TRULY Understanding ViewState
ViewState is a very misunderstood animal. I would like to help put an end to the madness by attempting to explain exactly how the ViewState mechanism works, from beginning to end, and from many different use cases, such as declared controls vs. dynamic controls.
ViewState是一只非常容易让人误解的动物。我想结束为了尝试解释清楚ViewState的工作机制而搞得一团糟的状况，从头到尾，从各种不同的用例，比如说declared controls vs. dynamic controls（术语我都不翻了哈）
There are a lot of great articles out there that try to dispel the myths about ViewState. You might say this is like beating a dead horse (where ViewState is the horse, and the internet is the assailant). But this horse isn't dead, let me tell you. No, he's very much alive and he's stampeding through your living room. We need to beat him down once again. Don't worry, no horses were harmed during the authoring of this article.
It's not that there's no good information out there about ViewState, it's just all of them seem to be lacking something, and that is contributing to the community's overall confusion about ViewState. For example, one of the key features that is important to understand about ViewState is how it tracks dirtiness. Yet, here is a very good, in-depth article on ViewState that doesn't even mention it! Then there's this W3Schools article on ViewState that seems to indicate that posted form values are maintained via ViewState, but that's not true. (Don't believe me? Disable ViewState on that textbox in their example and run it again). And it's the #1 Google Search Result for "ASP.NET ViewState". Here is ASP.NET Documentation on MSDN that describes how Controls maintain state across postbacks. The documentation isn't wrong per say, but it makes a statement that isn't entirely correct:
"If a control uses ViewState for property data instead of a private field, that property automatically will be persisted across round trips to the client."
其实并不是外界没有关于ViewState的好的资料，只是他们都缺少了一些东西，而造成整个社区对于ViewState的迷惑。比如说，其中一个关键特性就是，理解ViewState怎么tracks dirtiness是很重要的。然后，这里有一片很好的，深入的关于ViewState的文章似乎指出posted form values使用viewstate维护，但这是不正确的。（不相信我？Disable他们那个例子上的textbox的ViewState，再运行一次）。这是关于"ASP.NET ViewState"的#1 Google Search Result。这里是ASP.NET Documentation on MSDN，解释了Controls怎么across postbacks维护ViewState.这个文档每一句话都没错，当时他得出的一个statement并不完全正确：
That seems to imply that anything you shove into the ViewState StateBag will be round-tripped in the client's browser. NOT TRUE! So it's really no wonder there is so much confusion on ViewState. There is no where I've found on the internet that has a 100% complete and accurate explanation of how it works! The best article I have ever found is this one by Scott Mitchell. That one should be required reading. However, it does not explain the relationship of controls and their child controls when it comes to initialization and ViewState Tracking, and it is this point alone that causes a bulk of the mishandlings of ViewState, at least in the experiences I've had.
这好像暗示说，任何你扔给ViewState StateBag的东西，都会往返于客户浏览器。这不是真的！这么看来，对ViewState有这么对困惑真的一点都不奇怪了。我在internet真找不出能100%完全正确解释Viewstate是怎么工作的文章。我曾今找到最好的一片是this one by Scott Mitchell。这篇值得阅读。然而，这文章并没有解释控件和他们子控件在初始化和ViewState Tracking时的关系，而这正是造成大量误用ViewState的关键所在，至少在我的经验中是这样的。
So the point of this article will be to first give a complete understanding of how ViewState basically functions, from beginning to end, hopefully filling in the holes that many other articles have. After a complete explanation of the entire ViewState process, I will go into some examples of how developers typically misuse ViewState, usually without even realizing it, and how to fix it. I should also preface this with the fact that I wrote this article with ASP.NET 1.x in mind. However, there are very few differences in the ViewState mechanism in ASP.NET 2.0. For one, ControlState is a new type of ViewState in ASP.NET 2.0, but it treated exactly like ViewState, so we can safely ignore it for the purposes of this article.
所以这篇文章的首先会给出一个关于ViewState基本功能的一个完整理解，从头到尾，希望能够堵上很多其他文章的漏洞。在对整个ViewState过程的完全解释以后，我会展示一些开发人员怎么误用ViewState的例子，通常他们根本不会意识到它，和也不知道如何修复它。我首先声明我这篇文章写得一些情况是对于ASP.NET 1.X而言的。然而，ASP.NET 2.0对于ViewState机制只有极少的更改。其中一点，ControlState在ASP.NET 2.0 中是一种ViewState的新类型，但是它跟ViewState几乎是一样的处理方式，所以我们可以很安全的忽略它。
First let me explain why I think understanding ViewState to it's core is so important:
MISUNDERSTANDING OF VIEWSTATE WILL LEAD TO...
- Leaking sensitive data
- ViewState Attacks - aka the Jedi Mind Trick -- *waves hand* that plasma tv is for sale for $1.00
- Poor performance - even to the point of NO PERFORMANCE
- Poor scalability - how many users can you handle if each is posting 50k of data every request?
- Overall poor design
- Headache, nausea, dizziness, and irreversible frilling of the eyebrows.
- ViewSate攻击 - aka the Jedi Mind Trick -- *waves hand* that plasma tv is for sale for $1.00
- 糟糕的性能 – 甚至可以到达没有性能的程度
- 糟糕的可伸缩性 –如果每一次请求都post 50K的数据有多少用户可以处理
If you develop an ASP.NET Application and you don't take ViewState seriously, this could happen to you:
The ViewState form data
ViewState will add your web app's distinctiveness to it's own. Performance is futile
I could go on but that is the gist of it. Now lets move on by starting back from the beginning:
WHAT DOES VIEWSTATE DO?
This is a list of ViewState's main jobs. Each of these jobs serves a very distinct purpose. Next we'll learn exactly how it fulfills those jobs.
- Stores values per control by key name, like a Hashtable
- Tracks changes to a ViewState value's initial state
- Serializes and Deserializes saved data into a hidden form field on the client
- Automatically restores ViewState data on postbacks
While ViewState does have one overall purpose in the ASP.NET Framework, it's four main roles in the page lifecycle are quite distinct from each other. Logically, we can separate them and try to understand them individually. It is often the mishmash of information on ViewState that confuses people. Hopefully this breaks it down into more bite size nuggets. Mmmm... ViewState Nuggets.
由于ViewState全面参与了ASP.NET Framework,在页面生命周期中它的四个角色各不相同。逻辑上，我们可以分割他们，尝试单独一个一个理解他们。ViewState中混乱的信息经常使人们迷惑。希望它能被打碎成小到可以被咬的nuggets…ViewState Nuggets(这作者又来这招了…)
To be continued… Part2