View的onSaveInstanceState和onRestoreInstanceState过程分析

  为什么要介绍这2个方法呢?这是因为在我们的开发中最近遇到了一个很诡异的bug。大体是这样的:在我们的ViewPager中

有2页的root view都是ScrollView,我们在xml里面都用了android:id="@+id/scroll_view"这样的代码,即2个布局里面的

ScrollView用了同一个id。我们重载了ScrollView的onSaveInstanceState()用来save当前的scrollX和scrollY,在使用过程中

发现restore回来的时候其中一个的scrollY总是不对并且好像等于另一个的scrollY。这让我们很是疑惑,最终我们的一个工程师发现

了问题所在,就是因为2个ScrollView用了同一个id,所以导致系统在save state的时候一个覆盖了另一个的结果。接下来的内容,我

们就重点来看看这个save的过程。当然了,可能有人会问我们为啥要自己save ScrollView的滚动位置呢,难道Android系统自己没做吗?

答案是,是的,至少可以说在各个版本的Android之间没做好,看眼源码:

    @Override
    protected Parcelable onSaveInstanceState() {
        if (mContext.getApplicationInfo().targetSdkVersion <= Build.VERSION_CODES.JELLY_BEAN_MR2) {
            // Some old apps reused IDs in ways they shouldn't have.
            // Don't break them, but they don't get scroll state restoration.
            return super.onSaveInstanceState(); // 看到了没,这里有个版本检测,还有一段原因,所以各个版本的Android就有了不一致的行为
        }                                       // 所以在4.3(包括)以前ScrollView的scroll state是不会保存的。
        Parcelable superState = super.onSaveInstanceState();
        SavedState ss = new SavedState(superState);
        ss.scrollPosition = mScrollY; // 并且这里只save了mScrollY,可能你还需要更多的,比如mScrollX,
        return ss;                    // 所以有这些原因在你一般都想要继承ScrollView然后实现自己的。
    }

    @Override
    protected void onRestoreInstanceState(Parcelable state) {
        if (mContext.getApplicationInfo().targetSdkVersion <= Build.VERSION_CODES.JELLY_BEAN_MR2) {
            // Some old apps reused IDs in ways they shouldn't have.
            // Don't break them, but they don't get scroll state restoration.
            super.onRestoreInstanceState(state);
            return;
        }
        SavedState ss = (SavedState) state;
        super.onRestoreInstanceState(ss.getSuperState()); // 用super的state调用super的实现
        mSavedState = ss;
        requestLayout(); // 状态恢复了之后记得重新layout下,以便展现出来
    }

  好了言归正传,View的onSaveInstanceState和onRestoreInstanceState方法调用都是从Activity或Dialog的同名方法调用开始的,

这里我们看下Activity的对应实现,代码如下:

    /**
     * Called to retrieve per-instance state from an activity before being killed
     * so that the state can be restored in {@link #onCreate} or
     * {@link #onRestoreInstanceState} (the {@link Bundle} populated by this method
     * will be passed to both).
     *
     * <p>This method is called before an activity may be killed so that when it
     * comes back some time in the future it can restore its state.  For example,
     * if activity B is launched in front of activity A, and at some point activity
     * A is killed to reclaim resources, activity A will have a chance to save the
     * current state of its user interface via this method so that when the user
     * returns to activity A, the state of the user interface can be restored
     * via {@link #onCreate} or {@link #onRestoreInstanceState}.
     *
     * <p>Do not confuse this method with activity lifecycle callbacks such as
     * {@link #onPause}, which is always called when an activity is being placed
     * in the background or on its way to destruction, or {@link #onStop} which
     * is called before destruction.  One example of when {@link #onPause} and
     * {@link #onStop} is called and not this method is when a user navigates back
     * from activity B to activity A: there is no need to call {@link #onSaveInstanceState}
     * on B because that particular instance will never be restored, so the
     * system avoids calling it.  An example when {@link #onPause} is called and
     * not {@link #onSaveInstanceState} is when activity B is launched in front of activity A:
     * the system may avoid calling {@link #onSaveInstanceState} on activity A if it isn't
     * killed during the lifetime of B since the state of the user interface of
     * A will stay intact.
     *
     * <p>The default implementation takes care of most of the UI per-instance
     * state for you by calling {@link android.view.View#onSaveInstanceState()} on each
     * view in the hierarchy that has an id, and by saving the id of the currently
     * focused view (all of which is restored by the default implementation of
     * {@link #onRestoreInstanceState}).  If you override this method to save additional
     * information not captured by each individual view, you will likely want to
     * call through to the default implementation, otherwise be prepared to save
     * all of the state of each view yourself.
     *
     * <p>If called, this method will occur before {@link #onStop}.  There are
     * no guarantees about whether it will occur before or after {@link #onPause}.
     * 
     * @param outState Bundle in which to place your saved state.
     * 
     * @see #onCreate
     * @see #onRestoreInstanceState
     * @see #onPause
     */
    protected void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle outState) { // 此方法的doc非常长且详细,你需要认真阅读下
        outState.putBundle(WINDOW_HIERARCHY_TAG, mWindow.saveHierarchyState()); // 注意这里的mWindow.saveHierarchyState()调用
        Parcelable p = mFragments.saveAllState();                               // 从这里开始会调用到View层次结构中的对应方法
        if (p != null) {
            outState.putParcelable(FRAGMENTS_TAG, p);
        }
        getApplication().dispatchActivitySaveInstanceState(this, outState);
    }

    /**
     * This method is called after {@link #onStart} when the activity is
     * being re-initialized from a previously saved state, given here in
     * <var>savedInstanceState</var>.  Most implementations will simply use {@link #onCreate}
     * to restore their state, but it is sometimes convenient to do it here
     * after all of the initialization has been done or to allow subclasses to
     * decide whether to use your default implementation.  The default
     * implementation of this method performs a restore of any view state that
     * had previously been frozen by {@link #onSaveInstanceState}.
     * 
     * <p>This method is called between {@link #onStart} and
     * {@link #onPostCreate}.
     * 
     * @param savedInstanceState the data most recently supplied in {@link #onSaveInstanceState}.
     * 
     * @see #onCreate
     * @see #onPostCreate
     * @see #onResume
     * @see #onSaveInstanceState
     */
    protected void onRestoreInstanceState(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        if (mWindow != null) {
            Bundle windowState = savedInstanceState.getBundle(WINDOW_HIERARCHY_TAG);
            if (windowState != null) {
                mWindow.restoreHierarchyState(windowState); // 同样的调用Window的restoreHierarchyState方法
            }
        }
    }

   紧接着,我们看下Window中的实现:

    public abstract Bundle saveHierarchyState();
    
    public abstract void restoreHierarchyState(Bundle savedInstanceState);

    // 我们看到Window中只是2个抽象方法,其具体实现还得看PhoneWindow类

    /** {@inheritDoc} */
    @Override
    public Bundle saveHierarchyState() {
        Bundle outState = new Bundle(); // new一个Bundle(其实现了Parcelable接口)
        if (mContentParent == null) { // 这个字段还有印象吗?如果不清楚了你可以参看前面的这篇文章
            return outState;          // http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaoweiz/p/3787844.html
        }
        // 注意这里的container传递的是一个SparseArray,我们前面介绍过:http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaoweiz/p/3667689.html
        SparseArray<Parcelable> states = new SparseArray<Parcelable>();
        mContentParent.saveHierarchyState(states); // 进入view层次结构的save state
        outState.putSparseParcelableArray(VIEWS_TAG, states);

        // save the focused view id
        View focusedView = mContentParent.findFocus();
        if (focusedView != null) {
            if (focusedView.getId() != View.NO_ID) {
                outState.putInt(FOCUSED_ID_TAG, focusedView.getId());
            } else {
                if (false) {
                    Log.d(TAG, "couldn't save which view has focus because the focused view "
                            + focusedView + " has no id.");
                }
            }
        }

        // save the panels
        SparseArray<Parcelable> panelStates = new SparseArray<Parcelable>();
        savePanelState(panelStates);
        if (panelStates.size() > 0) {
            outState.putSparseParcelableArray(PANELS_TAG, panelStates);
        }

        if (mActionBar != null) {
            SparseArray<Parcelable> actionBarStates = new SparseArray<Parcelable>();
            mActionBar.saveHierarchyState(actionBarStates);
            outState.putSparseParcelableArray(ACTION_BAR_TAG, actionBarStates);
        }

        return outState;
    }

    /** {@inheritDoc} */
    @Override
    public void restoreHierarchyState(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        if (mContentParent == null) {
            return;
        }

        SparseArray<Parcelable> savedStates
                = savedInstanceState.getSparseParcelableArray(VIEWS_TAG);
        if (savedStates != null) {
            mContentParent.restoreHierarchyState(savedStates); // 同save的过程
        }

        // restore the focused view
        int focusedViewId = savedInstanceState.getInt(FOCUSED_ID_TAG, View.NO_ID);
        if (focusedViewId != View.NO_ID) {
            View needsFocus = mContentParent.findViewById(focusedViewId);
            if (needsFocus != null) {
                needsFocus.requestFocus();
            } else {
                Log.w(TAG,
                        "Previously focused view reported id " + focusedViewId
                                + " during save, but can't be found during restore.");
            }
        }

        // restore the panels
        SparseArray<Parcelable> panelStates = savedInstanceState.getSparseParcelableArray(PANELS_TAG);
        if (panelStates != null) {
            restorePanelState(panelStates);
        }

        if (mActionBar != null) {
            SparseArray<Parcelable> actionBarStates =
                    savedInstanceState.getSparseParcelableArray(ACTION_BAR_TAG);
            if (actionBarStates != null) {
                mActionBar.restoreHierarchyState(actionBarStates);
            } else {
                Log.w(TAG, "Missing saved instance states for action bar views! " +
                        "State will not be restored.");
            }
        }
    }

 这里由于ViewGroup没有覆写save/restoreHierarchyState()方法,所以最终调用的是View中的方法,这里我们看下其源码:

    /**
     * Store this view hierarchy's frozen state into the given container.
     *
     * @param container The SparseArray in which to save the view's state.
     *
     * @see #restoreHierarchyState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #dispatchSaveInstanceState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #onSaveInstanceState()
     */
    public void saveHierarchyState(SparseArray<Parcelable> container) {
        dispatchSaveInstanceState(container); // 调相应的dispatchXXX方法
    }

    /**
     * Called by {@link #saveHierarchyState(android.util.SparseArray)} to store the state for
     * this view and its children. May be overridden to modify how freezing happens to a
     * view's children; for example, some views may want to not store state for their children.
     *
     * @param container The SparseArray in which to save the view's state.
     *
     * @see #dispatchRestoreInstanceState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #saveHierarchyState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #onSaveInstanceState()
     */
    protected void dispatchSaveInstanceState(SparseArray<Parcelable> container) {一个View必须有valid(非0)的mID,也就是说你
        if (mID != NO_ID && (mViewFlags & SAVE_DISABLED_MASK) == 0) { // 要么在xml里通过android:id指定要么在代码里通过setId
            mPrivateFlags &= ~PFLAG_SAVE_STATE_CALLED;                // 调用来设置,而且SAVE_DISABLED位没被打开,save才会发生
            Parcelable state = onSaveInstanceState();                 // 换句话说我们本文讲的所有东西都是和有valid id的View相关的,
            if ((mPrivateFlags & PFLAG_SAVE_STATE_CALLED) == 0) {     // 和NO_ID的View无关
                throw new IllegalStateException( // 注意这里的检测,也就是说子类必须要调用父类的onSaveInstanceState()方法,否则会抛异常
                        "Derived class did not call super.onSaveInstanceState()");
            }
            if (state != null) {
                // Log.i("View", "Freezing #" + Integer.toHexString(mID)
                // + ": " + state);
                container.put(mID, state); // 这行代码,将state放进SparseArray中,以view自身的id为key,所以我们一开始的例子在这里
            }                              // 就有问题了,key相同的情况下,后面的put会覆盖掉前面put的结果
        }
    }

    /**
     * Hook allowing a view to generate a representation of its internal state
     * that can later be used to create a new instance with that same state.
     * This state should only contain information that is not persistent or can
     * not be reconstructed later. For example, you will never store your
     * current position on screen because that will be computed again when a
     * new instance of the view is placed in its view hierarchy.
     * <p>
     * Some examples of things you may store here: the current cursor position
     * in a text view (but usually not the text itself since that is stored in a
     * content provider or other persistent storage), the currently selected
     * item in a list view.
     *
     * @return Returns a Parcelable object containing the view's current dynamic
     *         state, or null if there is nothing interesting to save. The
     *         default implementation returns null.
     * @see #onRestoreInstanceState(android.os.Parcelable)
     * @see #saveHierarchyState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #dispatchSaveInstanceState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #setSaveEnabled(boolean)
     */
    protected Parcelable onSaveInstanceState() { // callback方法或者也可以叫hook(钩子),允许客户代码覆写来实现自己的save逻辑
        mPrivateFlags |= PFLAG_SAVE_STATE_CALLED; // 设置位标志,在dispatchXXX里当onSaveInstanceState返回时会再次检测这个位
        return BaseSavedState.EMPTY_STATE; // 默认不save任何东西,也即do nothing
    }

    /**
     * Restore this view hierarchy's frozen state from the given container.
     *
     * @param container The SparseArray which holds previously frozen states.
     *
     * @see #saveHierarchyState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #dispatchRestoreInstanceState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #onRestoreInstanceState(android.os.Parcelable)
     */
    public void restoreHierarchyState(SparseArray<Parcelable> container) {
        dispatchRestoreInstanceState(container);
    }

    /**
     * Called by {@link #restoreHierarchyState(android.util.SparseArray)} to retrieve the
     * state for this view and its children. May be overridden to modify how restoring
     * happens to a view's children; for example, some views may want to not store state
     * for their children.
     *
     * @param container The SparseArray which holds previously saved state.
     *
     * @see #dispatchSaveInstanceState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #restoreHierarchyState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #onRestoreInstanceState(android.os.Parcelable)
     */
    protected void dispatchRestoreInstanceState(SparseArray<Parcelable> container) {
        if (mID != NO_ID) {
            Parcelable state = container.get(mID); // 通过id拿到saved state
            if (state != null) {
                // Log.i("View", "Restoreing #" + Integer.toHexString(mID)
                // + ": " + state);
                mPrivateFlags &= ~PFLAG_SAVE_STATE_CALLED; // 关闭位标志,在onRestoreInstanceState里会再次打开它
                onRestoreInstanceState(state); 
                if ((mPrivateFlags & PFLAG_SAVE_STATE_CALLED) == 0) { // 检查有没有记得调用super的实现
                    throw new IllegalStateException(
                            "Derived class did not call super.onRestoreInstanceState()");
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Hook allowing a view to re-apply a representation of its internal state that had previously
     * been generated by {@link #onSaveInstanceState}. This function will never be called with a
     * null state.
     *
     * @param state The frozen state that had previously been returned by
     *        {@link #onSaveInstanceState}.
     *
     * @see #onSaveInstanceState()
     * @see #restoreHierarchyState(android.util.SparseArray)
     * @see #dispatchRestoreInstanceState(android.util.SparseArray)
     */
    protected void onRestoreInstanceState(Parcelable state) { // callback回调,在这里restore(save的反向过程)
        mPrivateFlags |= PFLAG_SAVE_STATE_CALLED; // 打开位标志
        if (state != BaseSavedState.EMPTY_STATE && state != null) { // 注意这个异常检测。。。
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Wrong state class, expecting View State but "
                    + "received " + state.getClass().toString() + " instead. This usually happens "
                    + "when two views of different type have the same id in the same hierarchy. "
                    + "This view's id is " + ViewDebug.resolveId(mContext, getId()) + ". Make sure "
                    + "other views do not use the same id.");
        }
    }

  最后,为了完整起见,我们看一个典型&简单的View子类对这2个方法的实现,android.widget.CompoundButton,源码如下:

    @Override
    public Parcelable onSaveInstanceState() {
        // Force our ancestor class to save its state
        setFreezesText(true);
        Parcelable superState = super.onSaveInstanceState(); // 记得调用super的实现,否则会抛异常的

        SavedState ss = new SavedState(superState);

        ss.checked = isChecked();
        return ss; // 返回我们自己的状态
    }

    @Override
    public void onRestoreInstanceState(Parcelable state) {
        SavedState ss = (SavedState) state;
  
        super.onRestoreInstanceState(ss.getSuperState()); // 同样记得调用super的实现
        setChecked(ss.checked); // restore回来。。。
        requestLayout(); // 重新layout下
    }

这里再附上一个StackOverflow上关于此主题的问答帖:

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/3542333/how-to-prevent-custom-views-from-losing-state-across-screen-orientation-changes

  现在为止,我们可以重新审视下Android中关于View id的说法了。官方的说法是在整个view树中id不一定非要唯一,但你至少要

保证在你搜索的这部分view树中是唯一的(局部唯一)。因为很显然,如果同一个layout文件中有2个id都是"android:id="@+id/button"

的Button,那你通过findViewById的时候只能找到前面的button,后面的那个就没机会被找到了,所以Android的说法是合理的。只是

在本文一开始那里的情况下,它没有提及,所以还应该加上特别重要的一条:当你的View确定要save/restore状态的时候,一定要保证

他们有unique的id!因为Android内部用id作为保存、恢复状态时使用的Key(SparseArray的key),否则就会发生一个覆盖另一个的

悲剧而你却得不到任何提示或警告。

 

  这篇文章算是实际开发中的经验之谈,希望对大家的日常开发有所帮助,也希望能少一个走弯路、深夜debug的poor dev,enjoy。。。

 

posted @ 2014-06-29 09:28 xiaoweiz 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏