Python开发【第十九篇】:Python操作MySQL

本篇对于Python操作MySQL主要使用两种方式:

  • 原生模块 pymsql
  • ORM框架 SQLAchemy

pymsql

pymsql是Python中操作MySQL的模块,其使用方法和MySQLdb几乎相同。

下载安装

pip3 install pymysql

使用操作

1、执行SQL

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import pymysql
 
# 创建连接
conn = pymysql.connect(host='127.0.0.1', port=3306, user='root', passwd='123', db='t1')
# 创建游标
cursor = conn.cursor()
 
# 执行SQL,并返回收影响行数
effect_row = cursor.execute("update hosts set host = '1.1.1.2'")
 
# 执行SQL,并返回受影响行数
#effect_row = cursor.execute("update hosts set host = '1.1.1.2' where nid > %s", (1,))
 
# 执行SQL,并返回受影响行数
#effect_row = cursor.executemany("insert into hosts(host,color_id)values(%s,%s)", [("1.1.1.11",1),("1.1.1.11",2)])
 
 
# 提交,不然无法保存新建或者修改的数据
conn.commit()
 
# 关闭游标
cursor.close()
# 关闭连接
conn.close()

2、获取新创建数据自增ID

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import pymysql
 
conn = pymysql.connect(host='127.0.0.1', port=3306, user='root', passwd='123', db='t1')
cursor = conn.cursor()
cursor.executemany("insert into hosts(host,color_id)values(%s,%s)", [("1.1.1.11",1),("1.1.1.11",2)])
conn.commit()
cursor.close()
conn.close()
 
# 获取最新自增ID
new_id = cursor.lastrowid

3、获取查询数据

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import pymysql
 
conn = pymysql.connect(host='127.0.0.1', port=3306, user='root', passwd='123', db='t1')
cursor = conn.cursor()
cursor.execute("select * from hosts")
 
# 获取第一行数据
row_1 = cursor.fetchone()
 
# 获取前n行数据
# row_2 = cursor.fetchmany(3)
# 获取所有数据
# row_3 = cursor.fetchall()
 
conn.commit()
cursor.close()
conn.close()

注:在fetch数据时按照顺序进行,可以使用cursor.scroll(num,mode)来移动游标位置,如:

  • cursor.scroll(1,mode='relative')  # 相对当前位置移动
  • cursor.scroll(2,mode='absolute') # 相对绝对位置移动

4、fetch数据类型

  关于默认获取的数据是元祖类型,如果想要或者字典类型的数据,即:

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import pymysql
 
conn = pymysql.connect(host='127.0.0.1', port=3306, user='root', passwd='123', db='t1')
 
# 游标设置为字典类型
cursor = conn.cursor(cursor=pymysql.cursors.DictCursor)
r = cursor.execute("call p1()")
 
result = cursor.fetchone()
 
conn.commit()
cursor.close()
conn.close()
    作业:
        参考表结构:
            用户类型

            用户信息

            权限

            用户类型&权限
        功能:

            # 登陆、注册、找回密码
            # 用户管理
            # 用户类型
            # 权限管理
            # 分配权限

        特别的:程序仅一个可执行文件
练习题

SQLAchemy

SQLAlchemy是Python编程语言下的一款ORM框架,该框架建立在数据库API之上,使用关系对象映射进行数据库操作,简言之便是:将对象转换成SQL,然后使用数据API执行SQL并获取执行结果。

安装:

pip3 install SQLAlchemy

 

SQLAlchemy本身无法操作数据库,其必须以来pymsql等第三方插件,Dialect用于和数据API进行交流,根据配置文件的不同调用不同的数据库API,从而实现对数据库的操作,如:

MySQL-Python
    mysql+mysqldb://<user>:<password>@<host>[:<port>]/<dbname>
  
pymysql
    mysql+pymysql://<username>:<password>@<host>/<dbname>[?<options>]
  
MySQL-Connector
    mysql+mysqlconnector://<user>:<password>@<host>[:<port>]/<dbname>
  
cx_Oracle
    oracle+cx_oracle://user:pass@host:port/dbname[?key=value&key=value...]
  
更多详见:http://docs.sqlalchemy.org/en/latest/dialects/index.html

一、内部处理

使用 Engine/ConnectionPooling/Dialect 进行数据库操作,Engine使用ConnectionPooling连接数据库,然后再通过Dialect执行SQL语句。

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from sqlalchemy import create_engine
 
 
engine = create_engine("mysql+pymysql://root:123@127.0.0.1:3306/t1", max_overflow=5)
 
# 执行SQL
# cur = engine.execute(
#     "INSERT INTO hosts (host, color_id) VALUES ('1.1.1.22', 3)"
# )
 
# 新插入行自增ID
# cur.lastrowid
 
# 执行SQL
# cur = engine.execute(
#     "INSERT INTO hosts (host, color_id) VALUES(%s, %s)",[('1.1.1.22', 3),('1.1.1.221', 3),]
# )
 
 
# 执行SQL
# cur = engine.execute(
#     "INSERT INTO hosts (host, color_id) VALUES (%(host)s, %(color_id)s)",
#     host='1.1.1.99', color_id=3
# )
 
# 执行SQL
# cur = engine.execute('select * from hosts')
# 获取第一行数据
# cur.fetchone()
# 获取第n行数据
# cur.fetchmany(3)
# 获取所有数据
# cur.fetchall()

二、ORM功能使用

使用 ORM/Schema Type/SQL Expression Language/Engine/ConnectionPooling/Dialect 所有组件对数据进行操作。根据类创建对象,对象转换成SQL,执行SQL。

1、创建表

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base
from sqlalchemy import Column, Integer, String, ForeignKey, UniqueConstraint, Index
from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker, relationship
from sqlalchemy import create_engine

engine = create_engine("mysql+pymysql://root:123@127.0.0.1:3306/t1", max_overflow=5)

Base = declarative_base()

# 创建单表
class Users(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'users'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(32))
    extra = Column(String(16))

    __table_args__ = (
    UniqueConstraint('id', 'name', name='uix_id_name'),
        Index('ix_id_name', 'name', 'extra'),
    )


# 一对多
class Favor(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'favor'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    caption = Column(String(50), default='red', unique=True)


class Person(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'person'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(32), index=True, nullable=True)
    favor_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey("favor.nid"))


# 多对多
class Group(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'group'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)
    port = Column(Integer, default=22)


class Server(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'server'

    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    hostname = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)


class ServerToGroup(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'servertogroup'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    server_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('server.id'))
    group_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('group.id'))


def init_db():
    Base.metadata.create_all(engine)


def drop_db():
    Base.metadata.drop_all(engine)

注:设置外检的另一种方式 ForeignKeyConstraint(['other_id'], ['othertable.other_id'])

2、操作表

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base
from sqlalchemy import Column, Integer, String, ForeignKey, UniqueConstraint, Index
from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker, relationship
from sqlalchemy import create_engine

engine = create_engine("mysql+pymysql://root:123@127.0.0.1:3306/t1", max_overflow=5)

Base = declarative_base()

# 创建单表
class Users(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'users'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(32))
    extra = Column(String(16))

    __table_args__ = (
    UniqueConstraint('id', 'name', name='uix_id_name'),
        Index('ix_id_name', 'name', 'extra'),
    )

    def __repr__(self):
        return "%s-%s" %(self.id, self.name)

# 一对多
class Favor(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'favor'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    caption = Column(String(50), default='red', unique=True)

    def __repr__(self):
        return "%s-%s" %(self.nid, self.caption)

class Person(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'person'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(32), index=True, nullable=True)
    favor_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey("favor.nid"))
    # 与生成表结构无关,仅用于查询方便
    favor = relationship("Favor", backref='pers')

# 多对多
class ServerToGroup(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'servertogroup'
    nid = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    server_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('server.id'))
    group_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('group.id'))
    group = relationship("Group", backref='s2g')
    server = relationship("Server", backref='s2g')

class Group(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'group'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    name = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)
    port = Column(Integer, default=22)
    # group = relationship('Group',secondary=ServerToGroup,backref='host_list')


class Server(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'server'

    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    hostname = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)




def init_db():
    Base.metadata.create_all(engine)


def drop_db():
    Base.metadata.drop_all(engine)


Session = sessionmaker(bind=engine)
session = Session()
表结构 + 数据库连接

  • obj = Users(name="alex0", extra='sb')
    session.add(obj)
    session.add_all([
        Users(name="alex1", extra='sb'),
        Users(name="alex2", extra='sb'),
    ])
    session.commit()
    View Code

  • session.query(Users).filter(Users.id > 2).delete()
    session.commit()
    View Code

  • session.query(Users).filter(Users.id > 2).update({"name" : "099"})
    session.query(Users).filter(Users.id > 2).update({Users.name: Users.name + "099"}, synchronize_session=False)
    session.query(Users).filter(Users.id > 2).update({"num": Users.num + 1}, synchronize_session="evaluate")
    session.commit()
    View Code

  • ret = session.query(Users).all()
    ret = session.query(Users.name, Users.extra).all()
    ret = session.query(Users).filter_by(name='alex').all()
    ret = session.query(Users).filter_by(name='alex').first()
    
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(text("id<:value and name=:name")).params(value=224, name='fred').order_by(User.id).all()
    
    ret = session.query(Users).from_statement(text("SELECT * FROM users where name=:name")).params(name='ed').all()
    View Code
  • 其他
    # 条件
    ret = session.query(Users).filter_by(name='alex').all()
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(Users.id > 1, Users.name == 'eric').all()
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(Users.id.between(1, 3), Users.name == 'eric').all()
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(Users.id.in_([1,3,4])).all()
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(~Users.id.in_([1,3,4])).all()
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(Users.id.in_(session.query(Users.id).filter_by(name='eric'))).all()
    from sqlalchemy import and_, or_
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(and_(Users.id > 3, Users.name == 'eric')).all()
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(or_(Users.id < 2, Users.name == 'eric')).all()
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(
        or_(
            Users.id < 2,
            and_(Users.name == 'eric', Users.id > 3),
            Users.extra != ""
        )).all()
    
    
    # 通配符
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(Users.name.like('e%')).all()
    ret = session.query(Users).filter(~Users.name.like('e%')).all()
    
    # 限制
    ret = session.query(Users)[1:2]
    
    # 排序
    ret = session.query(Users).order_by(Users.name.desc()).all()
    ret = session.query(Users).order_by(Users.name.desc(), Users.id.asc()).all()
    
    # 分组
    from sqlalchemy.sql import func
    
    ret = session.query(Users).group_by(Users.extra).all()
    ret = session.query(
        func.max(Users.id),
        func.sum(Users.id),
        func.min(Users.id)).group_by(Users.name).all()
    
    ret = session.query(
        func.max(Users.id),
        func.sum(Users.id),
        func.min(Users.id)).group_by(Users.name).having(func.min(Users.id) >2).all()
    
    # 连表
    
    ret = session.query(Users, Favor).filter(Users.id == Favor.nid).all()
    
    ret = session.query(Person).join(Favor).all()
    
    ret = session.query(Person).join(Favor, isouter=True).all()
    
    
    # 组合
    q1 = session.query(Users.name).filter(Users.id > 2)
    q2 = session.query(Favor.caption).filter(Favor.nid < 2)
    ret = q1.union(q2).all()
    
    q1 = session.query(Users.name).filter(Users.id > 2)
    q2 = session.query(Favor.caption).filter(Favor.nid < 2)
    ret = q1.union_all(q2).all()
    View Code

更多功能参见文档,猛击这里下载PDF

 

posted @ 2016-07-28 07:24 武沛齐 阅读(...) 评论(...)  编辑 收藏