markup Language(可扩展标记语言)
XSL: Extensible Style Sheet Language(可扩展设计语言)


了解计算机网络的各种术语

ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line,不对称数字订阅线路
AH: Authentication Header,鉴定文件头
AMR(Audio/Modem Riser,音效/数据主机板附加直立插卡)
ARP(Address Resolution Protocol,地址解析协议)
ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode,异步传输模式)
BOD(Bandwidth On Demand,弹性带宽运用)
CBR(Committed Burst Rate,约定突发速率)
CCIRN: Coordinating Committee for Intercontinental Research Networking,洲际研究网络协调委员会
CCM(Call Control Manager,拨号控制管理)
CDSL: Consumer Digital Subscriber Line(消费者数字订阅线路)
CGI(Common Gateway Interface,通用网关接口)
CIEA: Commercial Internet Exchange Association,商业因特网交易协会
CIR(Committed Infomation Rate,约定信息速率)
CTS(Clear to Send,清除发送)
DBS-PC: Direct Broadcast Satellite PC(人造卫星直接广播式PC)
DCE: Data Circuit Terminal Equipment,数据通信设备
DES: Data Encryption Standard,数据加密标准
DMT: Discrete Multi - Tone,不连续多基频模式
DNS(Domain Name System,域名系统)
DOCSIS(Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications,线缆服务接口数据规格)
DTE: Data Terminal Equipment,数据终端设备
EBR(Excess Burst Rate,超额突发速率)
ESP: Encapsulating Security Payload,压缩安全有效载荷
FDM: Frequency Division Multi,频率分离
Flow-control流控制
FRICC: Federal Research Internet Coordinating Committee,联邦调查因特网协调委员会
FTP(File Transfer Protocol,文件传输协议)
Ghost:(General Hardware Oriented System Transfer,全面硬件导向系统转移)
HDSL: High bit rate DSL,高比特率数字订阅线路
HTTP(HyperText Transfer Protocol,超文本传输协议)
ICMP(Internet Control Message Protocol,因特网信息控制协议)
IETF(Internet Engineering Task Framework,因特网工程任务组)
IKE: Internet Key Exchange,因特网密钥交换协议
IMAP4: Internet Message Access Protocol Version 4,第四版因特网信息存取协议
Internet(因特网)
IP(Internet Protocol,网际协议)
ISDN(Integrated Service Digital Network,综合服务数字网络)
ISOC: Internet Society,因特网协会
ISP(Internet Service Provider,因特网服务提供商)
LAN(Local Area Network,局域网)
LDAP: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol,轻权目录访问协议
LOM(LAN-on-Montherboard)
IAB: Internet Activities Board,因特网工作委员会
IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force,因特网工程作业推动
L2TP(Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol,二级通道协议)
LMDS: Local Multipoint Distributed System,局域多点分布式系统
MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension,多用途因特网邮件扩展协议
MNP: Microcom Networking Protocal
MODEM(Modulator Demodulator,调制解调器)
NAT(Network Address Translation,网络地址转换)
NC(Network Computer,网络计算机)
NDS: Novell Directory Service,Novell目录服务
NNTP: Network News Transfer Protocol,网络新闻传输协议
MSN: Microsoft Network,微软网络
OFDM(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,直角频率部分多路复用)
P3P(Privacy Preference Project,个人私隐安全平台)
PDS: Public Directory Support,公众目录支持
PGP: Pretty Good Privacy,优良保密协议
PICS: Platform for Internet Content Selection,因特网内容选择平台
POF: Polymer Optical Fiber,聚合体光纤
POP3: Post Office Protocol Version 3,第三版电子邮局协议
PPTP: Point to Point Tunneling Protocol,点对点通道协议
RADSL: Rate Adaptive DSL,速率自适应数字订阅线路
RARP(Reverse Address Resolution Protocol,反向地址解析协议)
RDF: Resource Description Framework,资源描述框架
RSA(Rivest Shamir Adlemen,一种因特网加密和认证体系)
RTS(Request To Send,需求发送)
SIS: Switched Internetworking Services(交换式网络互联服务)
S/MIME: Secure MIME,安全多用途因特网邮件扩展协议
SNMP(Simple Network Management Protocol,简单网络管理协议)
SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol,简单邮件传输协议)
SKIP: Simple Key Exchange Internet Protocol,因特网简单密钥交换协议
SUA(Single User Account,单用户帐号)
TCP(Transmission Control Protocol,传输控制协议)
UART(Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter,通用异步接收/发送装置)
UDP(User Datagram Protocol,用户数据报协议)
ULS: User Location Service,用户定位服务
VOD: Video On Demand,视频点播
VPN: virtual private network, 虚拟局域网
WWW(World Wide Web,万维网,是因特网的一部分)


与计算机通信有关的基本词汇

计算机通信技术在大多数人眼中似乎很神秘,而且会觉得虽然我们每天都在享受它给我们带来的各种方便和服务,但并不了解其基本的概念。下面有些最基本的有关计算机通信的概念,请注意掌握。

CTI:Computer Telephone Integration,计算机电话综合技术
DBS: Direct Broadcast Satellite,直接卫星广播
DWDM: Dense WaveLength Division Multiplex,波长密集型复用技术
MMDS: Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service,多波段多点分发服务
PCM: Pulse Code Modulation,脉冲编码调制
PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network,公用交换式电话网)
TAPI: Telephony Application Programming Interface,电话应用程序接口
TSAPI: Telephony Services Application Programming Interface,电话服务应用程序接口
WDM: WaveLength Division Multiplex,波分多路复用 


了解世界各大计算机组织

自从上个世纪中叶第一台计算机被发明以来,随着计算机技术的飞速发展及应用领域的迅速扩大,各种计算机组织也不断产生,下面我们做一简单罗列。

CBF: Cable Broadband Forum,电缆宽带论坛
CEMA(Consumer Electronics Manufacturing Association(消费者电子制造业协会)
CPE: Customer Premise Equipment(用户预定设备)
CSA: Canadian Standards Association(加拿大标准协会)
DCA: Defense Communication Agency,国防部通信局
DOJ: Department of Justice(反不正当竞争部门)
DSP: Delivery Service Partner(交付服务合伙人)
DVB:Digital Video Broadcasting,数字视频广播
E3:Electronic Entertainment Expo,电子娱乐展览会
EFF: Electronic Frontier Foundation(电子前线基金会)
EPA(Environmental Protection Agency,美国环境保护局)
FCC: Federal Communications Commission(联邦通信委员会)
FTC: Federal Trade Commission,联邦商业委员会
GDC(Game Developer Conference,游戏发展商会议)
ISSCC(International Solid-State Circuits Conference,国际晶体管电路讨论会)
ICSA: International Computer Security Association(国际计算机安全协会),它的前身为NCSA(National Computer Security Association,国家计算机安全协会)
IEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,电子电路工程师协会)
IFWP: International Forum White Paper,国际白皮书论坛
ISO/MPEG: International Standard Organization's Moving Picture Expert Group(国际标准化组织的活动图片专家组)
ITAA: Information Technology Association of American,美国信息技术协会
MAC(Mobile Advisory Council)
MCSP: Microsoft Certified Solution Providers,微软认证解决方案供应商
MJPEG(Motion Joint Photographic Experts Group,移动式连续图像专家组)
MMA: MIDI Manufacturer Association(MIDI制造商联盟)
NCTA: National Cable Television Association,美国电缆电视协会
NIA: Networking Interoperatility Alliance(网络互操作联盟)
NBITD(National Board for Industrual and Technical Development,瑞典国立工业和技术发展委员会制订)
OAAF:Open Arcade Architecture Forum,开放式Arcade体系论坛
OEM(Original Equipment Manufacturer,原始设备制造商)
OIF: Optical Internetworking Forum,光纤互连网络论坛
RIAA(Recording Industry Association of America,美国唱片工业协会)
RIO: Redistributed Internet Object(因特网分配组织)
SIA(The Semiconductor Industries Association,半导体工业协会)
SPA: Software Publishers Association,软件出版商协会
TSOWU(The Swedish office worker's union,瑞典办公人员联合会,以制订TCO标准著称)
UAWG: Universal ADSL Working Group(通用ADSL工作组)
UCAID:University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development
UL: Underwriters Laboratories Inc.(新产品承诺实验室)
VAR: Value Added Resellers(增值分销商)
W3C(World Wide Web Consortium,万维网协会)
WHQL(Microsoft Windows Hardware Quality Lab,微软公司视窗硬件质量实验室)
WinHEC: Windows Hardware Engineering Conference,视窗硬件工程会议


各大计算机产商一览

以下是几个世界上比较有名的计算机产商的名字,大家不妨看一看。

Ali: Acer Lab(宏棋实验室)
ASF: Applied Science Fiction
AMD: Advanced Micro Device(超微半导体)
AMI: American Megatrends Incorporated
EAR(Extreme Audio Reality)
HP: Hewlett-Packard,美国惠普公司
IBM: International Business Machine,国际商业机器
IDG(International Data Group,国际数据集团)
IMS: International Meta System
MLE:Microsoft Learning and Entertainment,微软教学与娱乐公司
MS(Microsoft,微软)
NAI: Network Associates Incorporation,前身为McAfee。
NS(National Semiconductor,国家半导体)
PMI: Pacific Magtron International
SCE(sony computer entertainment,索尼计算机娱乐部)
SGI:Silicon Graphics
SiS: Silicon Integrated Systems,硅片综合系统公司
UMC(United Microelectronics Corporation,台湾联华电子公司,半导体制造商)
WD(Western Digital,西部数据)
ZD(Ziff-Davis出版公司)


了解计算机软驱

以下是有关计算机软驱的词汇,如果你对软驱还不甚了解,请参考下面的词语。

AAT(Average access time,平均存取时间)
ABS(Auto Balance System,自动平衡系统)
ASMO(Advanced Storage Magneto-Optical,增强形光学存储器)
AST(Average Seek time,平均寻道时间)
ATA(AT Attachment,AT扩展型)
ATOMM(Advanced super Thin-layer and high-Output Metal Media,增强形超薄高速金属媒体)
bps(bit per second,位/秒)
CAM(Common Access Model,公共存取模型)
CSS(Common Command Set,通用指令集)
DMA(Direct Memory Access,直接内存存取)
DVD(Digital Video Disk,数字视频光盘)
EIDE(enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics,增强形电子集成驱动器)
FAT(File Allocation Tables,文件分配表)
FDBM(Fluid dynamic bearing motors,液态轴承马达)
FDC(Floppy Disk Controller,软盘驱动器控制装置)
FDD(Floppy Disk Driver,软盘驱动器)
GMR(giant magnetoresistive,巨型磁阻)
HDA(head disk assembly,磁头集合)
HiFD(high-capacity floppy disk,高容量软盘)
IDE(Integrated Drive Electronics,电子集成驱动器)
LBA(Logical Block Addressing,逻辑块寻址)
MBR(Master Boot Record,主引导记录)
MTBF(Mean Time Before Failure,平均故障时间)
PIO(Programmed Input Output,可编程输入输出模式)
PRML(Partial Response Maximum Likelihood,最大可能部分反应,用于提高磁盘读写传输率)
RPM(Rotation Per Minute,转/分)
RSD: Removable Storage Device(移动式存储设备)
SCSI(Small Computer System Interface,小型计算机系统接口)
SCMA:SCSI Configured Auto Magically,SCSI自动配置
S.M.A.R.T.(Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology,自动监测、分析和报告技术)
SPS(Shock Protection System,抗震保护系统)
STA(SCSI Trade Association,SCSI同业公会)
Ultra DMA(Ultra Direct Memory Access,超高速直接内存存取)
LVD(Low Voltage Differential)
Seagate硬盘技术
DiscWizard(磁盘控制软件)
DST(Drive Self Test,磁盘自检程序)
SeaShield(防静电防撞击外壳) 
与光驱相关的词汇

ATAPI(AT Attachment Packet Interface)
BCF(Boot Catalog File,启动目录文件)
BIF(Boot Image File,启动映像文件)
CDR(CD Recordable,可记录光盘)
CD-ROM/XA(CD-ROM eXtended Architecture,唯读光盘增强形架构)
CDRW(CD-Rewritable,可重复刻录光盘)
CLV(Constant Linear Velocity,恒定线速度)
DAE(digital Audio Extraction,数据音频抓取)
DDSS(Double Dynamic Suspension System,双悬浮动态减震系统)
DDSS II(Double Dynamic Suspension System II,第二代双层动力悬吊系统)
PCAV(Part Constant Angular Velocity,部分恒定角速度)
VCD(Video CD,视频CD) 

内存,其实并不神秘

如果你是一位装机爱好者,肯定会花大力气来选择一条性能稳定,价格合理的内存。但也许你所了解到的有关内存的信息,只是一些很表面的东西。如果你能熟悉下面的词语,相信内存对你就不再神秘了。

ABP: Address Bit Permuting,地址位序列改变
ATC(Access Time from Clock,时钟存取时间)
BSRAM(Burst pipelined synchronous static RAM,突发式管道同步静态存储器)
CAS(Column Address Strobe,列地址控制器)
CCT(Clock Cycle Time,时钟周期)
DB: Deep Buffer(深度缓冲)
DDR SDRAM(Double Date Rate,双数据率SDRAM)
DIL(dual-in-line)
DIMM(Dual In-line Memory Modules,双重内嵌式内存模块)
DRAM(Dynamic Random Access Memory,动态随机存储器)
DRDRAM(Direct RAMbus DRAM,直接RAMbus内存)
ECC(Error Checking and Correction,错误检查修正)
EEPROM(Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM,电擦写可编程只读存储器)
FM: Flash Memory(快闪存储器)
FMD ROM (Fluorescent Material Read Only Memory,荧光质只读存储器)
PIROM:Processor Information ROM,处理器信息ROM
PLEDM: Phase-state Low Electron(hole)-number Drive Memory
QBM(Quad Band Memory,四倍边带内存)
RAC(Rambus Asic Cell,Rambus集成电路单元)
RAS(Row Address Strobe,行地址控制器)
RDRAM(Rambus Direct RAM,直接型RambusRAM)
RIMM(RAMBUS In-line Memory Modules,RAMBUS内嵌式内存模块)
SDR SDRAM(Single Date Rate,单数据率SDRAM)
SGRAM(synchronous graphics RAM,同步图形随机储存器)
SO-DIMM(Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules,小型双重内嵌式内存模块)
SPD(Serial Presence Detect,串行存在检查)
SRAM(Static Random Access Memory,静态随机存储器)
SSTL-2(Stub Series Terminated Logic-2)
TSOPs(thin small outline packages,超小型封装)
USWV(Uncacheable, Speculative, Write-Combining非缓冲随机混合写入)
VCMA(Virtual Channel Memory architecture,虚拟通道内存结构)

 
声卡术语剖析

上次我们向PC Game玩家简单介绍了有关显卡的专业词汇,今天我们来看看与计算机声卡相关的术语,专业的电脑音乐爱好者要留意看哦。

3DPA(3D Positional Audio,3D定位音频)
AC(Audio Codec,音频多媒体数字信号编解码器)
Auxiliary Input(辅助输入接口)
CS(Channel Separation,声道分离)
DS3D(DirectSound 3D Streams)
DSD(Direct Stream Digital,直接数字信号流)
DSL(Down Loadable Sample,可下载的取样音色)
DLS-2(Downloadable Sounds Level 2,第二代可下载音色)
EAX(Environmental Audio Extensions,环境音效扩展技术)
Extended Stereo(扩展式立体声)
FM(Frequency Modulation,频率调制)
FIR(finite impulse response,有限推进响应)
FR(Frequence Response,频率响应)
FSE(Frequency Shifter Effect,频率转换效果)
HRTF(Head Related Transfer Function,头部关联传输功能)
IID(Interaural Intensity Difference,两侧声音强度差别)
IIR(infinite impulse response,无限推进响应)
Interactive Around-Sound(交互式环绕声)
Interactive 3D Audio(交互式3D音效)
ITD(Interaural Time Difference,两侧声音时间延迟差别)
MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface(乐器数字接口)
NDA: non-DWORD-aligned ,非DWORD排列
Raw PCM: Raw Pulse Code Modulated(元脉码调制)
RMA: RealMedia Architecture(实媒体架构)
RTSP: Real Time Streaming Protocol(实时流协议)
SACD(Super Audio CD,超级音乐CD)
SNR(Signal to Noise Ratio,信噪比)
S/PDIF(Sony/Phillips Digital Interface,索尼/飞利普数字接口)
SRS: Sound Retrieval System(声音修复系统)
Surround Sound(环绕立体声)
Super Intelligent Sound ASIC(超级智能音频集成电路)
THD+N(Total Harmonic Distortion plus Noise,总谐波失真加噪音)
QEM(Qsound Environmental Modeling,Qsound环境建模扬声器组)
WG(Wave Guide,波导合成)
WT(Wave Table,波表合成)

电脑显示器词汇大全

说到个人电脑,人们很自然地想起它是由一台显示器,一台主机,以及一些基本的外设组成的。那么,你对显示器的了解又有多少呢?了解下面的有关词汇将会对你了解显示器有很大的帮助。

ASIC: Application Specific Integrated Circuit(特殊应用积体电路)
ASC(Auto-Sizing and Centering,自动调效屏幕尺寸和中心位置)
ASC(Anti Static Coatings,防静电涂层)
AGAS(Anti Glare Anti Static Coatings,防强光、防静电涂层)
BLA: Bearn Landing Area(电子束落区)
BMC(Black Matrix Screen,超黑矩阵屏幕)
CRC: Cyclical Redundancy Check(循环冗余检查)
CRT(Cathode Ray Tube,阴极射线管)
DDC:Display Data Channel,显示数据通道
DEC(Direct Etching Coatings,表面蚀刻涂层)
DFL(Dynamic Focus Lens,动态聚焦)
DFS(Digital Flex Scan,数字伸缩扫描)
DIC: Digital Image Control(数字图像控制)
Digital Multiscan II(数字式智能多频追踪)
DLP(digital Light Processing,数字光处理)
DOSD: Digital On Screen Display(同屏数字化显示)
DPMS(Display Power Management Signalling,显示能源管理信号)
Dot Pitch(点距)
DQL(Dynamic Quadrapole Lens,动态四极镜)
DSP(Digital Signal Processing,数字信号处理)
EFEAL(Extended Field Elliptical Aperture Lens,可扩展扫描椭圆孔镜头)
FRC: Frame Rate Control(帧比率控制)
HVD(High Voltage Differential,高分差动)
LCD(liquid crystal display,液晶显示屏)
LCOS: Liquid Crystal On Silicon(硅上液晶)
LED(light emitting diode,光学二级管)
L-SAGIC(Low Power-Small Aperture G1 wiht Impregnated Cathode,低电压光圈阴极管)
LVD(Low Voltage Differential,低分差动)
LVDS: Low Voltage Differential Signal(低电压差动信号)
MALS(Multi Astigmatism Lens System,多重散光聚焦系统)
MDA(Monochrome Adapter,单色设备)
MS: Magnetic Sensors(磁场感应器)
Porous Tungsten(活性钨)
RSDS: Reduced Swing Differential Signal(小幅度摆动差动信号)
SC(Screen Coatings,屏幕涂层)
Single Ended(单终结)
Shadow Mask(阴罩式)
TDT(Timeing Detection Table,数据测定表)
TICRG: Tungsten Impregnated Cathode Ray Gun(钨传输阴级射线枪)
TFT(thin film transistor,薄膜晶体管)
UCC(Ultra Clear Coatings,超清晰涂层)
VAGP: Variable Aperature Grille Pitch(可变间距光栅)
VBI: Vertical Blanking Interval(垂直空白间隙)
VDT(Video Display Terminals,视频显示终端)
VRR: Vertical Refresh Rate(垂直扫描频率)

 

声卡术语剖析

上次我们向PC Game玩家简单介绍了有关显卡的专业词汇,今天我们来看看与计算机声卡相关的术语,专业的电脑音乐爱好者要留意看哦。

3DPA(3D Positional Audio,3D定位音频)
AC(Audio Codec,音频多媒体数字信号编解码器)
Auxiliary Input(辅助输入接口)
CS(Channel Separation,声道分离)
DS3D(DirectSound 3D Streams)
DSD(Direct Stream Digital,直接数字信号流)
DSL(Down Loadable Sample,可下载的取样音色)
DLS-2(Downloadable Sounds Level 2,第二代可下载音色)
EAX(Environmental Audio Extensions,环境音效扩展技术)
Extended Stereo(扩展式立体声)
FM(Frequency Modulation,频率调制)
FIR(finite impulse response,有限推进响应)
FR(Frequence Response,频率响应)
FSE(Frequency Shifter Effect,频率转换效果)
HRTF(Head Related Transfer Function,头部关联传输功能)
IID(Interaural Intensity Difference,两侧声音强度差别)
IIR(infinite impulse response,无限推进响应)
Interactive Around-Sound(交互式环绕声)
Interactive 3D Audio(交互式3D音效)
ITD(Interaural Time Difference,两侧声音时间延迟差别)
MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface(乐器数字接口)
NDA: non-DWORD-aligned ,非DWORD排列
Raw PCM: Raw Pulse Code Modulated(元脉码调制)
RMA: RealMedia Architecture(实媒体架构)
RTSP: Real Time Streaming Protocol(实时流协议)
SACD(Super Audio CD,超级音乐CD)
SNR(Signal to Noise Ratio,信噪比)
S/PDIF(Sony/Phillips Digital Interface,索尼/飞利普数字接口)
SRS: Sound Retrieval System(声音修复系统)
Surround Sound(环绕立体声)
Super Intelligent Sound ASIC(超级智能音频集成电路)
THD+N(Total Harmonic Distortion plus Noise,总谐波失真加噪音)
QEM(Qsound Environmental Modeling,Qsound环境建模扬声器组)
WG(Wave Guide,波导合成)
WT(Wave Table,波表合成)
 

与CPU相关的电脑词汇

3DNow!(3D no waiting)
ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit,算术逻辑单元)
AGU(Address Generation Units,地址产成单元)
BGA(Ball Grid Array,球状矩阵排列)
BHT(branch prediction table,分支预测表)
BPU(Branch Processing Unit,分支处理单元)
Brach Pediction(分支预测)
CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor,互补金属氧化物半导体
CISC(Complex Instruction Set Computing,复杂指令集计算机)
CLK(Clock Cycle,时钟周期)
COB(Cache on board,板上集成缓存)
COD(Cache on Die,芯片内集成缓存)
CPGA(Ceramic Pin Grid Array,陶瓷针型栅格阵列)
CPU(Center Processing Unit,中央处理器)
Data Forwarding(数据前送)
Decode(指令解码)
DIB(Dual Independent Bus,双独立总线)
EC(Embedded Controller,嵌入式控制器)
Embedded Chips(嵌入式)
EPIC(explicitly parallel instruction code,并行指令代码)
FADD(Floationg Point Addition,浮点加)
FCPGA(Flip Chip Pin Grid Array,反转芯片针脚栅格阵列)
FDIV(Floationg Point Divide,浮点除)
FEMMS:Fast Entry/Exit Multimedia State,快速进入/退出多媒体状态
FFT(fast Fourier transform,快速热欧姆转换)
FID(FID:Frequency identify,频率鉴别号码)
FIFO(First Input First Output,先入先出队列)
flip-chip(芯片反转)
FLOP(Floating Point Operations Per Second,浮点操作/秒)
FMUL(Floationg Point Multiplication,浮点乘)
FPU(Float Point Unit,浮点运算单元)
FSUB(Floationg Point Subtraction,浮点减)
GVPP(Generic Visual Perception Processor,常规视觉处理器)
HL-PBGA: 表面黏著,高耐热、轻薄型塑胶球状矩阵封装
IA(Intel Architecture,英特尔架构)
ICU(Instruction Control Unit,指令控制单元)
ID:identify,鉴别号码
IDF(Intel Developer Forum,英特尔开发者论坛)
IEU(Integer Execution Units,整数执行单元)
IMM: Intel Mobile Module, 英特尔移动模块
Instructions Cache,指令缓存
Instruction Coloring(指令分类)
IPC(Instructions Per Clock Cycle,指令/时钟周期)
ISA(instruction set architecture,指令集架构)
KNI(Katmai New Instructions,Katmai新指令集,即SSE)
Latency(潜伏期)
LDT(Lightning Data Transport,闪电数据传输总线)
Local Interconnect(局域互连)
MESI(Modified, Exclusive, Shared, Invalid:修改、排除、共享、废弃)
MMX(MultiMedia Extensions,多媒体扩展指令集)
MMU(Multimedia Unit,多媒体单元)
MFLOPS(Million Floationg Point/Second,每秒百万个浮点操作)
MHz(Million Hertz,兆赫兹)
MP(Multi-Processing,多重处理器架构)
MPS(MultiProcessor Specification,多重处理器规范)
MSRs(Model-Specific Registers,特别模块寄存器)
NAOC(no-account OverClock,无效超频)
NI:Non-Intel,非英特尔
OLGA(Organic Land Grid Array,基板栅格阵列)
OoO(Out of Order,乱序执行)
PGA: Pin-Grid Array(引脚网格阵列),耗电大
Post-RISC
PR(Performance Rate,性能比率)
PSN(Processor Serial numbers,处理器序列号)
PIB(Processor In a Box,盒装处理器)
PPGA(Plastic Pin Grid Array,塑胶针状矩阵封装)
PQFP(Plastic Quad Flat Package,塑料方块平面封装)
RAW(Read after Write,写后读)
Register Contention(抢占寄存器)
Register Pressure(寄存器不足)
Register Renaming(寄存器重命名)
Remark(芯片频率重标识)
Resource contention(资源冲突)
Retirement(指令引退)
RISC(Reduced Instruction Set Computing,精简指令集计算机)
SEC: Single Edge Connector,单边连接器
Shallow-trench isolation(浅槽隔离)
SIMD(Single Instruction Multiple Data,单指令多数据流)
SiO2F(Fluorided Silicon Oxide,二氧氟化硅)
SMI(System Management Interrupt,系统管理中断)
SMM(System Management Mode,系统管理模式)
SMP(Symmetric Multi-Processing,对称式多重处理架构)
SOI: Silicon-on-insulator,绝缘体硅片
SONC(System on a chip,系统集成芯片)
SPEC(System Performance Evaluation Corporation,系统性能评估测试)
SQRT(Square Root Calculations,平方根计算)
SSE(Streaming SIMD Extensions,单一指令多数据流扩展)
Superscalar(超标量体系结构)
TCP: Tape Carrier Package(薄膜封装),发热小
Throughput(吞吐量)
TLB(Translate Look side Buffers,翻译旁视缓冲器)
USWC(Uncacheabled Speculative Write Combination,无缓冲随机联合写操作)
VALU(Vector Arithmetic Logic Unit,向量算术逻辑单元)
VLIW(Very Long Instruction Word,超长指令字)
VPU(Vector Permutate Unit,向量排列单元)
VPU(vector processing units,向量处理单元,即处理MMX、SSE等SIMD指令的地方)


你了解电脑主板吗?

当你在轻松自如地使用电脑的时候,你是否了解你的主板呢?别急,学习了以下的词汇后,你就会对电脑的主板有一个初步的认识。

ADIMM(advanced Dual In-line Memory Modules,高级双重内嵌式内存模块)
AMR(Audio/Modem Riser;音效/调制解调器主机板附加直立插卡)
AHA(Accelerated Hub Architecture,加速中心架构)
ASK IR(Amplitude Shift Keyed Infra-Red,长波形可移动输入红外线)
ATX: AT Extend(扩展型AT)
BIOS(Basic Input/Output System,基本输入/输出系统)
CSE(Configuration Space Enable,可分配空间)
DB: Device Bay,设备插架
DMI(Desktop Management Interface,桌面管理接口)
EB(Expansion Bus,扩展总线)
EISA(Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture,增强形工业标准架构)
EMI(Electromagnetic Interference,电磁干扰)
ESCD(Extended System Configuration Data,可扩展系统配置数据)
FBC(Frame Buffer Cache,帧缓冲缓存)
FireWire(火线,即IEEE1394标准)
FSB: Front Side Bus,前置总线,即外部总线
FWH( Firmware Hub,固件中心)
GMCH(Graphics & Memory Controller Hub,图形和内存控制中心)
GPIs(General Purpose Inputs,普通操作输入)
ICH(Input/Output Controller Hub,输入/输出控制中心)
IR(infrared ray,红外线)
IrDA(infrared ray,红外线通信接口可进行局域网存取和文件共享)
ISA: Industry Standard Architecture,工业标准架构
ISA(instruction set architecture,工业设置架构)
MDC(Mobile Daughter Card,移动式子卡)
MRH-R(Memory Repeater Hub,内存数据处理中心)
MRH-S(SDRAM Repeater Hub,SDRAM数据处理中心)
MTH(Memory Transfer Hub,内存转换中心)
NGIO(Next Generation Input/Output,新一代输入/输出标准)
P64H(64-bit PCI Controller Hub,64位PCI控制中心)
PCB(printed circuit board,印刷电路板)
PCBA(Printed Circuit Board Assembly,印刷电路板装配)
PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect,互连外围设备
PCI SIG(Peripheral Component Interconnect Special Interest Group,互连外围设备专业组)
POST(Power On Self Test,加电自测试)
RNG(Random number Generator,随机数字发生器)
RTC: Real Time Clock(实时时钟)
KBC(KeyBroad Control,键盘控制器)
SAP(Sideband Address Port,边带寻址端口)
SBA(Side Band Addressing,边带寻址)
SMA: Share Memory Architecture,共享内存结构
STD(Suspend To Disk,磁盘唤醒)
STR(Suspend To RAM,内存唤醒)
SVR: Switching Voltage Regulator(交换式电压调节)
USB(Universal Serial Bus,通用串行总线)
USDM(Unified System Diagnostic Manager,统一系统监测管理器)
VID(Voltage Identification Definition,电压识别认证)
VRM (Voltage Regulator Module,电压调整模块)
ZIF: Zero Insertion Force, 零插力
主板技术
Gigabyte
ACOPS: Automatic CPU OverHeat Prevention System(CPU过热预防系统)
SIV: System Information Viewer(系统信息观察)
磐英
ESDJ(Easy Setting Dual Jumper,简化CPU双重跳线法)
浩鑫
UPT(USB、PANEL、LINK、TV-OUT四重接口)
芯片组
ACPI(Advanced Configuration and Power Interface,先进设置和电源管理)
AGP(Accelerated Graphics Port,图形加速接口)
I/O(Input/Output,输入/输出)
MIOC: Memory and I/O Bridge Controller,内存和I/O桥控制器
NBC: North Bridge Chip(北桥芯片)
PIIX: PCI ISA/IDE Accelerator(加速器)
PSE36: Page Size Extension 36-bit,36位页面尺寸扩展模式
PXB: PCI Expander Bridge,PCI增强桥
RCG: RAS/CAS Generator,RAS/CAS发生器
SBC: South Bridge Chip(南桥芯片)
SMB: System Management Bus(全系统管理总线)
SPD(Serial Presence Detect,内存内部序号检测装置)
SSB: Super South Bridge,超级南桥芯片
TDP: Triton Data Path(数据路径)
TSC: Triton System Controller(系统控制器)
QPA: Quad Port Acceleration(四接口加速) 

发展ISDN的目的

Summary:

·PSTN is enable to support data &picture services.

·More different networks are needed to be built due to more different services would be provided by Telecommunication Bureau.

·Subscriber is not convient to apply and use.

·So, a communication network which can support voice、 data and picture etc at same time are required ,ISDN network is just that one.

ISDN Developments in China:

· China began to do scientific research on ISDN in the early years eighties.

· Before 1995,ISDN was developed slowly in China, it was mainly in a trial run period.

· In 1996 MPT issued a plan to make a test on ISDN around 22 cities of the whole country.

· Shanghai opened local ISDN in 1996,the target of 10,000 lines would be reached this year.

·Beijing officially opened local ISDN on Oct,14,1997.

·Nanjing、 Shenyang、Sichuan、Heilongjiang、 Hunan、Shandong etc、the main provinces and cities of the whole country are going to open ISDN services to society this year.

·Shenyang is going to open ISDN service to society on Aug 1,1997,detail destinations are 2386、2383、 2484、 2389, the other districts will be opened on Sep,30.

·On Nov,1997,MPT convened ISDN general mobilization to total P&T in Beijing .

·MPT drawn up the main target of next three years to increase ISDN with intelligent network.

·Defined ATM as the central network of 169 project,ISDN as it’s general frame structure of access network.

·Defined the target of infiltration rate of ISDN line in the range of whole country this year 1% for local telephone lines.

有关ISDN的基本概念

ISDN is constructed to an integrated service digital network on the present foundation of local telephone networks:

ISDN is able to provide subscriber with voice、data、 picture、fax and each type integrated services.Morever, it could realize?"one unit connects more,three
units occupies one line" one pair of telephone lines can connect to more different type terminals (max 8),each terminals can be communicated simultaneously (max 3),terminal types include:ISDN router,terminal adapter,,ISDN video telephone, digital telephone,G4 fax;other special terminal equipments are with ISDN interfaces.

Basic Rate: Total is 2B+128Kbps wideband ,RJ45 interface.

Primary Rate:30B+D channel, 2Mbps Wideband,RJ45 or BNC interface.

B channel: Basic channel,64Kbps;D channel: control channel,16Kbps.

Where Did XML Come From?

XML is a simplified version of SGML and a cousin of HTML. It was developed by members of the W3C and released as a recommendation by the W3C in February 1998.

SGML, the parent of XML, is an international standard that has been in use as a markup language primarily for technical documentation and government applications since the early 1980s. It was developed to standardize the production process for large document sets. Think: Medical records. Company databases. Aircraft parts catalogs. Other really huge documents.

Marking-up documents in SGML allows information to be passed from one system to the next without losing information. With databases marked-up in SGML you can see what Widget A is all about and go check to see if Widget A is in stock.

Early on, people thought that SGML would be useful for the Web. In fact, HTML is really an very basic application of SGML! But HTML quickly became used for visual layout, so a group of people returned to the basics, determined to create something that had the strengths of SGML without being so difficult to implement -- and had the ease of use of HTML, but with more structural power. The result was XML.

The design goals of XML, taken from the XML Specification are:

XML shall be straightforwardly usable over the Internet.
XML shall support a wide variety of applications.
XML shall be compatible with SGML.
It shall be easy to write programs which process XML documents.
The number of optional features in XML is to be kept to the absolute minimum,    ideally zero.
XML documents should be human-legible and reasonably clear.
The XML design should be prepared quickly.
The design of XML shall be formal and concise.
XML documents shall be easy to create.
Terseness in XML markup is of minimal importance.

In other words, XML is easy to create, easy to read, and designed for use over the Internet. What more could a Web designer ask for?

 

What is XML?

XML is a way of adding intelligence to your documents. It lets you identify each element using meaningful tags and it lets you add information ("metatdata") about each element.

XML is very much a part of the future of Web, and part of the future for all electronic information.

XML is a syntax for marking up data and it works with many other technologies to display and process information. It looks and feels very much like HTML.

XML isn't going to replace everything else you've already learned; it complements it and extends it.

XML isn't going to change the way your Web pages look. You'll still need to use CSS--Cascading Style Sheets-- (with XML) to define font colors or JavaScript (again, with XML) to make your images fly around. Yet XML will change the way you and others read documents and it will change the way documents are filed and stored. It's a new technology and you certainly don't need to use it in order to build a great Web site -- but you will want to be aware of it as you look at the Web of the future.


Client/Server Concepts

A client computer initiates a service request. A server computer waits to reply, kind of like a person who waits to answer the phone so you can make airline reservations.

A client program can be directed by a human being (at a screen, keyboard, and mouse), or it can run automatically.

A server is a program that knows a protocol for communication (see below), but often doesn't know much about networking -- it just exchanges bytes of information with the client, a back-and-forth conversation that might be human-readable ASCII, or binary code; kind of like when you call someone to make a reservation, and they don't know how the phone system works, just how to use the telephone to talk with you.

It's entirely possible for the client and server programs to be on the same computer, as well as on two different computers connected by a network. The client/server model blurs the boundaries between computers, to where "the network IS the computer."

Once a virtual connection is established between a client and server, the two systems are peers, but the client/server asymmetry usually continues through the protocol; just like when you're done dialing someone, it doesn't matter much who placed the call, you can talk to each other as equals, though quite often the caller and the callee have very different roles. (With phone calls the caller usually pays for any long distance charges, but there's usually no equivalent in network connections.)
Plan your trip online

While traveling through cyberspace can be exciting, it's no substitute for an adventure in the real world. That's where the Web can really help you research destinations, organize your itinerary, and book reservations. Whether it's a weekend getaway or a safari, look to the Internet to save you time (no more trekking to bookstores for guidebooks and maps) and money (discounts abound on airfares and hotels). How do you start? Here's our step-by-step approach:

1.Research a Destination

Where would you like to go? One option is to use a search engine to find information about choice destinations. If you choose to go this route, use a directory like Yahoo! Why? Because it lists websites in categories, so you can easily find listings of Mexican resorts, for example.

Another approach is perusing the websites of travel publications. Begin your journey at:

Fodors
Lonely Planet
Concierge

For detailed information about foreign locales, you can't beat the CIA World Factbook.
For worldwide travel advisories, visit the U.S. State Department website.


2.Plan Your Itinerary

Once you know where you want to go, it's time to get specific. What are the sights to see? What events will be happening? Where are the best places to eat? Answers to these questions await you online.

Let's say you will be spending a week in British Columbia and want to sample the local cuisine. Some of the websites listed above may have articles about Vancouver and Victoria restaurants. But most newspapers have dining sections, so go to the website of the local paper (try NewsDirectory.com to locate them), and search its archive.

Another strategy is to Ask Jeeves, the friendly search engine, where to find restaurant listings. He will reply with some tasty recommendations.

As you plan your trip, hopping from link to link, you are bound to stumble on all kinds of gems. Bookmark the pages so you can easily return to them.

3.Get a Map

Whether you need a street map, country map or even driving instructions, you can probably find it somewhere--for free. The CIA World Factbook is a good source for maps of countries and regions. For city guides, try:

MapQuest
MapBlast

5.Money

What's the local currency? How much is the dollar or pound worth in France? To convert currency and find out local exchange rates, visit Oanda.

4.Making Reservations

Most major airlines and hotel chains have their own websites, so if you have a favorite, start there to check for availability, prices, and to make reservations.

A number of websites do it all: planes tickets, vacation packages, cruises, accommodations, car rental--the works. Before you can make reservations, however, you need to to open an account with the site. Among the giants of Internet travel are:

Expedia Travel
Travelocity
Trip.com

6.Saving Money

Register with many airline websites to receive e-mail alerts when bargain fares to destinations you specify become available. Some airlines now offer discounted Internet-only fares, as do many hotels. It's worth hunting for these special deals.

7.Learn Some Lingo

It never hurts to know at least a few words of the local language. For some pointers, visit Travelang, Foreign Languages for Travelers. If you want to take a free online language course, try Parlo.

 


Top Ten Tips

In the future you will be able to instantly access websites. You will have a cyber-assistant to scour the Net, delivering data right to your digital doorstep. At least that's the promise. But most of us are still a long way from that reality. Yet there are ways to minimize the frustration of going online. After all, life is much too short to spend precious time waiting for web pages to download, or hunting for information on dozens of sites. In the interest of making Web surfing a more satisfying experience, we offer ten tips:

View sites in text-only mode by turning off the graphics.
Sure, web designers spend a great amount of time creating wonderful graphics, but it can take quite a while to download large graphic files. To speed things up, turn off the images in your web browser.

With Internet Explorer 5.0, under the Tools menu, select Internet Options, then click the Advanced tab. Now uncheck Show Pictures.

Thoughtful designers will include something called an ALT tag, which is a written description of the image. If you want to see a particular image, click on the tag with your right mouse button and select View Image. For Mac users, just hold down the mouse button over the graphic. You can also click the Image button in Navigator to load all the images.


Use the Stop button.
When you access a website, what you are actually doing is downloading a set of digital files. You can see how the download is progressing if you look at the status bar located in the lower left hand corner of your web browser. If you get tired of waiting, click the Stop button to view the files that have already been downloaded. Then you can decide if you want to continue. If you do, click the Reload or Refresh button.


Increase your cache.
Files you download are stored in a cache (pronounced like "cash") on your hard drive. That way when you return to a site, you don't have to download the files again, just access them from your cache. After a while though, the cache becomes full. Your web browser automatically deletes old files as you continue to surf the Web. But if you visit many of the same sites regularly, you can speed up access by caching more of them. To do this, increase the size of your cache. 10 Mb is optimal.
If you use Netscape Navigator 4.0, under the Edit menu, choose Preferences, then click on Advanced. Now click on Cache. In the appropriate box, increase the cache size.


With Explorer 5.0, under the Tools menu, select Internet Options. Next, on the General tab, click on Settings. Use the slider to increase the cache.


Save keystrokes by using Bookmarks or Favorites.
Web addresses or URLs can be unwieldy. Worse, if you type it wrong, you will get an error message. To avoid these problems, save the addresses of sites you want to revisit. For details on how to do this, read the Bookmarks article.


Use the Find feature of your web browser.
Once you've downloaded a document, the Find button can quickly locate a particular term in which you are interested. Why take the time to scroll through the entire document?


Pick two search engines and learn how they work.
The difficulty of finding specific information is by far the biggest complaint we hear. Although dozens of search engines are available, pick two, then take the time to learn them well. For more on searches read Searching the Web. In case you're interested, our favorites are Yahoo! and AltaVista.


Choose your own home page.
Both Netscape and Microsoft set their websites as the default home page when you launch your web browser. But if you like to begin your surfing by reading a daily newspaper or better yet, Learn the Net, why not start there first? Here's how to select a new home page.


Open a new window.
While you are downloading one web page, you can actually access another site by opening a second browser window. With Navigator, go to the File menu and choose New Web Browser. With Explorer, select New Window from the File menu. A word of caution: Although you can open multiple windows, this will slow down your computer, so don't go overboard. Also, remember to close the additional windows to free up disk space.


Surf during off-peak hours.
Most commuters experience rush hour, when highways bog down with traffic. The same phenomenon happens on the Internet, usually in the late afternoon and early evening, when people log on to check e-mail, chat and play games. If you want to avoid the slowdown, go online in the morning or late at night, when traffic is lighter.


Get a faster connection.
If you are still using a 28.8 Kbps modem, it's time to upgrade. Most people these days access the Web at twice that speed. New modems offer access at 56 Kbps (kilobits per second). Before you upgrade, however, make sure your Internet service provider supports 56 Kbps modems.


For the impatient, the good news is that many companies are investing large sums of money to solve the problem of slow Internet access. Exotic technologies such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) , Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable modems promise enormous bandwidth. Will it ever be enough? Who knows? Until then, happy surfing.

 

Auction Online

Every day, beanie babies, Depression glassware, and thousands of other items change hands via online auctions. eBay has been the darling of bargain hunters, as well as Wall Street investors. But hundreds of other sites now offer auctions as well. Unlike buying treasures in the real world, however, e-auctions pose some unique risks. To prevent rip-offs, proceed with caution.

How Auction Sites Work
As with online stores, the exact procedure varies by site, so make sure you understand the site's policy before you begin. In general, to participate, both sellers and buyers must register with the site. Sellers typically pay a flat fee or a percentage of the final sales price to list merchandise. Buyers pay the sellers directly and also pay the shipping costs. Auctions are usually time-based, meaning that the highest qualified bid at the end of the predetermined period--say a week--wins the item.
Of course, as a buyer, you can't actually see what you are bidding on. The best you can hope for is a full description and a photo. You must trust that it's accurate and that you receive your purchase in the stated condition. That's where the potential for fraud is greatest. Typically, auction sites claim no liability, although some do provide limited guarantees. So it's up to you to be a smart consumer. Here's how:

 

Avoiding Auction Fraud
Read the auction site's policy carefully before you bid.
Contact the seller directly and question him or her about the merchandise.
Get the seller's vital information, including name, address and phone number.
Check the auction site to see if there is any negative postings about the seller.
If possible, pay by credit card for the same protection you have when making purchases in the real world. Otherwise, consider using an escrow service.
Print a copy of your transaction for your records.

 

 


  注释:
  auction: n.拍卖 v.拍卖
  shopping cart: 购物篮
  delivery:v. 递送、交付、交货
  myriad: adj. 无数的,种种的
  assistance:n. 需要、帮助
  vital:adj. 至磁重要的,重大的,所必须的
  scam: n. 诡计
  skeptical:adj. 怀疑

 

  
Online Learning

Would you like to hone(*) your professional skills from the comfort of your home or get a college degree without setting foot on campus? Sound too good to be true? There are now thousands of online classes available on the World Wide Web and that number will soon mushroom(*) into tens of thousands.

For decades(*), students have turned to distance learning to further their educational goals. From correspondence(*) courses to tele-classes, distance learning has served the needs of people who cannot physically attend classes. With the explosion of information technology and the Internet, you can now have a virtual classroom right on your desktop. In most cases, to take a course you need only your computer, a web browser and Internet access.

A New Kind of Education

Online learning, also known as Web-based training or WBT, makes it possible to deliver instructional content to your personal computer via the World Wide Web. You access a website, where you will find most, if not all of the materials you need--a course outline and lessons, information about the instructor (if there is one), lecture notes, a list of activities, tests, and inks to other online resources. In some cases, additional materials may be required, such as textbooks or videotapes. Some WBT class are self-paced, others are led by an instructor. Most are what is known as asynchronous(*) classes--you study at your convenience--although there may be a period of time in which you must complete the course.

WBT offers a number of advantages over classroom-based instruction:

  Take a class anywhere. Learn at home or at the office, because you only need a computer and Internet access.
  Take a class anytime. Access material 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  You decide when to attend. Take courses according to your own schedule and pace.
  Lower costs. Eliminate(*) travel, parking, childcare and all the other costs of physically attending a class.
  Instant feedback(*). Tests can be graded and returned to you within seconds.
  Access to the latest materials. Instructors can easily update teaching materials as new information becomes available. Most textbooks are out-of-date(*) before they are even printed.
  An interactive(*) learning environment. Online technologies enable interaction with other students and course instructors.

Online learning has disadvantages too, the main one being that students work in isolation. To overcome this problem, many WBT classes incorporate features that invite student participation and collaboration(*) including:
  E-mail for submitting homework and communicating with the instructor and other students.
  Message boards where students can post messages relating to class content and group activities.
  Chat rooms, audio conferencing and videoconferencing for real-time conversation.
  Screen-sharing, which allows students to see what an instructor demonstrates on his or her computer screen.
  Class websites for posting of charts, graphics, links to other resources, etc.

Not all classes require student participation. Most use only a few of the features just discussed. Since education on demand is so new, course providers are trying to figure out what works best. And since people learn in different ways, classes vary in style. With self-paced classes, you study the course material and possibly take some online quizzes(*). Either no instructor is involved, or there may be a "teaching assistant" who can answer questions via e-mail. Because little human intervention is required, enrollment(*) is open to any number of students and you can begin the course as soon as you register.

Instructor-led classes are more demanding, often requiring that you submit homework assignments, meet online periodically with other students enrolled in the class, and participate in real-time class discussions with an instructor. These types of classes generally limit enrollment (perhaps to under 50 students) and have a start and end date. Upon completion of a class you may receive a grade. Classes offered by universities typically follow this model.

Subjects and prices vary enormously(*), ranging from accounting to zoology; some classes are free, while others cost hundreds of dollars.


Is Online Learning for You?
Typically, online classes are targeted(*) to working adults--people who want to get an advanced degree or acquire new skills for their jobs, but don't have time to regularly attend classes. Classes are open to anyone, but you may need some prerequisites(*) before you can enroll in certain courses. The requirements are usually listed along with class descriptions.
Online learning works best for people who are self-motivated, enjoy working alone at their computer and feel comfortable using technology. Beyond that, it's just one of those things you have to try.

  注释:

  hone:磨练 ;用磨刀石磨
  mushroom:vi. 迅速生长, 迅速增加, 采蘑菇
  decade:十年
  correspondence: n. 相应, 通信, 信件
  asynchronou:不同时,异步
  eliminate: vt. 排除, 消除 v. 除去
  feedback:回授, 反馈, 反应
  out-of-date:过时
  interactive:交互式的
  collaboration:协作
  quizzes:被检测者
  enrollment:登记,注册
  enormously:非常地,巨大地
  targeted:n. 目标, 对象, 靶子
  prerequisites:特权

Shopping Online

E-commerce has become a fact of modern life, with millions of people now regularly shopping from the convenience of their computers. Many retailers, from Abercrombie to Z Gallery, have websites where you can purchase products online, including flowers, pet food, and tonight's dinner. Why this explosion? Shopping online can save time and money, and people are more willing to give out their credit card numbers as online security has improved.

Let's say you are looking for a bestselling novel. You can comparison shop to find the best price, order the book, and arrange to have it shipped to you overnight. The whole transaction can be done in minutes, saving a trip to the store. Better yet, you may pay less than 50% of the cover price and no sales tax.


How To Buy Online
While every site is a bit different, you will find many similarities. Most sites are like electronic catalogs(1). You browse for merchandise in various categories or search for specific items. Once you find something you want to buy, you add it to your electronic "shopping cart(2)," and continue shopping. When you're done, you review the contents of your cart, deciding whether you want to purchase all of them, or just a few. Your purchases are then totaled. Now it's time to check out.
To buy the items you selected, you fill out a form, providing information such as your name, e-mail address, shipping information, and credit card number. Usually, you are advised how long it will take for delivery(3). Some sites e-mail you an order confirmation along with a tracking number.

Within this general procedure, there are myriad(4) variations. Some sites, like computer e-stores, will build a computer to your specifications. At certain apparel sites, you can "try on" clothes using a virtual model. Many sites have customer service representatives who you can e-mail or chat with in real time, should you need assistance(5). Since customer service has become as vital(6) to online shopping as it has in the real world, expect to see a greater emphasis on making e-commerce a more shopper-friendly experience.

There are too many shopping sites to begin to list them here. Start with LTN stores, online merchants that have our endorsement. If you are looking for a particular store, brand, or type of product, use a search engine to find the right site.

 

Avoid Scams(7)
Shop with businesses you already know and trust.
Pay by credit card for the same protection you have when shopping in the real world.
Don't send your credit card number by e-mail.
Be skeptical(8) of deals that appear too good to be true. They probably are.
Check the shipping costs, which could make the total purchase price more than what you would pay in a retail store.
Print a copy of your order for your records.

 

  注释:
  catalogs: n.目录、目录册、编目
  shopping cart: 购物篮
  delivery:v. 递送、交付、交货
  myriad: adj. 无数的,种种的
  assistance:n. 需要、帮助
  vital:adj. 至磁重要的,重大的,所必须的
  scam: n. 诡计
  skeptical:adj. 怀疑


Web Chat

  Would you like to join a virtual* party without leaving the comfort of your desktop? With web chat you can communicate in real time with people all around the world. In most cases, you don't need any special software, just your web browser. (For the best results, however, we recommend* that you use at least version 4.0 or later releases of Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer.)

  For many years, subscribers to America Online and other commercial online services were able to participate in chat sessions. Now it's possible to join chats offered by hundreds of websites as well. Actually, the word "chat" may be somewhat misleading, because you are not really talking to anyone, just typing and reading text messages that participants write. Once you enter a chat room, which is really just a web page that runs special software, you can choose to just read the exchanges, known as lurking*, or you can join in by posting your own messages.

  Many chat rooms focus the conversation on specific topics, such as health, politics, football and so on. That way, people with similar interests can find one another. Sometimes chat sessions can lead to truly stimulating exchanges, but they are just as likely to be a waste of time. You should also be aware that some chat rooms are adult in nature. Exchanges can be sexually oriented, so parents take note. None of this should stop you from trying this electronic interaction. It can be a lot of fun and the price is certainly right--generally it's free--so there's little to lose.

  A New Personality
  The first step is to locate a chat room that interests you. At the end of this article are some good places to start. Once you are on the website, you will usually be asked to register. You are free to use your real name, but many people make up a name. Not only does it conceal* your identity, offering you some privacy, but it lets you assume a new identity. It can be similar to role playing, where you can be anyone you want. Therein lies some of the fun, but be aware that other people may be living out their fantasies* online as well. Wild Bill might be a teenage girl. You should also know that if you don't sign-in with a name, you may be assigned the default name Anonymous*. With this moniker*, others in the chat room may avoid you or worse, tease you mercilessly.

  After you choose your chat persona, you may also be able to select an image to represent you. These graphics, known as avatars, can be anything from a frog to a prince or princess. Although communicating online lacks the nuances* we get when talking face-to-face, these friendly graphics can personalize the experience in a small way, and certainly break the monotony of a text-only screen. Once you are equipped with name and possibly an avatar, click the enter button and follow the instructions to choose a room.

  Join the Party
  Once inside, you will probably find yourself in the middle of a conversation. Take a few minutes to get the gist* of the exchange. There's no harm in lurking for a while before you join in. In fact it's not uncommon for chat rooms to have many more lurkers than participants. As the interaction continues, new postings appear at the top or bottom of the list. Once you feel confident enough to participate in the discussion, just type your message in the blank box at the bottom of your screen and click the Talk button or hit the Enter or Return key on your keyboard. Soon your message will be posted in the chat room and people may respond.

  The same rules of behavior apply in chat rooms as they do to other online communications, so be sure to review the article on netiquette to avoid offending anyone. To minimize the amount of typing, people often use emoticons* and abbreviations.

  If you want, you can make a general posting to everyone in the chat room, expounding your views. But just like in the real world, you can also address your comments to a specific person. "Hey, Wild Bill, I had just the opposite experience . . ." Although everyone can read your message, it's clear that it's intended for a particular individual. Some chat rooms let you have private conversations by clicking on the name of a participant.

  While web chats can offer an engaging* experience, proceed with caution. Use common sense. Remember that all your postings are public. Even if it appears that there is only one other person in a room, others can be lurking. Don't give out personal information to strangers you meet online--certainly not your address, phone number or credit card account. Having said that, it's time to start chatting.

  注释:
  virtual: adj. 虚的,虚拟的
  recommend: vt. 推荐, 介绍
  participate lurking: (新用户的)"潜伏"(在USENET上作为旁观者,不参加讨论)
  conceal: vt. 隐藏, 隐蔽, 隐瞒 v. 隐蔽
  fantasies:梦想,幻想
  Anonymous:adj. 匿名的
  moniker: n. 名字, 绰号
  nuances: n. 小块, 瘤, 结节, 要点, 残端, 残根
  gist: n. n. 要点, 要旨
  emoticons: 由字符组成的图释,也称作Smiley,由emotion和icons合成
  engaging:adj. 动人的, 有魅力的, 迷人的
  
A Home (Page) of Your Own

In the 60s, people asked about your astrological* sign. In the 90s, they want to know your URL. These days, having a web address is almost as important as a street address. Your website is an electronic meeting place for your family, friends and potentially*, millions of people around the world. Building your digital domain can be easier than you may think. Best of all, you may not have to spend a cent. The Web brims with all kinds of free services, from tools to help you build your site, to free graphics, animation and site hosting. All it takes is some time and creativity.

Think of your home page as the starting point of your website. Like the table of contents of a book or magazine, the home page is the front door. Your site can have one or more pages, depending on how you design it. If there isn't a lot of information just yet, your site will most likely have only a home page. But the site is sure to grow over time.

While web pages vary dramatically* in their design and content, most use a traditional magazine layout. At the top of the page is a banner graphic. Next comes a greeting and a short description of the site. Pictures, text, and links to other websites follow.

If the site has more than one page, there's typically a list of items--similar to an index--often with a brief description. The items in the list link to other pages on the website. Sometimes these links are highlighted words in the body of the text. It can also be a combination of both. Additionally, a web page may have images that link to other content.

Before you start building your site, do some planning. Think about whom the site is for and what you want to say. Next, gather up the material that you want to put on the site: write the copy, scan the photos, design or find the graphics. Draw a rough layout on a sheet of paper.

While there are no rules you have to follow, there are a few things to keep in mind:

Start simply. If you are too ambitious at the beginning, you may never get the site off the ground. You can always add to your site.
Less is better. Most people don't like to read a lot of text online. Break it into small chunks.
Use restraint. Although you can use wild colors and images for the background of your pages, make sure your visitors will be able to read the text easily.
Smaller is better. Most people connect to the Internet with a modem. Since it can take a long time to download large image files, keep the file sizes small.
Have the rights. Don't put any material on your site unless you are sure you can do it legally. Read Learn the Net's copyright article for more about this.
Stake Your Claim

Now it's time to roll up your sleeves and start building. Learn the Net Communities provides tools to help you build your site, free web hosting, and a community of other homesteaders.

Your Internet service provider may include free web hosting services with an account, one alternative to consider.
 

  注释:
  astrological:占星术的
  potentially:潜在的
  dramatically:戏剧地, 引人注目
  chunk:块

  
Bookmarks and Favorites

With millions of websites and more coming online daily, you will undoubtedly find ones you want to revisit. Bookmarks or Favorites save the addresses of your favorite sites so you can return to them quickly, without having to retype the addresses. Whether you are using Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer, the procedure is similar.

Once you find a site you want to save, go to the Bookmarks or Favorites menu or click on its icon and select Add. When you click on the icon again, the title of the web page you recorded will appear at the bottom of the list. To revisit a bookmarked website, just double-click on it.

Putting Your Links in Order

Soon you will discover that you've got dozens of bookmarks. It's now time to organize them into folders*.

If you use Internet Explorer 5.0, click on the Favorites button on the toolbar to open the Favorites window. Now select Organize Favorites*. Click on the folder icon to create a new folder, then name it. We suggest organizing your bookmarks in folders by subjects*, such as Food, Travel, News, Sports, etc. Now click on each Favorite once, hold down your left mouse key and drag the appropriate Favorite into the subject folder.

If you use Navigator 4.0 or a later release*, click on the Bookmarks icon to view all your bookmarks. Under the File menu, select New Folder. In the Name box, type in a name for the folder, then click on OK. Now return to your list of bookmarks, click once on one to highlight it, then drag it into the appropriate subject-related folder. Repeat the process for the other topics and bookmarks.

Sometimes the names of the bookmarks aren't descriptive, so you may want to alter them. With Navigator, select the bookmark you want to change by clicking on it once. Go to the Edit menu and choose Bookmark Properties. Now type in the new name and click OK.

With Explorer, open the Favorites window, then click on Organize Favorites. After the dialog box opens, click on the favorites you want to change. Next, click the Rename button. Now you can type a new name.
 

  注释:
  folder:文件夹
  Organize Favorites:整理收藏夹
  subject:主题
  release:版本

  
Decoding Error Messages


  As you surf the Net, you will undoubtedly find that at times you can't access certain websites. Why, you make wonder? Error messages attempt to explain the reason. Unfortunately, these cryptic* messages baffle* most people. We've deciphered* the most common ones you may encounter.

  400 - Bad Request
  Problem: There's something wrong with the address you entered. You may not be authorized* to access the web page, or maybe it no longer exists.
  Solution: Check the address carefully, especially if the address is long. Make sure that the slashes are correct (they should be forward slashes) and that all the names are properly spelled. Web addresses are case sensitive, so check that the names are capitalized in your entry as they are in the original reference to the website.

  401 - Unauthorized
  Problem: You can't access a website, because you're not on the guest list, your password is invalid or you have entered your password incorrectly.
  Solution: If you think you have authorization, try typing your password again. Remember that passwords are case sensitive.

  403 - Forbidden
  Problem: Essentially the same as a 401.
  Solution: Try entering your password again or move on to another site.

  404 - Not Found
  Problem: Either the web page no longer exists on the server or it is nowhere to be found.
  Solution: Check the address carefully and try entering it again. You might also see if the site has a search engine and if so, use it to hunt for the document. (It's not uncommon for pages to change their addresses when a website is redesigned.) To get to the home page of the site, delete everything after the domain name and hit the Enter or Return key.

  503 - Service unavailable
  Problem: Your Internet service provider (ISP) or your company's Internet connection may be down.
  Solution: Take a stretch, wait a few minutes and try again. If you still have no luck, phone your ISP or system administrator.

  Bad file request
  Problem: Your web browser may not be able to decipher the online form you want to access. There may also be a technical error in the form.
  Solution: Consider sending a message to the site's webmaster, providing any technical information you can, such as the browser and version you use.

  Connection refused by host
  Problem: You don't have permission to access the page or your password is incorrect.
  Solution: Try typing your password again if you think you should have access.

  Failed DNS lookup
  Problem: DNS stands for the Domain Name System, which is the system that looks up the name of a website, finds a corresponding number (similar to a phone number), then directs your request to the appropriate web server on the Internet. When the lookup fails, the host server can't be located.
  Solution: Try clicking on the Reload or Refresh button on your browser toolbar. If this doesn't work, check the address and enter it again. If all else fails, try again later.

  File contains no data
  Problem: The site has no web pages on it.
  Solution: Check the address and enter it again. If you get the same error message, try again later.

  Host unavailable
  Problem: The web server is down.
  Solution: Try clicking on the Reload or Refresh button. If this doesn't work, try again later.

  Host unknown
  Problem: The web server is down, the site may have moved, or you've been disconnected from the Net.
  Solution: Try clicking on the Reload or Refresh button and check to see that you are still online. If this fails, try using a search engine to find the site. It may have a new address.

  Network connection refused by the server
  Problem: The web server is busy.
  Solution: Try again in a while.

  Unable to locate host
  Problem: The web server is down or you've been disconnected from the Net.
  Solution: Try clicking on the Reload or Refresh button and check to see that you are still online.

  Unable to locate server
  Problem: The web server is out-of-business or you may have entered the address incorrectly.
  Solution: Check the address and try typing it again.
 

  注释:
  cryptic:adj. 含义模糊的
  baffle:v. 困惑
  decipher: vt. 译解(密码等), 解释
  dauthorized:adj.经授权的,经认可的

 

Understanding Web Addresses

  You can think of the World Wide Web as a network of electronic files stored on computers all around the world. Hypertext links these resources together. Uniform Resource Locators or URLs are the addresses used to locate these files. The information contained in a URL gives you the ability to jump from one web page to another with just a click of your mouse. When you type a URL into your browser or click on a hypertext link, your browser is sending a request to a remote computer to download a file.

  What does a typical URL look like? Here are some examples:

  http://english.chinaschool.net
  The home page for study english.

  ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/
A directory of files at MIT* available for downloading.

  news:rec.gardens.roses
A newsgroup on rose gardening.
  The first part of a URL (before the two slashes* tells you the type of resource or method of access at that address. For example:


http - a hypertext document or directory
gopher - a gopher document or menu
ftp - a file available for downloading or a directory of such files
news - a newsgroup
telnet - a computer system that you can log into over the Internet
WAIS* - a database or document in a Wide Area Information Search database
file - a file located on a local drive (your hard drive)
  The second part is typically the address of the computer where the data or service is located. Additional parts may specify the names of files, the port to connect to, or the text to search for in a database.

  You can enter the URL of a site by typing it into the Location bar of your web browser, just under the toolbar.

  Most browsers record URLs that you want to use again, by adding them to a special menu. In Netscape Navigator, it's called Bookmarks. In Microsoft Explorer, it's called Favorites. Once you add a URL to your list, you can return to that web page simply by clicking on the name in your list, instead of retyping the entire URL.

  Most of the URLs you will be using start with http which stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol*. http is the method by which HTML files are transferred over the Web. Here are some other important things to know about URLs:


A URL usually has no spaces.
A URL always uses forward slashes (//).
If you enter a URL incorrectly, your browser will not be able to locate the site or resource you want. Should you get an error message or the wrong site, make sure you typed the address correctly.
You can find the URL behind any link by passing your mouse cursor over the link. The pointer will turn into a hand and the URL will appear in the browser's status bar, usually located at the bottom of your screen.

 

  注释:
  MIT:Massachusettes Institute of Technology (美国)麻省理工学院
  slash:斜线
  WAIS: Wide Area Information Server 广域信息服务系统
  Hypertext Transfer Protocol:超文本传输协议

 

Anatomy of a Web Page

A web page is an electronic document written in a computer language called HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language. Each web page has a unique address, called a URL* or Uniform Resource Locator, which identifies its location on the network.

A website has one or more related web pages, depending on how it's designed. Web pages on a site are linked together through a system of hyperlinks* , enabling you to jump between them by clicking on a link. On the Web, you navigate through pages of information according to your interests.

Home Sweet Home Page

When you browse the World Wide Web you'll see the term home page often. Think of a home page as the starting point of a website. Like the table of contents of a book or magazine, the home page usually provides an overview of what you'll find at the website. A site can have one page, many pages or a few long ones, depending on how it's designed. If there isn't a lot of information, the home page may be the only page. But usually you will find at least a few other pages.

Web pages vary wildly in design and content, but most use a traditional magazine format. At the top of the page is a masthead* or banner graphic*, then a list of items, such as articles, often with a brief description. The items in the list usually link to other pages on the website, or to other sites. Sometimes these links are highlighted* words in the body of the text, or are arranged in a list, like an index. They can also be a combination* of both. A web page can also have images that link to other content.

How can you tell which text are links? Text links appear in a different color from the rest of the text--typically in blue and underlined. When you move your cursor over a text link or over a graphic link, it will change from an arrow to a hand. The hypertext words often hint* at what you will link to.


When you return to a page with a link you've already visited, the hypertext words will often be in a different color, so you know you've already been there. But you can certainly go there again. Don't be surprised though, if the next time you visit a site, the page looks different and the information has changed. The Web is a dynamic* medium. To encourage visitors to return to a site, some web publishers change pages often. That's what makes browsing the Web so exciting.

 

  注释:
  URL:综一资源定位器
  hyperlink:超链接
  masthead: 报头,片头
  banner graphic:标题图片
  highlighted: 突出
  combination:. 结合,联合,合并
  hint:暗示,提示,线索
  dynamic:动态的

Domain Names

When you think of the Internet, you probably think of ".com." Just what do those three letters at the end of a World Wide Web address mean?

Every computer that hosts data on the Internet has a unique numerical address. For example, the numerical address for the White House is 198.137.240.100. But since few people want to remember long strings of numbers, the Domain Name System (DNS)* was developed. DNS, a critical part of the Internet's technical infrastructure*, correlates* a numerical address to a word. To access the White House website, you could type its number into the address box of your web browser. But most people prefer to use "www.whitehouse.gov." In this case, the domain name is whitehouse.gov.

In general, the three-letter domain name suffix* is known as a generic top-level domain and describes the type of organization. In the last few years, the lines have somewhat blurred* between these categories.
.com - business (commercial)
.edu - educational
.org - non-profit
.mil - military
.net - network provider
.gov - government

A domain name always has two or more parts separated by dots and typically consists of some form of an organization's name and the three-letter suffix. For example, the domain name for IBM is "ibm.com"; the United Nations is "un.org."

If a domain name is available, and provided it does not infringe* on an existing trademark, anyone can register the name for $35 a year through Network Solutions, Inc., which is authorized to register .com, .net and .org domains. You can use the box below to see if a name is a available. Don't be surprised if the .com name you want is already taken, however. Of the over 8 million domain names, 85% are .com domains.

ICANN, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, manages the Domain Name System. As of this writing, there are plans to add additional top-level domains, such as .web and .store. When that will actually happen is anybody's guess.

To check for, or register a domain name, type it into the search box.
It should take this form: myname.com

In addition to the generic top-level domains, 244 national top-level domains were established for countries and territories*, for example:

.au - Australia
.ca - Canada
.fr - France
.de - Germany
.uk - United Kingdom

For US $275 per name, you can also register an international domain name with Net Names. Be aware that some countries have restrictions for registering names.

If you plan to register your own domain name, whether it's a .com or not, keep these tips in mind:

The shorter the name, the better. (But it should reflect your family name, interest or business.)
The name should be easy to remember.
It should be easy to type without making mistakes.
Remember, the Internet is global. Ideally, a domain name will "read" in a language other than English.

 

  注释:
  Domain Name System:域名系统
  infranstructure:下部结构,基础下部组织
  correlate: 使相互关联,和…相关
  suffix:后缀
  blur: 把(界线)弄得模糊不清
  infringe:破坏,侵犯,违反
  territories:领土,版图,地域
Web Browsers

  A web browser is the software program you use to access the World Wide Web, the graphical portion of the Internet. The first browser, called NCSA Mosaic, was developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications in the early '90s. The easy-to-use point-and-click interface* helped popularize the Web, although few then could imagine the explosive growth that would soon occur.

  Although many different browsers are available, Microsoft Internet Explorer* and Netscape Navigator* are the two most popular ones. Netscape and Microsoft have put so much money into their browsers that the competition can't keep up. The pitched battle* between the two companies to dominate* the market has lead to continual improvements to the software. Version 4.0 and later releases of either browser are excellent choices. (By the way, both are based on NCSA Mosaic.) You can download Explorer and Navigator for free from each company's website. If you have one browser already, you can test out the other. Also note that there are slight differences between the Windows and MacIntosh* versions.

  You can surf to your heart's content, but it's easy to get lost in this electronic web. That's where your browser can really help. Browsers come loaded with all sorts of handy features. Fortunately, you can learn the basics in just a few minutes, then take the time to explore the advanced functions.

  Both Explorer and Navigator have more similarities than differences, so we'll primarily cover those. For the most up-to-date information about the browsers, and a complete tutorial, check the online handbook under the Help menu or go to the websites of the respective* software companies.

  Browser Anatomy
  When you first launch your web browser, usually by double-clicking on the icon on your desktop, a predefined web page, your home page, will appear. With Netscape Navigator for instance, you will be taken to Netscape's NetCenter.

 

Choose Your Own Home Page


You can change the home page that loads when you first launch your browser. With Navigator 4.0, go to the Edit menu, then select Preferences. In the Home page section, type in the new web address in the box. If you want Learn the Net to be your home page, enter:

http://www.learnthenet.com

Any time you want to return to your home page from any other website, just click the Home button on the toolbar.

If you are using Explorer, first go to the Learn the Net home page. Now click the View menu, then select Options. Now click the General tab. Finally, click the Use Current button.

As much as we would like Learn the Net to be your home page, you can select any page you want.


The Toolbar (工具栏)
 
The row of buttons at the top of your web browser, known as the toolbar, helps you travel through the web of possibilities, even keeping track of where you've been. Since the toolbars for Navigator and Explorer differ slightly, we'll first describe what the buttons in common do:

The Back button returns you the previous page you've visited.
Use the Forward button to return to the page you just came from.
Home takes you to whichever home page you've chosen. (If you haven't selected one, it will return you to the default home page, usually the Microsoft or Netscape website.)
Reload or Refresh does just that, loads the web page again. Why would you want to do this? Sometimes all of the elements of a web page haven't loaded the first time, because the file transfer was interrupted. Also when you download a web page, the data is cached (pronounced cashed), meaning it is stored temporarily on your computer. The next time you want that page, instead of requesting the file from the web server, your web browser just accesses it from the cache. But if a web page is updated frequently, as may be the case with news, sports scores or financial data, you won't get the most current information. By reloading the page, this timely data is updated.
Print lets you make a hard copy of the current document loaded in your browser.
The Stop button stops the browser from loading the current page.
Search connects to pages on the Microsoft or Netscape websites that list a number of Internet directories and search tools.
Bookmarks or Favorites is where you can record the addresses of website you want to revisit. Once you add a URL to your list, you can return to that web page simply by clicking on the link in your list, instead of retyping the entire address.

When to Use the STOP Button

There's a good reason why the Web is referred to as the World Wide Wait. If you can't connect to a site, use the STOP button and try again later, especially if you are trying to access a popular site.


The Location Bar (位置栏)
Just under the toolbar, you will see a box labeled "Location," "Go To," or "Address." This is where you type in the address of a website you want to visit. After you enter it, press the Return or Enter key to access the site.

By clicking the small triangle to the right of the Location box, you will get a drop down list of the most recent websites you have visited. To revisit a site, just click on the address.

The Menu Bar (菜单栏)
Located along the top of the browser window, the menu bar offers a selection of things you can do with a web page, such as saving it to your hard drive or increasing the size of the text on a page. Many of the choices are the same as the buttons on the toolbar below, so don't try to learn everything now. Click once on a word to access the drop-down menu, then click on the appropriate selection you want to make.

The Access Indicator(访问指示器)
Both Navigator and Explorer have a small picture in the upper right hand corner of the browser. When this image is animated, it means that your browser software, known as a client, is accessing data from a remote computer, called a server. The server can be located across town or on another continent. Your browser downloads these remote files to your computer, then displays them on your screen. The speed of this process depends a number of factors: your modem speed, your Internet service provider's modem speed, the size of the files you are downloading, how busy the server is and the traffic on the Internet.

The Status Bar (状态栏)
At the bottom of the web browser you'll find a window known as a status bar. You can watch the progress of web page transactions, such as the address of the site you are contacting, whether the host computer has been contacted and the size of the files to be downloaded.

The Scroll Bar (滚动条)
The vertical bar to the right of the browser lets you scroll a down and up a long web page. You can do this by placing your arrow cursor on the up or down arrows and holding down your left mouse key. You can also place the arrow on the slider control, hold down the left mouse key and drag the slider.

If a web page is too wide to fit your screen, a horizontal scroll bar will appear at the bottom on your browser window. This scroll bar works the same way.

  Some Browser Tricks
  As with most software, there is more than one way to accomplish a task. Here are a few other features to help you navigate:

  As you hop from page to page and website to website, your browser remembers where you've been. With Navigator, select History from the drop-down list under the Communicator menu. With Internet Explorer, click the History button on the toolbar. There you'll find a history of all the web pages you have visited during a specified period of time. To revisit a page, just click on the address.

  Another way move between pages with Navigator is by clicking the right mouse button. A pop-up menu will appear and you can choose to move forward or back.


Speed Up Downloads

While text downloads quickly, images can really slow things down. There are two ways to speed things up.

Since text appears first, after it loads, click the STOP button. The images won't appear, but should you want to look at an image, use the right mouse button to click on the image icon, then select View Image.
You can view websites in text-only mode by turning off the auto-loading of images function under the Options menu.


  One final word of advice: Your web browser is your gateway to the Internet. Take the time to learn about its features. In the long run, it will save you hours of frustration.

  注释:
  interface:界面
  Microsoft Internet Explorer:Microsoft公司出品的WEB浏览器
  Netscape Navigator: Netscape公司出品的WEB浏览器
  pitched battle:激战
  dominate: 支配, 占优势
  MacIntosh:. Apple公司于1984年推出的一种系列微机;苹果公司生产的一种型号的计算机;(Mac)麦金托什机
  respective:分别的, 各自的
  frustration:挫败, 挫折, 受挫


  
How the Web Works

   The World Wide Web, the graphical portion of the Internet, is the most popular part of the Internet by far. Once you spend time on the Web,you will begin to feel like there is no limit to what you can discover. The Web allows rich and diverse(1) communication by displaying text, graphics, animation(2), photos, sound and video.
  So just what is this miraculous(3) creation? The Web physically consists of your personal computer, web browser software, a connection to an Internet service provider, computers called servers that host digital data and routers and switches to direct the flow of information.
  The Web is known as a client-server(4) system. Your computer is the client; the remote computers that store electronic files are the servers. Here's how it works:
  Let's say you want to pay a visit to the the Louvre museum website. First you enter the address or URL(5) of the website in your web browser (more about this shortly). Then your browser requests the web page from the web server that hosts the Louvre's site. The Louvre's server sends the data over the Internet to your computer. Your web browser interprets the data, displaying it on your computer screen.
  The Louvre's website also has links to the sites of other museums, such as the Vatican Museum. When you click your mouse on a link, you access the web server for the Vatican Museum.
  The "glue" that holds the Web together is called hypertext and hyperlinks(6). This feature allow electronic files on the Web to be linked so you can easily jump between them. On the Web, you navigate through pages of information based on what interests you at that particular moment, commonly known as browsing or surfing(7) the Net.
  To access the Web you need web browser software, such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer. How does your web browser distinguish between web pages and other files on the Internet? Web pages are written in a computer language called Hypertext Markup Language or HTML.
  Some Web History
  The World Wide Web (WWW) was originally developed in 1990 at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. It is now managed by The World Wide Web Consortium, also known as the World Wide Web Initiative.
  The WWW Consortium is funded by a large number of corporate members, including AT&T, Adobe Systems, Inc., Microsoft Corporation and Sun Microsystems, Inc. Its purpose is to promote the growth of the Web by developing technical specifications and reference software that will be freely available to everyone. The Consortium is run by MIT with INRIA (The French National Institute for Research in Computer Science) acting as European host, in collaboration with CERN.
  The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, was instrumental in the development of early graphical software utilizing the World Wide Web features created by CERN. NCSA focuses on improving the productivity of researchers by providing software for scientific modeling, analysis, and visualization. The World Wide Web was an obvious way to fulfill that mission. NCSA Mosaic, one of the earliest web browsers, was distributed free to the public. It led directly to the phenomenal growth of the World Wide Web.

  注释:
  diverse:adj. 不同的, 变化多的
  animation:动画
  miraculous: adj. 奇迹的, 不可思议的
  client-server:客户端,客户机
  URL:Uniform Resource Locator ,在Internet的WWW服务程序上用于指定信息位置的表示方法。
  hypertext:超文本(一系列逻辑上互相联结的数据库,一个数据库内的信息和另一个数据库内的信息能够在逻辑上交叉链接)
  hyperlinks:超链接
  surf: n. 海浪, 拍岸浪;vi. 作冲浪运动;vt. 在激浪上驾(船), 在...冲浪。此处的含义指上网冲浪

  
Net Anatomy

  Even though the Internet is a global network, in many ways, it resembles a small town, with similar services. Let's say you want to send or receive your mail. The Internet has electronic post offices. There are online libraries you can use any time of the day or night, with millions of books and periodicals with unlimited browsing. Chat rooms are the Internet equivalent of 24-hour coffee shops, with people eager to gab anytime you want. With the explosive growth of the World Wide Web, you can shop, order a pizza, preview a movie, and listen to radio stations from around the world. All of these represent different ways of using the Internet.
  In the real world you can travel to different places over the same network of roads, but using different modes of transportation. You might use a car for one purpose and a truck for something else. Getting around on the Internet works much the same way.
  To understand the Internet, it is helpful to realize that many different kinds of communication go on at the same time. You use different software programs to accomplish different tasks: for instance, a web browser to access shopping sites and an e-mail program to send and receive messages.
  Some programs, such as Netscape Communicator, contain more than one kind of program. Communicator has a web browser, called Netscape Navigator, an e-mail program and a newsreader. (In later articles, we will explain what each of these programs do.) You can also use more specialized and sophisticated software, such as Eudora, a stand-alone e-mail program, or combine different software packages together into a system that works for you.
   
Birth of the Net

  The Internet has had a relatively brief, but explosive history so far. It grew out of an experiment begun in the 1960's by the U.S. Department of Defense. The DoD wanted to create a computer network that would continue to function in the event of a disaster, such as a nuclear war. If part of the network were damaged or destroyed, the rest of the system still had to work. That network was ARPANET, which linked U.S. scientific and academic researchers. It was the forerunner of today's Internet.
  In 1985, the National Science Foundation (NSF) created NSFNET, a series of networks for research and education communication. Based on ARPANET protocols, the NSFNET created a national backbone service, provided free to any U.S. research and educational institution. At the same time, regional networks were created to link individual institutions with the national backbone service.
NSFNET grew rapidly as people discovered its potential, and as new software applications were created to make access easier. Corporations such as Sprint and MCI began to build their own networks, which they linked to NSFNET. As commercial firms and other regional network providers have taken over the operation of the major Internet arteries, NSF has withdrawn from the backbone business.
  NSF also coordinated a service called InterNIC, which registered all addresses on the Internet so that data could be routed to the right system. This service has now been taken over by Network Solutions, Inc., in cooperation with NSF.

Making Connections

  To connect online, your computer must be equipped with a modem, a device that translates the digital signals from your computer into analog signals that can travel over a standard phone line. Those are the scratchy sounds you hear from a modem's speaker. Believe it or not, there is actually meaning in all that noise. A modem on the other end of the line can understand it and converts the sounds back into digital information.

  Modems come in different speeds and are measured in bps or bits per second. A 28.8 Kbps modem sends data at 28,800 bits per second. A 56 Kbps modem is twice as fast, sending and receiving data at a rate of 56,000 bits per second. Most modems today are 56 Kbps.

  Why does speed matter? On the Internet, you are constantly exchanging data with other computers. Some of these digital files can be quite large. As you will soon learn, you want this exchange to happen as quickly as possible. If you are purchasing a modem, get the fastest one available.

  Modems come in different speeds and can be installed inside your computer (internal), or connected to your computer's serial port (external). These days, almost all computers come equipped with an internal modem. But if you need to buy a modem for an older computer, consider purchasing an external one for two reasons. First, they are much easier to install. Second, occasionally your modem will freeze and need to be reset. If your modem is external, you can simply turn it off and on again. If it's internal, the only way to reset it is to turn off your computer and reboot, which can take several minutes every time you need to reset your modem.

  To connect an external modem to your computer, you'll need a serial modem cable. The cables are usually not included when you buy a modem because there are several different sizes available. These can be purchased at any computer store where modems are sold. Most likely, your computer will have a connector on the back labeled serial, or with the IOIOIO icon. This connector comes in a variety of formats: 9, 15, or 25 pins. If you only have one of these ports, it will probably be COM1. If you have two, one will be COM1, and the other will be COM2. After you plug in your modem, you can sign up for Internet Service.

  Usually your setup program will try and find your modem and its COM port. If it can't, it will ask you which COM port your modem is attached to. If you don't know, the easiest thing to do is try them all. Even if you only have two serial ports, you may be able to select one of four COM ports. Also, there are some other devices that use the COM ports. In some computers,the mouse is plugged into a serial port. This is known as a serial mouse. If you've got a serial mouse plugged into COM1, then just plug the modem into COM2. If you don't have a second COM port, you can purchase a card that goes inside your computer that will give you a second COM port. If this is necessary, you should check with the manufacturer of your computer.

  Your modem will likely have a connector on the back with space for 25 pins. You need to make sure that the serial modem cable you purchase has the right number of pins on either side, and is the correct "gender." The best thing to do is to look at the back of your computer and list the various connectors, the number of pins, and the gender. Then, when you go to purchase your modem, find the cable that matches the connector.

  Lastly, you'll need a standard phone cable to connect the modem to your phone line. The standard connector on a telephone cable is called an RJ-11. On the back of your modem, you'll probably have two RJ-11 jacks. One is for connecting the modem to a wall jack, and the other is for connecting the modem to a phone. And remember, if you have call waiting, you will want to disable it before connecting online. If you're online and a call comes in, it will disconnect you unless you disable call waiting. In most places you can enter *70 before the number you call for Internet service so that another call will not interrupt you while you're on line.

Monitor Settings

  The best monitor setting for the Web is 800 X 600 pixels with thousands of colors. Here's why. You may have already noticed that your monitor can be set to different screen resolutions and set to display different numbers of colors. Let's walk through it.

  Screen Resolution
  Most people think of resolution in terms of photographs or television. In those media, resolution means sharpness. But in the computer world, screen resolution refers to the dimensions of the pixels displayed on a monitor. Your computer probably came set to a resolution of 640 X 480 pixels. That means that your computer will display a screen of 640 pixels wide and 480 pixels high on the monitor -- whether you have a 14, 15, or 17-inch monitor. The size of the monitor does not determine the screen resolution. But the bigger the monitor, the bigger the screen resolution you can use. Try it for yourself. If you have a 14 or 15-inch monitor, switch the resolution from 640 X 480 to 800 X 600 and to 1024 X 768 if your video card supports it. You will quickly see that everything gets smaller as the resolution goes up. That's because the monitor is displaying a larger number of pixels in the same screen space. Most people find everything is too small at 1024 X 768 on a 14-inch monitor, but try it on a 17-inch monitor and you'll find you have tons of screen real estate you can use.

  On the Web you want as large a resolution as you can get. The larger the resolution, the more you can fit on the screen. Web pages are almost always too large to fit on one screen, so a larger resolution is better. We recommend using a resolution of 800 X 600 if you have a 14 or 15-inch monitor, and a resolution of 1024 X 768 for 17" and larger monitors.

  Under settings, there is a control panel folder with an icon called Display. Double-click on the icon. Then click the Settings tab to see the current screen resolution.

  Try changing the resolution to the largest you can, probably 1024 X 768. Unless you have a 17-inch or larger monitor, everything will be too small to see. But you will have a lot of screen space.


  Screen Colors
  Setting the number of colors is also important. Unless you are working with professional graphics and photography and have a computer with lots of memory, avoid using 16 million colors. The best practical resolution to use on the Web is 64,000 colors. You can get near photographic quality using thousands of colors, and you'll find many web graphics, like those on Learn the Net, look much better than when your display is set to only 256 colors. One thing to keep in mind, many multimedia CD-ROMs with animations require you to set your display to 256 colors. Even though you may need to change your color settings once in awhile, you will find the Web more visually exciting if you surf at thousands of colors.
  


About Modem

  Telephone lines were designed to carry the human voice, not electronic data from a computer. Modems were invented to convert digital computer signals into a form that allows them to travel over the phone lines. Those are the scratchy sounds you hear from a modem's speaker. A modem on the other end of the line can understand it and convert the sounds back into digital information that the computer can understand. By the way, the word modem stands for MOdulator/DEModulator.
  Buying and using a modem used to be relatively easy. Not too long ago, almost all modems transferred data at a rate of 2400 Bps (bits per second). Today, modems not only run faster, they are also loaded with features like error control and data compression. So, in addition to converting and interpreting signals, modems also act like traffic cops, monitoring and regulating the flow of information. That way, one computer doesn't send information until the receiving computer is ready for it. Each of these features, modulation, error control, and data compression, requires a separate kind of protocol and that's what some of those terms you see like V.32, V.32bis, V.42bis and MNP5 refer to.
If your computer didn't come with an internal modem, consider buying an external one, because it is much easier to install and operate. For example, when your modem gets stuck (not an unusual occurrence), you need to turn it off and on to get it working properly. With an internal modem, that means restarting your computer--a waste of time. With an external modem it's as easy as flipping a switch.
  Here's a tip for you: in most areas, if you have Call Waiting, you can disable it by inserting *70 in front of the number you dial to connect to the Internet (or any online service). This will prevent an incoming call from accidentally kicking you off the line.

  This table illustrates the relative difference in data transmission speeds for different types of files. A modem's speed is measured in bits per second (bps). A 14.4 modem sends data at 14,400 bits per second. A 28.8 modem is twice as fast, sending and receiving data at a rate of 28,800 bits per second.
Until nearly the end of 1995, the conventional wisdom was that 28.8 Kbps was about the fastest speed you could squeeze out of a regular copper telephone line. Today, you can buy 33.6 Kbps modems, and modems that are capable of 56 Kbps. The key question for you, is knowing what speed modems your Internet service provider (ISP) has. If your ISP has only 28.8 Kbps modems on its end of the line, you could have the fastest modem in the world, and only be able to connect at 28.8 Kbps. Before you invest in a 33.6 Kbps or a 56 Kbps modem, make sure your ISP supports them.
  Speed It Up
  There are faster ways to transmit data by using an ISDN or leased line. In many parts of the U.S., phone companies are offering home ISDN at less than $30 a month. ISDN requires a so-called ISDN adapter instead of a modem, and a phone line with a special connection that allows it to send and receive digital signals. You have to arrange with your phone company to have this equipment installed. For more about ISDN, visit Dan Kegel's ISDN Page.
  An ISDN line has a data transfer rate of between 57,600 bits per second and 128,000 bits per second, which is at least double the rate of a 28.8 Kbps modem. Leased lines come in two configurations: T1 and T3. A T1 line offers a data transfer rate of 1.54 million bits per second. Unlike ISDN, a T-1 line is a dedicated connection, meaning that it is permanently connected to the Internet. This is useful for web servers or other computers than need to be connected to the Internet all the time. It is possible to lease only a portion of a T-1 line using one of two systems: fractional T-1 or Frame Relay. You can lease them in blocks ranging from 128 Kbps to 1.5 Mbps. The differences are not worth going into in detail, but fractional T-1 will be more expensive at the slower available speeds and Frame Relay will be slightly more expensive as you approach the full T-1 speed of 1.5 Mbps. A T-3 line is significantly faster, at 45 million bits per second. The backbone of the Internet consists of T-3 lines.
Leased lines are very expensive and are generally only used by companies whose business is built around the Internet or need to transfer massive amounts of data. ISDN, on the other hand, is available in some cities for a very reasonable price. Not all phone companies offer residential ISDN service. Check with your local phone company for availability in your area.
  Cable Modems
  A relatively new development is a device that provides high-speed Internet access via a cable TV network. With speeds of up to 36 Mbps, cable modems can download data in seconds that might take fifty times longer with a dial-up connection. Because it works with your TV cable, it doesn't tie up a telephone line. Best of all, it's always on, so there is no need to connect--no more busy signals! This service is now available in some cities in the United States and Europe.
  The download times in the table above are relative and are meant to give you a general idea of how long it would take to download different sized files at different connection speeds, under the best of circumstances. Many things can interfere with the speed of your file transfer. These can range from excessive line noise on your telephone line and the speed of the web server from which you are downloading files, to the number of other people who are simultaneously trying to access the same file or other files in the same directory.
  DSL
  DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is another high-speed technology that is becoming increasingly popular. DSL lines are always connected to the Internet, so you don't need to dial-up. Typically, data can be transferred at rates up to 1.544 Mbps downstream and about 128 Kbps upstream over ordinary telephone lines. Since a DSL line carries both voice and data, you don't have to install another phone line. You can use your existing line to establish DSL service, provided service is available in your area and you are within the specified distance from the telephone company's central switching office.
  DSL service requires a special modem. Prices for equipment, DSL installation and monthly service can vary considerably, so check with your local phone company and Internet service provider. The good news is that prices are coming down as competition heats up.


Netiquette

  We expect other drivers to observe the rules of the road and the same is true as we travel through cyberspace. Here are a few pointers to help you out:

  Avoid using all caps.
  IT LOOKS LIKE YOU'RE SHOUTING!

  To personalize your messages, you can use smileys, also known as emoticons, expressions you create from the characters on your keyboard. A few popular ones include:

:-) Happy :-e Disappointed
:-( Sad :-< Mad
:-o Surprised :-D Laughing
:-@ Screaming ;-) Winking
:-I Indifferent

  Keep your communications to the point. Some people pay for Internet access by the hour. The longer it takes to read your messages, the more it may cost them. This is true whether you post messages to a newsgroup or a mailing list.

  Keep in mind that anything you post to a newsgroup or type into a chat session is a public comment. You never know who's reading it, or who may copy it and spread it around.

  If you're posting a message to a public bulletin board, forum, or newsgroup, stick to the topic. Don't make the mistake of indiscriminately posting advertisements to every newsgroup you can think of. This practice, referred to as spamming, will quickly lead to another unpleasant Internet practice known as flaming. What is flaming? Sometimes you might offend someone unintentionally. Be prepared to receive some angry e-mail or be treated rudely in a public discussion. This is called being flamed. If you attack back, you will spark what is known as a flame war. To contain the heat, the best response usually is no response at all.

  If you post an ad to a newsgroup, or send it in an e-mail, clearly identify it in the subject line. That way people who aren't interested can delete it.

  To keep messages short, there are some abbreviations you can use:

  < BTW> means "by the way."
  A < G> enclosed in brackets indicates grinning.
  A good one to keep handy in case you're worried about offending someone is < IMHO> -- In My Humble Opinion.
  One of our favorites is < ROTFL>, which stands for Rolling on the Floor Laughing.

  Netiquette isn't something you learn overnight, so don't let your fear of not knowing cyber-protocol hold you back. Some additional resources you can consult include the following:

  For a short and friendly summary, try the UK Beginners' Guide to Good Manners. For the definitive guide, read Arlene Rinaldi's The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette.

  Keep in mind that FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) are very handy documents to read before asking questions. You should always consult them whenever they are available.

  Responsibility in a Virtual World
  The Internet is a strange and wonderful network that has made it possible for people all around the world to connect with each other in meaningful ways. Whether for research, education, business, or fun, the Internet has changed how many of us live, work, and play, in ways we may not even be fully aware of.

  As the Internet continues to evolve, so do the issues that impact the way we use it. Whether you are the consummate hacker or just an occasional driver on the information highway, you play a role in determining the future direction of this road. From privacy, security, and freedom of speech to honesty and consideration in the way we interact with others, we all have a responsibility to preserve and protect its unique character. That means recognizing that while the medium is in many ways a reflection of the physical world, it is in other ways, fundamentally different -- manifesting its own customs and practices.

电脑游戏术语集锦  

  电脑游戏发展至今日,已有数十年之历史。业已形成自己的一套术语系统。我们将一些常用游戏术语做一系统整理,并附英汉对照。以方便玩家查阅:

#
3D Accelerator:3D加速器。一种专门提升PC的3D运算功能硬件,但其不能提升计算机整体的显示效果。

A
ACT (Action Game):动作类游戏。这类游戏提供玩者一个训练手眼协调及反应力的环境及功能,通常要求玩者所控制的主角(人或物)根据周遭情况变化做出一定的动作,如移动、跳跃、攻击、躲避、防守等,来达到游戏所要求的目标。此类游戏讲究逼真的形体动作、火爆的打斗效果、良好的操作手感及复杂的攻击组合等等。

AI (Artificial Intelligence):人工智能。就是指计算机模仿真实世界的行为方式与人类思维与游戏的方式的运算能力。那是一整套极为复杂的运算系统与运算规则。

Alpha: Alpha测试。就是指在游戏制作者控制的环境下进行的游戏测试工作,所以一般来说a测试是在公司内部进行的。

AVG (Adventure Game):冒险类游戏。这类游戏在一固定的剧情或故事下,提供玩者一个可解谜的环境及场景,玩者必须随着故事的安排进行解谜。游戏的目的是借游戏主角在故事中所冒险积累的经验来解开制作者所设定的谜题或疑点。通常这类游戏常被用来设计成侦探类型的解谜游戏。

B
Beta:Beta测试。就是指不在制作者控制的环境下进行的游戏测试工作,所以一般来说Beta测试则是交由选定的测试者单独来进行测试。

Boss:大头目,也称“老板”。在游戏中出现的较为巨大有力与难缠的敌方对手。一般这类敌人在整个游戏过程中只会出现一次,而常出现在关底,而不像小怪物在游戏中可以重复登场。

Bug:程序漏洞,俗称“臭虫”。指那些因游戏设计者与测试者的疏漏而剩留在游戏中的程序错误,严重的话将影响整个作品的质量。

C
Cheat:游戏秘技。游戏设计者暗藏在作品中的特殊技巧,使用后可带给玩者特殊的能力与效果。最先是程序者为快速测试作品而设计的内部秘技,现在几乎已是每个游戏均有秘技。

Clock Speed: 游戏执行速度。即游戏在计算机中被运行的速度,常以Megahertz(MHz)计量。

Code:密码。1)同Cheat条;2)同Source Code条。

D
Doom-like: 三维射击类游戏。即第一人称射击类游戏。游戏画面即为玩者的视野范围。现在此类游戏多称作Quake-like。

E
E3(Electronic Entertainment Expo):美国E3大展。 当前世界上最为盛大的电脑游戏与电视游戏的商贸展示会,基本于每年五月举行。

Easter Egg:复活节彩蛋。 程序中隐藏着的一段意外的内容,常为制作者设计的搞笑内容,经常是关于制作者自己的介绍与调侃。

ECTS(European Computer Trade Show):欧洲计算机商贸展示会。被称为欧洲的E3大展,每年三月和九月于伦敦举行。

Electronic Game:电子游戏。即电脑游戏、电视游戏以及街机和手掌型游戏机的总称。

Engine:游戏引擎。 即一套游戏的主程序。

Experience Point:经验点数。常出现在角色扮演游戏中,以数值计量人物的成长,经验点数达到一定数值后常常会升级,这时人物就会变得更强大。

F
FTG(Fighting Game):格斗类游戏。从动作类游戏脱胎分化出来,就是指两个角色一对一决斗的游戏形式。现在此类游戏又分化出2D格斗类游戏与3D格斗类游戏。

First Person:第一人称视角。就是指屏幕上不直接出现主角,而是表现为主角的视野范围。

Flight Sim:飞行模拟类游戏。是模拟类游戏下的一个门类,让玩家感受到操纵飞机以及飞翔于蓝天上的乐趣。

FMV (Full-motion Video):全动态影像。即游戏的片头、过场和片尾的动态画面。

Forward Scrolling:向前卷轴。即背景不断向玩者趋近的卷轴模式,常出现在第一人称射击或模拟类游戏。

Frame:帧,镜头。即显示画面的动态计量单位。

FPS(Frames Per Second):每秒显示帧数。美国的标准NTSC的电视节目的每秒显示帧数为30。不少电脑游戏的显示帧数都超过了这个数字。

Free Guy:额外的命。在游戏中,你有可能会获得的额外的命,比如收集一定数量的某种宝物。

G
Game Over:游戏结束。这是游戏中最常见的话语,通常是表示游戏者失败,而不是通关爆机。

Gameplay:游戏可玩性。即游戏的玩法,是决定一个游戏有多好玩的重要因素。

Genre:游戏类型。即为不同游戏玩法的游戏作一归类,比如角色扮演类、冒险类、动作类、模拟类等。

GPU (Graphics Processing Unit): 图形处理器。辅助CPU处理图形运算。

Graphics Accelerator:图形加速器。专门的提升显示速度和效果的硬件。

Graphic Adventure:图形冒险类游戏。是冒险类游戏下的一个门类, 相对与文字冒险类游戏。

GUI(Graphical User Interface):图形用户界面。 即计算机与用户的交互界面。

H
Hidden Level:隐藏关卡。指游戏中隐藏的部分,自行发现。即不玩到这部分也能够通关,但玩到后可能会使清洁起变化。

High-Res:高解析度。 即精细的画面显示模式,但游戏的运行速度可能会因此有所下降。

Hint:攻略提示。简单的攻关提示,帮助玩家解决游戏中出现的特别棘手的难题。

HP(Hit Point):生命力。即人物或作战单位的生命数值。一般HP为0即表示死亡,甚至Game Over。

HUD(Heads Up Display):飞行仪表盘。飞行模拟游戏中的常见词,常提供玩家诸如弹药状况、速度、目标跟踪等作战信息。

I
Interactive Movie:交互式电影。即结合游戏要素与电影要素的一类计算机互动作品,常常包含大量的FMV(全动态影像)。

Interface:游戏界面。即玩者操作游戏的方式。它决定游戏的上手难度与可玩性。

J
Joypad:游戏手柄。模拟电视游戏的手柄,通常外接在声卡上。

Joystick:游戏操纵杆。常用来玩飞行、赛车等模拟类游戏的外接操纵杆。


L
Level:关卡。即游戏一个连续的完整的舞台、场景。有时也称作Stage。

Low-Res:低解析度。即粗糙的画面显示模式,但运行速度可稍微提高。

M
Motion Capture:动态捕捉。将物体在3D环境中运动的过程数字化的过程。

Motion Tracker:动作跟踪器。动态捕捉时使用到的设备。

Moves:出招。即格斗游戏中人物的出招技巧。

MP(Magic Point):魔法力。即人物的魔法数值,一旦使用完即不能再使用魔法招式。

MUD(Multi-user Dungeon):多用户地牢,俗称“泥巴”。在互联网络上的一种允许多人参与的实时游戏,一般类似RPG的玩法,但目前多为文字模式。

Multimedia:多媒体。主要指融合多种表现手法的电脑作品。比如FMV(全动态影像),电脑游戏、交互作品等。

N
Network Games:网络游戏。指容许多人通过某种网络协议连线后便能进行集体游戏的游戏种类。

NPC(Non Player Character):非玩者人物。在角色扮演游戏中,玩者会在游戏过程中遭逢到的所有不受控制的人物。这些人物或会提示重要情报线索,或是无关紧要的人物。


P
Password:过关密码。在游戏一开始处输入后便能直接进入后面的关卡。

Pirate:盗版游戏。即国内到处泛滥令游戏制作公司头痛不已的盗版游戏。

Pixel:像素。屏幕显示的最小基本单位。

Platformer:游戏平台。游戏运行的平台,包括Win95、DOS或者UNIX等。

Player Killing:玩者杀手。指在MUD中,专以攻击玩者人物,而不是非玩者人物的一类玩家。

Polygon:多角形。运用在2D屏幕中表现3D环境的多角形单位。

Prototype:原型制作。游戏作品的原型制作也就是指以最快的速度制作出游戏的原型,一个可以执行的程序原型。从这些基础程序与基础图形,制作者可以看到从电脑中表现出来的与原来设想的有多大差距,经过调整磨合后就进入了正式动工了。

Puzzle:谜题。在冒险类游戏中,考验玩者智力的谜题。

PZL(Puzzle Game):解谜类游戏。一类专以不断解谜为主要内容的游戏种类。

Q
Quake-like:三维射击类游戏。即第一人称射击类游戏。见Doom-like条。

R
Round:回合。格斗类游戏中的一个较量的回合。

RPG(Role Playing Game):角色扮演类游戏。这类游戏提供玩者一个可供冒险的世界(Fantasy World)或者一个反映真实的世界(Real World),这世界包含了各种角色、建筑、商店、迷宫及各种险峻的地形。玩者所扮演的主角便在这世界中通过旅行、交谈、交易、打斗、成长、探险及解谜来揭开一系列的故事情节线索,最终走向胜利的彼岸。玩者依靠自身的胆识、智慧和机敏获得一次又一次的成功,使自己扮演的主角不断发展壮大,从而得到巨大的精神满足。

RTS(Realtime Strategy Game): 即时战略类游戏。对应回合制战略游戏,一切都是实时发生,要求玩者具备较好的敏捷与宏观指挥能力。

S
Scaling:缩放比例。有些游戏提供画面的缩放比例的调整。

Second Person:第二人称视角。即追尾视角,紧随游戏主角的背影。

Shareware Software:共享软件作品。

Side-Scrolling:横向卷轴。即游戏画面的前景与背景从左向右移动的卷轴模式,常用于2D射击游戏中。

SLG(Simulation Game):模拟类游戏。这类游戏提供玩者一个可以做逻辑思考及策略、战略运用的环境,且让玩者有自由支配、管理或统御游戏中的人、事物。


常见计算机英语词汇解释(1)
access arm 磁头臂,存取臂
  access time 存取时间
  adder 加法器
  address 地址
  alphanumeric 字母数字的
  analog computer 模拟计算机
  analyst 分析员
  area 区域
  array 数组,阵列
  assembler 汇编程序
  automation 自动化
  band 区
  batch processing 成批处理
  binary code 二进制码
  binary digit 二进制位,二进制数字
  bit 比特,二进制的一位
  branch 分支,支线
  brush 电刷
  buffer storage 缓冲存储器
  calculator 计算器
  call instruction 呼叫指令
  card punch 卡片穿孔机
  card reader 卡片阅读机,读卡机
  cell 单元
  channel 通道,信道
  character 字符
  check digit 校验数位
  circuit 电路,线路
  to clear 清除,清零
  clock 时钟
  code 代码
  to code 编码
  coder 编码员,编码器
  command 指令,命令
  compiler 编译程序
  computer language 计算机语言
  console 控制台
  control unit 控制部件,控制器
  core storage, core store 磁心存储器
  counter 计数器
  cybernetics 控制论
  cycle 循环
  data 数据
  data processing 数据处理
  debugging 调试
  decision 制定
  digit 数字,数位,位
  digital computer 数字计算机
  disc, disk 磁盘
  display unit 显示装置
  drum 磁鼓
  to edit 编辑
  electronics 电子学
  emitter 发射器
  to encode 编码
  to erase 擦除,清洗,抹除
  feed 馈送,供给
  to feed 馈送,供给
  feedback 反馈
  field 字段,信息组,域
  file 文件
  floppy disk 软磁盘
  floppy disk drive 软磁盘机
  flow chart 流程图
  frame 帧
  hardware 硬件
  identifier 标识符
  index 索引
  information 信息
  inline processing 内处理
  input 输入
  inquiry 询问
  instruction 指令
  integrated circuit 集成电路
  to interpret 解释
  item 项目,项
  jump 转移
  key 键,关键码
  keyboard 键盘
  latency time 等待时间  

常见计算机英语词汇解释(2)
library 库,程序库
  linkage 连接
  to load 装入,寄存,写入,加载
  location 存储单元
  logger 登记器,记录器
  loop 循环
  machine language 机器语言
  magnetic storage 磁存储器
  magnetic tape 磁带
  matrix 矩阵
  memory 存储器
  message 信息,报文
  microcomputer 微型计算机
  module 组件,模块
  monitor 监视器,监督程序,管程
  nanosecond 毫微秒
  network 网络,网
  numeric, numerical 数字的,数值的
  octet 八位位组,八位字节
  operator 操作员
  optical character reader 光符阅读机
  optical scanner 光扫描器
  output 输出
  overflow 溢出,上溢
  panel 平板
  parameter 参数,参量
  perforator 穿孔机
  peripheral equipment 外围设备,外部设备
  personal computer 个人计算机
  printed circuit 印制电路
  printer 打印机
  printout 打印输出
  to process 处理
  processing unit 处理部件
  program 程序
  to program 程序编制
  programmer 程序设计员
  programming 程序设计,程序编制
  pulse 脉冲
  punch 穿孔
  to punch 穿孔
  punched card, punch card 穿孔卡片
  punched tape, punch tape 穿孔纸带
  punch hole 孔,穿孔
  random access 随机存取
  to read 读
  reader 阅读程序
  reading 阅读
  real time 实时
  record, register 记录
  redundancy 冗余
  routine 例行程序
  selector 选择器,选择符
  sentinel 标记
  sequence 序列,顺序
  sequential 顺序的
  serial 串行的.连续的
  shift 移位,移数
  signal 信号
  simulation 模拟
  simulator 模拟器,模拟程序
  software 软件,软设备
  sort 分类,排序
  sorter 分类人员,分类机,分类程序,排序程序
  storage 存储器
  to store 存储
  subroutine, subprogram 子程序
  switch 开关
  symbol 符号
  symbolic language 符号语言
  system 系统
  tabulator 制表机
  teleprinter 电传打字机
  terminal 终端
  terminal unit 终端设备  
  timer 时钟,精密计时器
  time sharing 分时
  timing 定时
  track 磁道
  transducer 传感器,翻译机
  translator 翻译程序,翻译器
  to update 更新
  Winchester disk drive 温彻斯特磁盘机,硬盘机
  working storage 工作存储器  


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IN ONE'S HEART OF HEARTS


  What is Teddy giving Angela? Ah it's a special card he has made . There's no message on it, but I see a drawing of Angela inside a heart…and inside that another heart! Oh, I understand what he's saying. He's saying you are in my heart of hearts! That means in the deepest part of his heart and mind Teddy is very, very fond of Angela!

  每个人只有一颗心,英文成语中上的"in one's heart of hearts",是借喻某人在另一个的感情深处里。
泰迪送给安琪拉的是什么?噢,是他自制的一张别致的卡片。卡片上并没有写什么,但却有一幅安琪拉在一颗心里的画。。。。。那是另外一个人的心。 我明白了泰迪的意思。 他是说安琪拉在他的内心深处,在这里 in one's heart of hearts 表示泰迪非常爱安琪拉。


A Piece of Cake


  某天好友Carmen 来到我家中做客,带了一些自制的甜饼干/曲奇饼(cookies)给我品尝,我觉得好吃极了,于是询问她所需的材料及制作方法。
  Carmen 充满自信地对我说:"Oh! It's a piece of cake!"
  当时我并不理解此言的真实含义,心有不甘地对她说:"Don't fool me around! I know these are cookies but not pieces of cake! (跟我开玩笑吧!我知道这些是甜饼干而非一片蛋糕!)"
  岂料Carmen听罢大笑起来,知道我误会她的意思,急忙向我解释道:"A piece of cake, when I mean here, is a very easy task(一片蛋糕在这儿的意思是一件非常容易、简单的事情或任务)。""噢!原来很多时候,英文句子或成语都隐含别意,不能断章取义,否则便贻笑大方了!"


Do Not Miss a Trick


  这一天很忙,老板进来时,我正在改程序,只知道他好像在旁边的桌子上抄些什么。他再进时,我又在电话上,只见他在旁边的贮存室里左瞧右瞧,上下观望一番离去。最后一次他进来,我终于可以闲下来,答完他的问题,我突然想起也该问问他,怎么好像对那个贮存室感兴趣,他说有一个Server(终端机)没处放,看看这里是否可以。 我又问那么第一次进来抄了些什么东西。
  这下老板乐了,说:"Yon don't miss a trick."我心想什么trick (小把戏),我怎么没见到。
原来,"Do not miss a trick"是一句成语,相当于中文的"明察秋毫"、细心警觉之意。也就是说老板以为我那么忙,不会注意到这些小事情,结果我都注意到了。


Getting Cold Feet


  班上一位同学新近找到了工作,我们都向她表示祝贺。她除了表示感谢之外,然后说:"I think I'm getting cold feet."
  我听了觉得很奇怪,就问老师:"为什么她的脚会冷呢?"老师说:"这是美语中的俚语,意思是说'她害怕做新的工作'。"我这才明白她说"getting cold feet"的意思。
Over the Hump
  我在餐厅打工时,有些老客人见得多了,总爱跟我随便聊上几句,有天中午,一位客人一进门就东呵呵地说:"Over the hump today,oh?"见我满脸困惑不解的样子,他又添上一句:"Wednesday today, Weekend is close."
  我这才恍然大悟,Weekday 有5天,星期三一过,离周未也就不远了,果然是"Over the hump(一个星期过去一半了)"了。
  于是联想在台湾上学时,常把星期三称为小周未,偷闲看电影、跳舞。表达方式虽不同,表现出来的却都是盼着周未到来,一解平时工作、学习辛苦的心情。


Screw Driver?


  有一天,我的车子在路上抛锚了,幸好遇到一位好心的美国人下车来帮忙,他细心地帮把车子稍作检查后,就问我:"Do you have a screw driver?"
  他这么一问,我真是满头雾水,我就是driver啊,为什么他还跟我要driver? 于是我就跟他说:"I am the only driver in this car."他听了不禁哈哈大笑,原来screw driver就是螺丝钉起子,跟driver(驾驶员)一点关系也没有。
   (注: screw 螺丝钉)


LOSE ONE'S TOUCH


  Henry used to be known as one of the world's very best trapeze artists. I use the past tense because it would appears that Henry has lost his touch."Whoops! There goes another partner!" Henry exclaimed.
  "Maybe it's true that I am losing my touch!" As Henry's partner landed in the safety net, he nodded his head in agreement."To lose your touch mesns to lose your skill or ability,"he said.

  亨利过去是世界著名的"高空秋千"表演者。用过去的标准衡量一下 ,现在的他已经Lost his touch了。
  亨利自已说:"哎,现在是我的塔挡表演出色。也许我真的是技不如人了!"他的搭档到安全网里点点头赞同说:"Lose your touch就是说你的技能大失水准。"
  在"Lost one's touch"里,touch一词并非接触的意思,而是指技艺或能力。因此,这个俗语就解释为对某事变得生疏,或者表现大失水准。


Foxhole

  朋友不是一位职业军人,但他酷爱兵法。他有一位亲戚晚辈,正在读美国维吉尼亚军官学校,放假后他向这位军校学生借到一本"连作战"的课本,每日潜心研究。书中一再强调士兵在某种情况下要挖狐狸洞( Foxhole),他大惑不解。
作战或攻或守,目的都是消灭敌人,与狐狸毫无关系,何以每人都要挖狐狸洞……,真是百思难解。
  直到多时以后请教一位职业军官,他才了解。原来作战时,如无地形地物可以掩护自己时,要挖一个很简单的坑,把自己的身体掩藏在坑中,只露出头来看清目标射击敌人。这种坑虽然英文直译是狐狸洞,但与狐狸毫无关系,而中文名正式名称为"散兵坑",而非"狐狸洞"。

Right

  我刚做职业司机就载了一位ING银行的小姐去新泽西,一出高速公路便主动问她:"Turn Left?" "Right." 她回答。我便向左转去,她急忙解释她的意思是右转,我这才如梦初醒。

Graveyard

  在美伴读已数年,但因大部分时间都呆在家中,所以我的英文进步有限,对一些特殊用语更是摸不着头绪。
  某日,一边吃饭,一边看儿子由学校带回来的刊物,见其中一则征电话线生的广告,下面附注着:"Evening and graveyard, apply in person."我对儿子说:"晚上在墓园做接线生,这个工作谁敢去应征啊?"
  儿子接过报纸一看,笑得喷饭,止住笑后,他耐心地向我解释说:"graveyard在此是指深夜的班,并非字面上墓园的意思。所以这则广告是要征晚班及夜班的电话接线生,且要当面去申请。"
  我听完儿子的解释不禁扼腕,唉!这则广告上的每个英文字我都认识,但对整句语的了解却是失之毫厘差之千里啊!


THE OLD SCHOOL TIE

  Boys attending private school in Britain wear neckties in the colours of their school, each school having its unique tie . In later years, graduates are said to award favours to those who attended the same boyhood schools. That has led to what is called the old school tie, and it is often criticized as being typical of the British class system ,"We didn't win the contract. Our boss said it was due to the old school tie because he didn't attend Axton."

  在美国就读私校的男童都要结领带,而每一所学校都有独特的领带。若干年后,校友之间互相关照,给予优惠的习气,就是所谓的"the old school tie", 因为tie 一字语带双关,既解释为领带,又意指关系。

  the old school tie 是英国社会一种典型的不良习气。"我们没有得到那份合约,老板说因为他没上过埃克斯顿(中学),没有'校友关系',所以失败了。"


Have a turkey on one's back

  感恩节在美国朋友Bob家聚会。Bob 夫妇每年都会邀请亲朋好友去他们家,大家互相都很熟了,要是谁没来,大家都会问为什么。有个朋友Audun能吃能喝说,大家都很喜欢他。可是这次Audun 迟迟未到,我建议是否打个电话过去催一催。 Bob说不必了,"He's got turkey on his back."

  我一听纳闷了。Bob不是已经在烤turkey了吗?Audun为何还要再背只turkey来呢?原来Bob已打过电话,知道Audun那天已喝多了点,恐怕来不及了。Have a turkey on one's back是喝醉酒或吸毒成瘾的意思。当然我们都知道Audun只是贪杯而已,他可不会去吸毒的。

Leave welll enough alone

  每年10月得克萨期州有一次TAAS考试,全称Texas assessment of Academic Skills。每一个得州高中生,想毕业就一定要考过TAAS我当然也不例外。考前老师对全班同学说:Leave well enough alone.但我并未理解,在班里数学一向第一的我,考完后即开开心心上其他的课去了。

  两个月过后,老师告诉我数学得了78分。我百思不得其解,便向老师要来了原题及答题卷,我发现有许多题自己原本做对了,却又在检查时改错了。这里我才明白老师讲的Leave well enough alone的意思了:不要画蛇添足

SMOKE LIKE A CHIMNEY

  Lenny Long's doctor suggested he give up smoking."Lenny, you smoke like a chimney," he said,"Smoking does terrible harm.It's a very serious threat to a person's health. " Lenny's wife was also concerned."You sit in your chair every night smoking like a chimney," she stopped. Someone who smokes like a chimney smokes a great deal-and usually continuously.

  莱尼的医生劝他戒烟,医生说:"你抽得实在太多了。"莱尼的妻子也皱眉说:"你每天晚上都坐在那儿抽烟,就像个大烟囱。抽烟对身体伤害很大的。"

  莱尼终于听从忠告,把烟戒了。Chimney是排烟的烟囱。一个人抽很多烟,或者是不停地抽烟,可以说他"Smoke like a chimney"。

 


Party Pooper


  我们几个朋友聚在一起,有人提议除夕夜时一起去Pasadena(帕萨迪纳,加州城市)排队占位子,好看元旦早晨的玫瑰花车游行。正当大家兴致勃勃地讨论各项细节时,Jill却高唱反调,企图阻止我们成行。

  于是,Belle就劝她:"Come on ,take it easy ,Don't be a 'party pooper'!"

  没想到Jill会错意,马上认真地跳起来大声抗议:"没有,我才没有放'臭屁'呢!"

  一群人被她逗得笑翻了天,Belle赶紧向Jill道歉说:"对不起,对不起,我不是说你'poop'放臭屁,我是叫你放轻松,不要扫大家的兴嘛!"

You Have Matches?


  一次, 我有机会上豪华游轮观光,自酒吧台拿两杯鸡尾酒想回房间享受,途中遇到一位女士,她看看我后笑着说:"You have matches?"我一愣,答复她说:"很抱歉,我15年前就戒烟了,我没有火柴。"她立该会意到我误解了她的意思,好像是有点抱歉地说:"It's a joke."又方就相互尴尬一笑分开了。

  事后在晚餐桌上聊天,趁机问一位美国朋友,他解释说:"因为她看你两手都忙,就故意开玩笑跟你要火柴,是个非常普通的笑话,不但没有恶意,还有问你需不需要帮忙的意思。"


SING FOR ONE'S WUPPER

   In this idiom, supper can mean money, food, or a home to live in, and the word sing means about the same as to work, "Sing for one's supper means that someone must work to get what he or she desires, be it money, food , or a home," Edna said. "everyone on my farm knows he or she must sing for his (or her ) supper to be fed," Edna smiled.

  在Sing For One's Supper这个成语里,supper指钱、食物、房子等,sing则指凭工作赚取这些东西。安娜说:"Sing for one's supper是指某人若想得到金钱、食物、房子等物质品,必须靠工作获得。在我们农场里,每个人都知道Sing for one's supper这一点。"


  Sing for one's Supper 这句成语出自街头艺人"凭借歌唱谋生"。

 


The Hong Kong Dog

   在一堂电脑课上,铃响后,系里的女秘书突然跑到教室宣布:"Dr. Walker has a touch for the Hong kong Dog and will be here a little bit late."

  听完后,我一脸正经地向隔壁的美国朋友抱怨说:"Dr. Walker怎么可以抚弄他的爱犬到来不及上课呢?"

  老美听完后居然爆出大笑说:"真是好笑极了! the Hong Kong Dog并非真指一种狗,而是指某人吃坏肚子、拉肚子的意思。"这一解释倒让我尴尬得无地自容。

Go Dutch

  大一时,我和外教关系较好。一天他请我吃水饺,我很高兴,以为他碰到好事要请客,就欣然前往。我畅开肚皮大吃一顿,吃完嘴巴一抹,坐在那儿等他买单。他吃完微笑着对我说:"Let's go Dutch,OK?"我纳闷了,钱都没付还去什么荷兰。于是,我说:"OK, but you have to pay the money first。"他一听先怔了一下,然后微笑着付了钱,我们就一块儿回学校了。但他没有提去荷兰的事儿了。后来我被告之"go Dutch"是各付各的帐,就是我们说的AA制。以后我就成了喜欢学习的学生,免得再闹笑话。


CHEW THE FAT

   After a hard day's work Nanook and his friend like nothing better than to sit around a warm fire chewing the fat." We're usually so busy we don't have time to get together to chew the fat." Nanook said. To chew the fat is to have a casual chat.

  一天的忙碌工作结束后,纳奴克和他的朋友最喜欢的事情,就是坐在温暖的火边chewing the fat。纳奴克说:"我们都太忙了,很少能有时间一起闲聊。"

  从字面上来看,"chew the fat"是嚼肥肉,其实是闲谈的意思。

 

心里黑暗?

那天是我先生的同事John的订婚宴,我们应邀赴宴。见到John和他的未婚妻,我们由衷祝福。先生还和John聊了一会儿,说着这两天的新鲜事,只听John说:"I am in the dark."

  我纳闷了,这是他的大喜日子,可他的心里怎么这样灰暗。

  回家路上,向先生说起John的看法,这才知道in the dark不是指消极、心里灰暗。John当时那么说,表示他对先生所说的事一无所知。

  所以确切地说,那天in the dark的是我。


龙眼肉是"肉"?

   加拿大一机场,旅客们正排队陆续出海关,忽然出现一阵骚乱,一名华人妇女正举着两盒龙眼肉(longan meat)气急败坏地与海关官员争执。

  原来加拿大官员瞧见包装盒上醒目地印着龙眼肉字样,而肉字被释译成"Meat",于是坚持凡肉类制品一律没收。华人妇女情绪激动地一再申辩龙眼肉不是肉是水果,显然洋人不屑于相信,反而指责她无理取闹强词夺理,警告说若不交出"肉"来,就不能过在,一派秉公办事的架式。

  众华人顿时议论纷纷,有人用英语给加拿大官员解释,龙眼肉就像葡萄干一样的确是从树上长出的果子,不是任何动物的肉。加方官员则回敬说葡萄干(raizin)是干葡萄,并未标明肉字,而龙眼为何不标明龙眼干却偏偏要称作"肉"呢?
在场的华人皆瞠目结舌。

  正当洋人与华人相持不下之际,一名华人老太太挺身而出,她通过翻译坚持要海关官员给她弄一杯热开水过来。西方人无喝开水的习惯,他们都是直接饮用自来水,开水仅是用来冲茶和咖啡的,显然洋水很诧异,不知老太太要耍什么花招。
开水端来后,老太太郑重地将龙眼肉投进开水里,然后举起杯子示范地连水带龙眼肉一并吞下,说道:"这是东方特产桂圆茶,我们华人就是这样享用的。"

  老太太这一通表演令加拿大海关人员瞠目结舌,喃喃地自言自语:"真不可思议,华人除了绿茶、红茶居然还发明了肉茶,华人的肉制品居然有动植物之分。"最后不得不无奈地将那两盒"肉"放行。


"匪帮"在哪里?

  太太切菜不小心割破手指流了血,我急匆匆跑进药店,东搜西寻,神经兮兮地喊着:"Where is the bandit?"店员闻听,都慌了手脚,有的拿起电话找警察,有的拿起棍棒与我一起找bandit 。经我比划后,他们才明白,我找的是bandage(创可贴、止血绷带),不是bandit(匪帮)一场虚惊。


SLEEP LIKE A LOG

  Once a tree is cut and made into logs, the logs don't do anything. They simply lie quietly on the ground. It's from that idea we met this idiom. When someone sleeps like a log he sleeps very well. "I feel great, "Brigitte yawned," I slept like a log last night."

  树木一旦被劈成数段木干(log)后,便只会一动不动地横卧在地上。于是,一个人睡得酣熟时,就被喻为"sleep like a log"。

  "我感觉舒服极了,"布莱德打着哈欠说,"昨晚上我睡得像根木头一样沉。"

 

BIG!

   我刚来美国时,在肿瘤研究所研制一种肿瘤疫苗,已在病人身上试用了,我自认为我的实验技术是很好的。所以有一次我的老板对我说:"The experiment's very big."我随口答道:"No,It's very small for me."老板用奇怪的眼光看着我说:"The vaccine have been tested by patient."(疫苗已给病人试用了)

  我突然感到不好意思,赶快回去问美国技术员,他们告诉我这是很重要的意思(important),老板只是告诉我要仔细,我却误会了。

  我再去查了字典才知道,这个简单的小字在美国俚语中用法很多,如:big men(重要人物)、make big(飞黄腾达)、go over big(走红)等。


Diarrhoea in the Mouth

   我们公司的国际部主任是个语言博士,我们经常找他汇报、请示工作。

  一天,我和分管西班牙贸易的女士在向他请示几笔生意的谈判情况时,谈到一个西班牙客户经常在线上不让我们脱身。主任说:"Yes ,I know , He talks like diarrhoea in the mouth."

  我在旁睁着惊奇的眼睛,心想Diarrhoea不是我们说的"腹泻"吗?为什么嘴里会"腹泻"?

  他似乎看懂了我脸上的问号,马上补充了一句:"You perhaps don't understand what I meant.This means this guy talks too much and too fast like diarrhoea."

  原来diarrhoea in the mouth指一个人说话太多太快,就像腹泻一样。


学士成了单身汉

   我给居住美国久未通音讯的弟弟去信,询问他的工作及生活近况。不久,收到他的回信说他刚结婚,生活美好,并附寄来一张弟媳的照片。全家为之欣喜不已。隔了6个月,弟弟又来信,信中说到自已目前是"Bachelor",在大学里任职,希望换个环境等。读信后,全家为之大吃一惊,弟弟怎么又变成单身汉了呢,(Bachelor的译意是单身汉)。他挑肥拣瘦,好不容易才找到个中意的结了婚,不到一年就离婚了?我写信去问他如何成为Bachelor的,他回信说他在密西根大学毕业后得到学位,意欲进修深造,此时方才心安。

  原来,Bachelor是学士学位的意思,都怪我英文浅薄。

 


AN EAGLE EYE

   "Since I appointed a new department head,business has certainly improved," the boss smiled." The new fellow keeps an eagle eye on all aspects of our operations. He watches the staff with an eagle eye, too . " Someone with an eagle eye watches things closely and carefully. Nothing escapes his attention.

  "自从我任命了一个新的部门主任后,公司业绩大幅提高,"老板得意地说:"这个新人对公司的各项工作都认真负责,对员工的督促监管也很严厉,眼睛像鹰般敏锐。"

  鹰(eagle)有极佳的视力,纵然盘旋于高空上,也能看见地下细小的猎物,于是给了我们"an eagle eye"一用语,比喻某人有锐利的目光。

 

cast pearls before swine

  虽然我苦口婆心、费尽唇舌劝一位朋友戒烟,还给他提供不同的方法和指导,但他始终工时不了,依然是烟不离手。他说他抽烟已有11年历史了,是个老烟民,没法摆脱抽习惯。

  好友Carmen安慰我说:"Don't waste your time and breath. It's not worth casting pearls before swine!(直译是:别浪费你的力气了,根本不值得在猪猡面前撒珍珠!)"我听罢不禁大笑起来,因为想不到她会形容那人为"猪猡"。

  见我大笑,Carmen 向我解释,她并没有挖苦或贬低那人的意思,而"cast pearls before swine "是句英语成语,与中文成语"对牛弹琴"含义相同。


STATK!

  在一次参观学校活动中,我看到一个看板上写着:"STATK!" 心里想:怎么印象中没读过这个单词?回到家后查词典也查不到这个单词。

  事后请教其他老美朋友,才恍然大悟!原来这个"STATK!"根本不是单词,而是"Stop Talk"的缩写,取发音相同,要同学上课专心,不要讲话!美语有许多语汇像中文一样,用简写代替,像"For you"就变成"4U"了!

 

A Windfall

  Many words in English began as idioms. A windfall (wind+fall) is one of them. It once referred to fruit that had been blown to the ground by the wind, but has now come to mean sudden good luck-Particularly in receiving money unexpectedly. "Felix won some money in the lottery and got a welcome windfall."

  许多英文复合字都来源于民间的惯用语," A windfall"便是个例子,它由wind+fall 得来,昔日指风(wind)从树上吹落(fall)的果实;今天引申开来,就解释为一个突如其来的好运,尤指意外获得金钱或横财。

  "弗莱克斯买彩票中了奖,真是飞来横财。"

 

 


COME CLAEN

  "We have ways to make you talk,"Officer Mutt grinned." If you guys don't start telling the truth, I'll find a way to make you come clean! And I don't think you will enjoy it !"
   Mutt's dog ground his teeth and seemed to agree. To come clean is to confess or reveal all the facts about something-especially after telling lies or hiding the truth.

  "我们有办法让你开口,"警官马特对他的嫌疑人说,"如果你小子不老实交待,我们会让你彻底'洗一洗'!我想你不会喜欢那样的。"

  马特的狗舔着它的舌头似乎表示同意。

  "Come Clean"能解作坦白承认,或剖白真相,尤指在撒谎或者隐瞒实情之后。


There's one born every minute

  愚人节April Fool's Day那天,好友Jenner在"愚弄"我失败后,仍不罢休,她坚信一定可以找到一个愚弄我的方法的。我劝她放弃,她却说:"There's one born every minute."我听后觉得一头雾水,每分钟都有一个人出生?问了Jenner才明白,这句话是一句saying(俗语),意思是"总会有人上当的。"

出身紫色?

  某日看杂志,读到一篇对一位集美貌和优雅于一身的服装设计师的专访,在介绍她身世时有这么一句话"She was born in the purple."(出身紫色?)令我颇感费解,忙向Jenner请教。她不慌不忙地解释道:"过去在欧洲,王室和一些声名显赫的家族为了把自己和中低阶级分开,常常向他们卷起衣袖,露出一小段手臂,炫耀自己臂膀上紫色的血管(因为他们从不用暴晒在烈日下干粗重的活,皮肤自然白,血管可见)。此后,人们就用born in the purple来形容那些生于王室或者是显贵家庭的人。"


再迟到,给你一脚?

  一日,Jenner告诉我她在去打工的路上高跟鞋坏了,结果迟到了半小时,正碰上老板心情不好,冲她斥道:"If you're late again, you're getting the boot."所以,Jenner感到很委屈。可我却对她老板说的话感到纳闷,这句话有两种解释:一是"如果你再迟到,就给你一脚。"员工迟到,老板就踢?而且是踢一位女士,这似乎有违他们英国男士的绅士风度;二是"……,你会得到靴子。"员工迟到,老板反而奖励她一双靴子?这似乎又与逻辑不符。

  看到Jenner心情不好,实在不好意思打扰她,只好翻查字典,终于真相大白了:get the boot是委婉地表达解雇某人的意思,同样是这个意思,还一种书面表达方法是give somebody the boot.

 

 

THERE IS MORE THAN ONE WAY TO GET A PIG TO MARKET

  This old saying has very little to do with pigs. It means that there are always new and different ways to do difficult things,"I used to have trouble getting Tommy to study his homework,"his mother said."Then I discovered a technique that worked wonders: I unplugged the television set."she smiled,"Now his grades have improved and he's become a pleasant little boy. You see, there's more than one way to get a pig to market!"

  这句古语与猪一点关系都没有。它的意思是解决困难通常有许多不同的新方法。"我过去很难让汤米做家庭作业,"他妈妈说道,"后来我发现了出奇见效的一招:即把电视关掉。现在他的成绩提高了,变成了一个很讨人喜爱的小男孩。你瞧,'送猪上市场的方法不只一种嘛!'
  " 这句古语虽然直译为"送猪上市场的方法不只一种",但却与猪无关,只是借此表示经常有不同的新方法可应付困难。

 


It's All on You!

   "It's overflowing."在我对面加油的女士对我说。

  我扭回头来,见油箱满了,加油枪却没有自动地停止加油,汽油正从油箱里往外流。我赶忙放开加油枪的开关,停止加油。

  "I guess it's all on you."对面的女士又说。

  什么,油全到了我身上?我吃了一惊,赶快低头看身上,我身上干干的,一点油迹也没有,溢出的油全在地上。

  油全在地上,她为什么说"It's all on you"呢?我很奇怪。

  到公司后,问同事,同事哈哈大笑:"Of course it's all on you."

  原来,"on"除了最常用的"在……之上"的意思外,还有"由……支付"的意思,那位女士说"It's all on you"意思是,加在油箱里的油和流在地上的油全由我付钱。

Only a plate

   我在我先生熊焱加入美国陆军一年半后,于1995年9月加入美国陆军。经过军训后,我被分配到北卡的Fort Bragg著名的第18军第82空降师做行政工作。1996年3月第一次参加全营的为期二周的野外训练。一天早上,我要去吃早饭,班长对我说:"Sgt.Qian, Can you bring me a plate,"我纳闷,怎么只要一个plate,就问:"only a plate?"班长说:"Yes."于是我就去野外餐棚排了很长的队,领了一份早餐,并拿了一个空纸盘子。

  回到帐棚后,我一手端着我的饭,一手把空纸盘子(a plate)递给班长,她接过空盘子,愣了一下,十分纳闷,随后反应过来,笑着大声说:"Yes, Sgt.Qian, you are exactly right!"并把这个故事讲给其他战士听,大家都笑出眼泪来。

  原来班长说的Can you bring me plate?是指让我帮她带一份早餐回来。而我把a plate当作字面上的理解,以为就是一个空盘子。

 

GO OFF THE DEEP END

  In North America, when a person goes off the deep end ,he or she does something that could be considered quite foolish. "When Audrey got a small increase in her salary, she went off the deep end and immediately bought a new car!" When someone in Britain goes off the deep end, he or she becomes angry,"When off the deep end and refused to talk to him for a week!"

  在北美,当一个人"跳进游泳池的深端",他(她)或许做了相当冒失的事。"奥德利才涨了一点点薪水,便忘乎所以,马上买了一辆新车!"而在英国,当某人"跳进泳池的深端",则表示他(她)生气了。"马丽安的男友忘了她的生日,她很生气,一周都不和男友说话。"

  如果一个人不懂游泳,却贸然跳进泳池的深端(the deep end ),便显得轻率了。由此,"go off the deep end "就比喻:一、行事冒失;二、大发脾气。

 

Hang on

   老板一边与一家营造商谈生意,一边在等另外一家营造商报价的电话……电话铃声响起时,我正在电话机旁,果然是报价营造商,我问老板要不要马上接电话。他对我说:"Hang on",我不明白他要我稍等一下,便把电话给"挂上"了。气得老板直跺脚。

no standing 与 free-standing

  no standing意思是不准在此停车,即使司机在车上也不行,也就是"don't stop"或"no car at all",通常用在大城市交通十分拥挤的地方。

  至于"no parking",意思也是不准在此停车,但司机还可以坐在车里一段时间,必要时,可随时移动车子,也就是"you may stay in your car for a short period of time."。

  但是free-standing是形容词,意思是"独立的",多指特别用途而盖的单独建筑物或指一大建筑物的某种装饰。(individual or separate building for a specific purpose)

  例如:There is a new free-standing restaurant near the downtown area.(在市中心区附近有座新的独立餐馆)

 


CALF LOVE

  Bright Eyes has a new friend and he seems to be in love with her!"She's a beautiful calf named Sadie." Bright Eyes smiled. It may seem unusual for a dog to de remantic about a calf, but I won't say anything to Bright Eyes about that because he's helping me explain the expression calf love. Calf love is kind of youthful love that young people have for each other."I don't have calf love!" Bright Eyes exclaimed."Sadie and I are just good friends!"


  布兰特·爱斯有个新朋友,看上去他爱上了她。布兰特笑说:"她是一个漂亮的姑娘,叫桑迪。"一条狗对一头牛存有罗曼蒂克的想法,看上去似乎很不寻常。但我不会对此发表任何意见,因为布兰特帮我懂得了Calf Love的意思。

  Calf是小牛;"Calf Love"比喻一种发生于少男少女之间的爱情。

  布兰特解释说:"我和桑迪没有早恋,我们只是好朋友。"

 


Out to lunch!

  我和同事埋首工作一上午,转眼就到了午休时间,公司里德高望重的老美顾问这时探首进来,我看准他要出去吃饭,就说:"Out to Lunch?"

  老先生顿了一下,然后孩童似地嘻嘻笑了起来;笑得那么开怀,连脸都给胀红了。见同事一脸茫然,他才喘气告诉我们out to lunch正面意思是去吃午饭,若当俚语解,是指这个人脑子不清楚,是做白日梦,不专注,甚至有呆呆的意思呢。

Nickel and Dime Someone

   一个客户在电话线上和我就一笔生意讨价还价,硬要在我的报价上再砍掉一角钱,当时我和他据理力争,他说:"I am not trying to nickel and diam you."我当时就冲口回答说:"I don't need your nickel and diam."(我不需要分分角角),事后,经美国同事解释,原来这个客户当时就是和我在讨价还价。Nickel and Dime Someone 即为讨价还价。


Subway在那里?

  年前侄女来家数日后,欲回旧金山,飞机是上午8时起飞。我们要她乘地铁去机场,但不知地铁第一班是几点钟开车。
小女即打电话给查号台,随即打电话给对方,只听她对话筒说:"什么?9:00AM才开始,那上早班的人,怎么办?"对方回答说:"这个,我不知道。"

  后来,我们才发现,原来小女发音不清,以致查号台给的不是Subway station(地铁车部)的号码而是附近Subway store (一间三明治专卖店)电话号码。


只吃葡萄不吃子

   某日我得知Pyongenol葡萄子又称OPC(Oligoem-ric Proanthocyanidis 低聚的花色素原),是强力抗氧化剂,保护心血管,健康食品店有售,随即告诉有心脏病的哥哥。嫂子正忙着家事,听后不明就里地说:"难怪他心脏不好,因为他平常光吃葡萄,不吃子。"大伙哑然失笑。

 

posted on 2005-05-21 14:39 永远的月亮 阅读(...) 评论(...)  编辑 收藏