新东方词汇课:古典心法10000学习笔记(一)

最近在看新东方多媒体学习库里面的词汇课程,《古典心法10000》;下载了一份课程笔记,不过发现其中有很多地方不完整,于是就边听边修正笔记。

我同意课程里面提到的关于许多英语学习遇到的问题归根结底是词汇问题,准备看一下视频课程,顺便整理一遍笔记。个人觉得,词汇最终还是需要在日常的听说读写中才能掌握,也并不认为20个课时就可以解决我的单词问题,但是看一遍总归没有什么坏处。

第一课时 综述

人是被欲望和恐惧驱动的。

内容描述:

  1. 单词学习方法简论
  2. 传统单词速记方法的优点和不足
  3. 单词演义方法

学习英语的目的:掌握英语里的最新的信息。

单词的作用: 

1.提高考试能力:

考试中将近40-60%阅读、30-40%语法、30%听力问题,实质上都是词汇问题
阅读:背单词可以大规模提高阅读分数

2.增强阅读能力:流畅的阅读需要8000词汇量 

3.增强听力口语:

马丁•路德•金(公元1929—1968年),美国黑人律师,著名黑人民权运动领袖。一生曾三次被捕,三次被行刺,1964年获诺贝尔和平奖。1968年被种族主义分子枪杀。他被誉为近百年来八大最具有说服力的演说家之一。1963年8月23日他领导25万人向华盛顿进军“大游行”,为黑人争取自由平等和就业。马丁•路德•金在游行集会上发表了这篇著名演说。 

I have a dream 的英文原文:

I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.

But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.

In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."

But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we've come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.

We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children.

It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.

The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom.

We cannot walk alone.

And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead.

We cannot turn back.

There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating "for whites only." We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until "justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream."

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.

Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends.

And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of "interposition" and "nullification" -- one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; "and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together."?

This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South with.

With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

And this will be the day -- this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning:

My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.

Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride,

From every mountainside, let freedom ring!

And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.

And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.

Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.

Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of

Pennsylvania.

Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.

Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.

But not only that:

Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.

Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.

Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.

From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:

Free at last! Free at last!

Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!

其中: 451个单词,46个托福词汇(10%),17个GRE单词(3%)

jam 堵塞
dilemma 左右为难
predicament 进退维谷
fart 放屁

我们到底要记多少单词?8,000 

单词分为基础词汇和扩展词汇。

基础词汇:包括三大词表朗文的2000定义、对比联想词表,牛津的3000定义、对比联想词表,美国的GSL词表
扩展词汇:

单词的记忆方法

传统方法:

  1. 死背单词(rote) rotate 旋转
  2. 词根词缀法  progress 前进 egress (往外走)出口 ingress 入口 regress 退步
  3. 联想法:

型:loop 线圈、环路 peep 偷看

音:ponderous 笨重、沉重(“胖的要死”)
     beacon 信号灯(“避坑”)
     jabber 口吃,快速而不清的说(快)结巴(“周杰伦”)
     stammer 慢结巴,(“舌头太慢” )
     stutter 慢结巴,(“舌忐忑”)

义:brazen 厚颜无耻 bra-zen
     ambulance 救护车(不能拦得车)
     endow 捐赠、馈赠 end-own
     besiege 被围攻

场景:tavern 酒馆

对比联想:hoe 锄头-hole

词根词缀法的缺陷:有的词根只有一个单词?为了记一个单词而不得不记多个词根

联想记忆法的缺陷

  1. 不是每个单词都有这么好的记忆方法
  2. 联想法只能指向一个解释 gloom 郁闷(“一个人耕了100亩地”)、黄昏、微光
  3. 联想记忆法不是人人都试用的方法

传统背单词方式的缺陷:传统及单词的方法几乎都是错误的,其实所有中文单词的解释都是错误的(中文几乎无法清楚解释英文

  1. 不可能涵盖大部分单词
  2. 联想法记忆链有问题
  3. 中文单词解释的错误

电影院 single/double 单数/双数 or 单身/情侣 ?  odd/even 单数/双数

persist/insist 坚持 区分 persist 坚持一段时间(时间延续) insist 坚持一个立场

奇怪的电影译名:when steel to fire 《烈火金刚》 ;Fair well my concubine 霸王别姬 concubine:一起睡觉的小妖怪(意大利),狐仙,小老婆、姘头 

政治家:politician 政客 statesmen 政治家

农民:peasant: An uncouth, crude, or ill-bred person

其他方法:

  1. 英文注释记单词:之前记的单词本身可能有问题
  2. 阅读记单词:太慢

posted on 2013-07-01 13:54 zhaorui 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

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