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公告

前言

我在上一篇随笔“在 Ubuntu 10.10 操作系统中安装 Mono 2.8.2”中说过:

所以说,从源代码编译高版本的 Mono,需要先安装低版本的 Mono。

博客无双大赛的评委老赵在我这篇随笔的评论中说:

引用所以说,从源代码编译高版本的 Mono,需要先安装低版本的 Mono。

这说法是不对的,完全可以从一台裸机上安装mono-2.8,编译时自然会先生成个C#编译器,再用它来编译Framework。其实你虽然是并行安装,但是编译mono 2.8的时候没有用到任何mono 2.6的东西。

这样,就让我们在一台裸机上安装 Mono 2.8.2,看看到底要不要先安装低版本的 Mono。

安装 Ubuntu 10.10 Server

首先到 Ubuntu 网站下载 ubuntu-10.10-server-amd64.iso 文件。

然后,在 Oracle VM VirtualBox 4.0 中新建一个虚拟机:

MonoA01

 

注意,为了能够使宿主机能够从网络上访问虚拟机,网络连接方式必须设为 Bridged Adapter,如下图所示:

MonoA02

 

在上图中的 MAC 地址栏输入我在“在 Linux 操作系统中运行 ASP.NET 4 (上)”一文中为 openSUSE 11.3 虚拟机分配的同样的 MAC 地址:

 

以便我家的 TP-LINK 宽带路由路也为 Ubuntu 10.10 Server 操作系统分配同样的静态 IP 地址:192.168.1.251,如下图所示:

 

现在,可以点击 Oracle VM VirtualBox 工具栏的“开始”按钮,开始安装 Ubuntu 10.10 Server 操作系统。

MonoA03

MonoA04

 

我决定安装英文版的 Ubuntu 10.10 Server 操作系统,回答了一些问题,主要是时区、键盘等,开始安装 Ubuntu 的基本系统了:

MonoA05

 

又回答一些问题,主要是用户名和密码,继续安装,中途又要你选择预装的软件:

MonoA06

 

什么也不选,继续安装:

MonoA07

 

等待几分钟后,终于安装完成了:

MonoA08

 

如上图所示,点击 Oracle VM VirtualBox 的“设备 –> 分配光驱 –> Remove disk from virtual drive”后,按回车键重启虚拟机。十来秒钟后,重启完成,进入 login 画面:

MonoA09

 

如上图所示,输入用户名和密码,登录到 Ubuntu 10.10 操作系统。让我们使用以下命令获得一些基本信息吧:

MonoA10

 

从上图中可以看出,Ubuntu 10.10 Server 操作系统的 IP 地址已经是 TP-LINK 宽带路由器分的静态地址 192.168.1.251 了。而且没有安装 Mono,因为这是 Server 版。如果是 Desktop 版,默认是预装了 Mono Runtime 的。最后使用 shutdown 命令关机。关闭 Ubuntu 10.10 Server 虚拟机后,应该在该虚拟机“设置”中把“光驱”从“启动顺序”去除,如下图所示:

MonoA11

设置 DNS 服务器地址

重新启动虚拟机后,再次登录系统。用 vi 修改 /etc/dhcp3/dhclient.conf 文件:

ben@D1520:~$ suod vi /etc/dhcp3/dhclient.conf

在文件末尾追加:

prepend domain-name-servers 192.168.1.1;

然后使用以下命令重启网络服务:

ben@D1520:~$ sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart
 * Reconfiguring network interfaces...                                          There is already a pid file /var/run/dhclient.eth0.pid with pid 2281
killed old client process, removed PID file
Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client V3.1.3
Copyright 2004-2009 Internet Systems Consortium.
All rights reserved.
For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/

Listening on LPF/eth0/08:00:27:51:5b:0b
Sending on   LPF/eth0/08:00:27:51:5b:0b
Sending on   Socket/fallback
DHCPRELEASE on eth0 to 192.168.1.1 port 67
Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client V3.1.3
Copyright 2004-2009 Internet Systems Consortium.
All rights reserved.
For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/

Listening on LPF/eth0/08:00:27:51:5b:0b
Sending on   LPF/eth0/08:00:27:51:5b:0b
Sending on   Socket/fallback
DHCPDISCOVER on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 3
DHCPOFFER of 192.168.1.251 from 192.168.1.1
DHCPREQUEST of 192.168.1.251 on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
DHCPACK of 192.168.1.251 from 192.168.1.1
bound to 192.168.1.251 -- renewal in 3948329 seconds.
ssh stop/waiting
ssh start/running, process 4991
                                                                         [ OK ]
ben@D1520:~$

验证一下 DNS 服务器地址是否设置正常:

ben@D1520:~$ cat /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 192.168.1.1
nameserver 202.96.128.68
nameserver 202.96.134.188
nameserver 202.96.134.133
nameserver 192.168.1.1
domain domain
search domain
ben@D1520:~$ ping www.cctv.com
PING g1.ctc.cctvcdn.net (121.14.55.6) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 121.14.55.6: icmp_req=1 ttl=246 time=23.6 ms
64 bytes from 121.14.55.6: icmp_req=2 ttl=246 time=23.6 ms
^C
--- g1.ctc.cctvcdn.net ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1004ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 23.655/23.676/23.697/0.021 ms
ben@D1520:~$

安装和配置 SSH 登录

由于我们安装的是纯文本模式的 Server 版,无法安装 Oracle VM VirtualBox 的增强功能,因此没有办法直接在 Oracle VM VirtualBox 中复制文本,很不方便。于是,先在 Ubuntu 10.10 Server  操作系统中安装一个 SSH 服务,如下图所示:

MonoA12

注意,上图中的 apt-get install 命令已经执行过一遍了,由于信息太多,滚出了屏幕,这是第二次执行。

现在,需要在宿主机的 Windows Vista 操作系统中安装一个 SSH 客户端软件。到 PuTTY Download Page 下载一个 putty.exe 文件,这是个绿色软件,不需要安装,直接运行就行了:

MonoA13

在上图中的“Host Name” 和“Saved Sessions”中输入“ben.skyiv.com”, 点击“Save”按钮。下次使用 PuTTY 时只要直接双击已经保存的“ben.skyiv.com”就可以登录虚拟机中的 Ubutnu 10.10 Server 了。登录后的画面如下图氘示:

MonoA14

让 sudo 命令不要输密码

参阅“Ubuntu 9.04 安装和配置备忘录”,使用以下命令让 sudo 命令不要输密码:

ben@D1520:~$ sudo visudo

MonoA15

如上图所示,在最后一行输入“%sudo ALL=NOPASSWD: ALL”,再执行以下命令就行了:

ben@D1520:~$ sudo adduser `whoami` sudo
Adding user `ben' to group `sudo' ...
Adding user ben to group sudo
Done.

更新系统

使用以下命令更新系统:

ben@D1520:~$ sudo apt-get update
======> 这里省略了一大堆输出 <======
ben@D1520:~$ sudo apt-get upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages have been kept back:
  linux-headers-server linux-image-server linux-server
The following packages will be upgraded:
  apparmor apparmor-utils bind9-host dnsutils dpkg ifupdown initscripts
  libapparmor-perl libapparmor1 libbind9-60 libc-bin libc6 libcairo2 libdns66
  libdrm-intel1 libdrm-nouveau1 libdrm-radeon1 libdrm2 libfreetype6
  libgssapi-krb5-2 libisc60 libisccc60 libisccfg60 libk5crypto3 libkrb5-3
  libkrb5support0 libldap-2.4-2 liblwres60 libpam-modules libpam-runtime
  libpam0g libplymouth2 libsqlite3-0 libssl0.9.8 libudev0 libxml2
  linux-headers-2.6.35-22 linux-headers-2.6.35-22-server
  linux-image-2.6.35-22-server openssl plymouth plymouth-theme-ubuntu-text
  python python-minimal sysv-rc sysvinit-utils tzdata udev update-manager-core
49 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 3 not upgraded.
Need to get 61.7MB of archives.
After this operation, 36.9kB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?
======> 这里进行漫长的升级,并产生一大堆输出 <======
ben@D1520:~$ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
Calculating upgrade... Done
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  linux-headers-2.6.35-24 linux-headers-2.6.35-24-server
  linux-image-2.6.35-24-server
The following packages will be upgraded:
  linux-headers-server linux-image-server linux-server
3 upgraded, 3 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 45.0MB of archives.
After this operation, 229MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?
======> 这里进行漫长的升级,并产生一大堆输出 <======
Setting up linux-headers-2.6.35-24 (2.6.35-24.42) ...
Setting up linux-headers-2.6.35-24-server (2.6.35-24.42) ...
Setting up linux-headers-server (2.6.35.24.28) ...
Setting up linux-image-server (2.6.35.24.28) ...
Setting up linux-server (2.6.35.24.28) ...
ben@D1520:~$

升级完成后,我重新启动了虚拟机。升级的时候系统并没有提示要要重新启动机器,不知道是 Server 版本是不是可以不重启机器。

下载 Mono 2.8.2 源代码并编译

参阅“在 Ubuntu 10.10 操作系统中安装 Mono 2.8.2”一文,使用以下命令下载 Mono 2.8.2 源代码并编译:

ben@D1520:~$ mkdir src
ben@D1520:~$ cd src
ben@D1520:~/src$ wget http://ftp.novell.com/pub/mono/sources/mono/mono-2.8.2.tar.bz2
--2011-01-08 12:29:27--  http://ftp.novell.com/pub/mono/sources/mono/mono-2.8.2.tar.bz2
Resolving ftp.novell.com... 130.57.1.88
Connecting to ftp.novell.com|130.57.1.88|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 31292886 (30M) [application/x-bzip2]
Saving to: `mono-2.8.2.tar.bz2'

100%[======================================>] 31,292,886   189K/s   in 2m 59s

2011-01-08 12:32:28 (171 KB/s) - `mono-2.8.2.tar.bz2' saved [31292886/31292886]

ben@D1520:~/src$ tar xjf mono-2.8.2.tar.bz2
ben@D1520:~/src$ cd mono-2.8.2
ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ ./configure --prefix=/opt/mono-2.8.2
checking build system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking host system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking target system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c
checking whether build environment is sane... yes
checking for a thread-safe mkdir -p... /bin/mkdir -p
checking for gawk... no
checking for mawk... mawk
checking whether make sets $(MAKE)... yes
checking how to create a ustar tar archive... gnutar
checking whether to enable maintainer-specific portions of Makefiles... no
checking whether ln -s works... yes
checking host platform characteristics... ok
checking for gcc... no
checking for gcc... gcc
checking for C compiler default output file name...
configure: error: in `/home/ben/src/mono-2.8.2':
configure: error: C compiler cannot create executables
See `config.log' for more details.
ben@D1520:~/src$

 

不出所料,因为没有安装 C 编译器而无法继续:

ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ gcc
The program 'gcc' can be found in the following packages:
 * gcc
 * pentium-builder
Try: sudo apt-get install 
ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$

安装基本编译环境

使用以下命令安装基本编译环境,包括 C/C++ 编译器:

ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ sudo apt-get install build-essential
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  linux-headers-2.6.35-22-server linux-headers-2.6.35-22
Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them.
The following extra packages will be installed:
  binutils dpkg-dev fakeroot g++ g++-4.4 gcc gcc-4.4 libalgorithm-diff-perl
  libalgorithm-merge-perl libc-dev-bin libc6-dev libdpkg-perl libgomp1
  libstdc++6-4.4-dev linux-libc-dev manpages-dev patch
Suggested packages:
  binutils-doc debian-keyring g++-multilib g++-4.4-multilib gcc-4.4-doc
  libstdc++6-4.4-dbg gcc-multilib autoconf automake1.9 libtool flex bison gdb
  gcc-doc gcc-4.4-multilib libmudflap0-4.4-dev gcc-4.4-locales libgcc1-dbg
  libgomp1-dbg libmudflap0-dbg libcloog-ppl0 libppl-c2 libppl7 glibc-doc
  libstdc++6-4.4-doc diffutils-doc
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  binutils build-essential dpkg-dev fakeroot g++ g++-4.4 gcc gcc-4.4
  libalgorithm-diff-perl libalgorithm-merge-perl libc-dev-bin libc6-dev
  libdpkg-perl libgomp1 libstdc++6-4.4-dev linux-libc-dev manpages-dev patch
0 upgraded, 18 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 19.6MB of archives.
After this operation, 59.6MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?
======> 这里省略了一大堆输出 <======
ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ sudo apt-get autoremove
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  linux-headers-2.6.35-22 linux-headers-2.6.35-22-server
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 2 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
After this operation, 90.3MB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?
(Reading database ... 67103 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing linux-headers-2.6.35-22-server ...
Removing linux-headers-2.6.35-22 ...
ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ gcc --version
gcc (Ubuntu/Linaro 4.4.4-14ubuntu5) 4.4.5
Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ 

然后重新为编译 Mono 2.8.2 准备配置文件:

ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ ./configure --prefix=/opt/mono-2.8.2
checking build system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking host system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking target system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c
checking whether build environment is sane... yes
checking for a thread-safe mkdir -p... /bin/mkdir -p
checking for gawk... no
checking for mawk... mawk
checking whether make sets $(MAKE)... yes
checking how to create a ustar tar archive... gnutar
checking whether to enable maintainer-specific portions of Makefiles... no
checking whether ln -s works... yes
checking host platform characteristics... ok
checking for gcc... gcc
checking for gcc... (cached) gcc
checking for C compiler default output file name... a.out
checking whether the C compiler works... yes
checking whether we are cross compiling... no
checking for suffix of executables...
checking for suffix of object files... o
checking whether we are using the GNU C compiler... yes
checking whether gcc accepts -g... yes
checking for gcc option to accept ISO C89... none needed
checking for style of include used by make... GNU
checking dependency style of gcc... gcc3
checking for g++... g++
checking whether we are using the GNU C++ compiler... yes
checking whether g++ accepts -g... yes
checking dependency style of g++... gcc3
checking dependency style of gcc... gcc3
checking for gcc... (cached) gcc
checking whether we are using the GNU C compiler... (cached) yes
checking whether gcc accepts -g... (cached) yes
checking for gcc option to accept ISO C89... (cached) none needed
checking dependency style of gcc... (cached) gcc3
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c
checking for gawk... (cached) mawk
checking for bison... no
configure: error: You need to install bison
ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$

这次缺少 bison,使用以下命令安装:

ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ sudo apt-get install bison
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  m4
Suggested packages:
  bison-doc
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  bison m4
0 upgraded, 2 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 782kB of archives.
After this operation, 2,540kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?
Get:1 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/main m4 amd64 1.4.14-3 [290kB]
Get:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/main bison amd64 1:2.4.1.dfsg-3 [493kB]
Fetched 782kB in 5s (140kB/s)
Selecting previously deselected package m4.
(Reading database ... 47512 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking m4 (from .../archives/m4_1.4.14-3_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package bison.
Unpacking bison (from .../bison_1%3a2.4.1.dfsg-3_amd64.deb) ...
Processing triggers for install-info ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Setting up m4 (1.4.14-3) ...
Setting up bison (1:2.4.1.dfsg-3) ...
update-alternatives: using /usr/bin/bison.yacc to provide /usr/bin/yacc (yacc) in auto mode.
ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$

再次为编译 Mono 2.8.2 准备配置文件:

ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ ./configure --prefix=/opt/mono-2.8.2
======> 这里省略了一大堆输出 <======
checking for msgfmt... no
configure: error: msgfmt not found. You need to install the 'gettext' package, or pass --enable-nls=no to configure.

现在需要安装 gettext 软件包:

ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ sudo apt-get install gettext
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  libcroco3 libunistring0
Suggested packages:
  gettext-doc
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  gettext libcroco3 libunistring0
0 upgraded, 3 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 1,856kB of archives.
After this operation, 6,042kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?
Get:1 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/main libcroco3 amd64 0.6.2-1 [101kB]
Get:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/main libunistring0 amd64 0.9.3-1 [438kB]
Get:3 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick/main gettext amd64 0.18.1.1-1ubuntu2 [1,317kB]
Fetched 1,856kB in 17s (109kB/s)
Selecting previously deselected package libcroco3.
(Reading database ... 47612 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking libcroco3 (from .../libcroco3_0.6.2-1_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package libunistring0.
Unpacking libunistring0 (from .../libunistring0_0.9.3-1_amd64.deb) ...
Selecting previously deselected package gettext.
Unpacking gettext (from .../gettext_0.18.1.1-1ubuntu2_amd64.deb) ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Processing triggers for install-info ...
Setting up libcroco3 (0.6.2-1) ...
Setting up libunistring0 (0.9.3-1) ...
Setting up gettext (0.18.1.1-1ubuntu2) ...
Processing triggers for libc-bin ...
ldconfig deferred processing now taking place

继续为编译 Mono 2.8.2 准备配置文件:

ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ ./configure --prefix=/opt/mono-2.8.2

======> 这里省略了一大堆输出 <======

        mcs source:    mcs
        olive source:

   Engine:
        GC:            sgen and bundled Boehm GC with typed GC and parallel mark
        GLIB:          embedded
        TLS:           __thread
        SIGALTSTACK:   yes
        Engine:        Building and using the JIT
        oprofile:      no
        BigArrays:     no
        DTrace:        no
        Parallel Mark: yes
        LLVM Back End: no (dynamically loaded: no)

    Libraries:
        Moon Profile:  no
        MonoTouch:     no
        JNI support:   IKVM Native
        libgdiplus:    assumed to be installed
        zlib:

ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$

终于可以了。总结一下,从源代码编译 Mono 2.8.2 需要 build-essential、bison、gettext 这三个软件包。

编译 Mono 2.8.2

让我们开始编译 Mono 2.8.2 吧:

ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ make
======> 这里进行漫长的编译,并产生一大堆输出 <======
ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$ sudo make install
======> 这里省略了一大堆输出 <======
ben@D1520:~/src/mono-2.8.2$

终于安装好了。

设置 PATH 环境变量

使用 vi 命令修改 .bashrc 文件:

ben@D1520:~$ vi .bashrc

在该文件末尾追加以下语句:

if [ -d /opt/mono-2.8.2/bin ]; then
    export PATH=/opt/mono-2.8.2/bin:$PATH
fi

然后:

ben@D1520:~$ . .bashrc
ben@D1520:~$ echo $PATH
/opt/mono-2.8.2/bin:/opt/mono-2.8.2/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games
ben@D1520:~$

验证 Mono

使用以下命令验证 Mono 是否正确安装:

ben@D1520:~$ mono --version
Mono JIT compiler version 2.8.2 (tarball Sat Jan  8 14:54:41 CST 2011)
Copyright (C) 2002-2010 Novell, Inc and Contributors. www.mono-project.com
        TLS:           __thread
        SIGSEGV:       altstack
        Notifications: epoll
        Architecture:  amd64
        Disabled:      none
        Misc:          debugger softdebug
        LLVM:          supported, not enabled.
        GC:            Included Boehm (with typed GC and Parallel Mark)
ben@D1520:~$ dmcs --version
Mono C# compiler version 2.8.2.0
ben@D1520:~$

可以看出,一切正常。

结论

老赵是正确的,从源代码编译 Mono 2.8.2 的确不需要低版本的 Mono。而是在编译的过程中会译时自然会先生成个C#编译器,再用它来编译 .NET Framework Base Class Library。其实编译前的准备工作就是安装以下软件包

ben@D1520:~$ sudo apt-get install build-essential bison gettext

为什么我会误认为需要低版本的 Mono 呢?其实也是看了老赵在“在 Ubuntu 9.10 操作系统中安装 mono 2.6”一文七楼的评论

真奇怪,装mono 2.6需要mono-complete做什么?
找了点资料,原来是build from source需要一个mono编译器和runtime啊。
不过build from tarball就不需要这些了:)

而没有正确理解评论造成的。

posted on 2011-01-08 15:53 银河 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏