源码剖析Django REST framework的请求生命周期

学习Django的时候知道,在Django请求的生命周期中,请求经过WSGI和中间件到达路由,不管是FBV还是CBV都会先执行View视图函数中的dispatch方法

REST framework是基于Django的API框架,REST framework采用的是CBV的请求模式.

所以在一个项目中,使用了REST framework的时候,

请求到达REST framework后,也先执行REST framework中的dispatch方法

先来看看dispatch方法的源码

def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

    self.args = args            # 函数传递过来的参数
    self.kwargs = kwargs        # 函数传递过来的参数
    
    # 封装request
    request = self.initialize_request(request, *args, **kwargs)
    self.request = request
    self.headers = self.default_response_headers  # deprecate?

    try:
        self.initial(request, *args, **kwargs)

        if request.method.lower() in self.http_method_names:
            handler = getattr(self, request.method.lower(),
                              self.http_method_not_allowed)
        else:
            handler = self.http_method_not_allowed

        response = handler(request, *args, **kwargs)

    except Exception as exc:
        response = self.handle_exception(exc)

    self.response = self.finalize_response(request, response, *args, **kwargs)
    return self.response

查看initialize_request方法,可以知道这个方法接收客户端的request请求,再重新封装成新的request

def initialize_request(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

    parser_context = self.get_parser_context(request)

    return Request(
        request,
        parsers=self.get_parsers(),
        authenticators=self.get_authenticators(),
        negotiator=self.get_content_negotiator(),
        parser_context=parser_context
    )

再查看Request方法的源码

可以知道这个Request类是rest framework中定义的一个类

class Request(object):

    def __init__(self, request, parsers=None, authenticators=None,
                 negotiator=None, parser_context=None):
        self._request = request
        self.parsers = parsers or ()
        self.authenticators = authenticators or ()
        self.negotiator = negotiator or self._default_negotiator()
        self.parser_context = parser_context
        self._data = Empty
        self._files = Empty
        self._full_data = Empty
        self._content_type = Empty
        self._stream = Empty

        if self.parser_context is None:
            self.parser_context = {}
        self.parser_context['request'] = self
        self.parser_context['encoding'] = request.encoding or settings.DEFAULT_CHARSET

        force_user = getattr(request, '_force_auth_user', None)
        force_token = getattr(request, '_force_auth_token', None)
        if force_user is not None or force_token is not None:
            forced_auth = ForcedAuthentication(force_user, force_token)
            self.authenticators = (forced_auth,)

先不看这个Request到底执行了什么操作

但是已经知道经过Request处理过的request已经不再是客户端发送过来的那个request了

initialize_request方法中,有一个方法处理过request,来看看get_parser_context方法的源码

def get_parser_context(self, http_request):

    return {
        'view': self,
        'args': getattr(self, 'args', ()),
        'kwargs': getattr(self, 'kwargs', {})
    }

在这里,view的值是self,代指的是UsersView这个对象,所以get_parser_context方法把UsersView这个类封装进来然后返回

所以get_parser_context方法最后返回的当前对象以及当前对象所传的参数

经过initialize_request函数处理之后的request,现在就变成了

Request(
    request,
    parsers=self.get_parsers(),
    authenticators=self.get_authenticators(),
    negotiator=self.get_content_negotiator(),
    parser_context=parser_context
)

现在再来看看Request的其他参数代指的是什么

get_parsers                 根据字面意思,是解析get请求的意思
get_authenticators          认证相关
get_content_negotiator      选择相关
parser_context              封闭self和self的参数

def get_parsers(self):

    return [parser() for parser in self.parser_classes]

def get_authenticators(self):

    return [auth() for auth in self.authentication_classes]

def get_permissions(self):

    return [permission() for permission in self.permission_classes]

def get_throttles(self):

    return [throttle() for throttle in self.throttle_classes]

def get_content_negotiator(self):

    if not getattr(self, '_negotiator', None):
        self._negotiator = self.content_negotiation_class()
    return self._negotiator

再来看看UsersView这个类中的get方法和post方法

def get(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
    pass

def post(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
    pass

可以看到get方法的参数中有一个request,通过前面可以知道这个request已经不是最开始时到达服务端的request了

这个request方法中已经被REST framework封装了解析,认证和选择等相关的方法

def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

    self.args = args
    self.kwargs = kwargs
    request = self.initialize_request(request, *args, **kwargs)
    self.request = request
    self.headers = self.default_response_headers  # deprecate?

    try:
        self.initial(request, *args, **kwargs)

        if request.method.lower() in self.http_method_names:
            handler = getattr(self, request.method.lower(),
                              self.http_method_not_allowed)
        else:
            handler = self.http_method_not_allowed

        response = handler(request, *args, **kwargs)

    except Exception as exc:
        response = self.handle_exception(exc)

    self.response = self.finalize_response(request, response, *args, **kwargs)
    return self.response

default_response_headers这个方法从它的注释可以看出已经被丢弃了.

再来看initial这个方法

def initial(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
    """
    Runs anything that needs to occur prior to calling the method handler.
    """
    self.format_kwarg = self.get_format_suffix(**kwargs)

    # Perform content negotiation and store the accepted info on the request
    neg = self.perform_content_negotiation(request)
    request.accepted_renderer, request.accepted_media_type = neg

    # Determine the API version, if versioning is in use.
    version, scheme = self.determine_version(request, *args, **kwargs)
    request.version, request.versioning_scheme = version, scheme

    # Ensure that the incoming request is permitted
    self.perform_authentication(request)
    self.check_permissions(request)
    self.check_throttles(request)

先执行get_format_suffix来获取客户端所发送的url的后缀

然后执行perform_content_negotiation方法,从它的注释可以知道这个方法的主要作用是执行内容选择,并把服务端接收到的信息保存在request中

然后再执行determine_version方法

def determine_version(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
    """
    If versioning is being used, then determine any API version for the
    incoming request. Returns a two-tuple of (version, versioning_scheme)
    """
    if self.versioning_class is None:
        return (None, None)
    scheme = self.versioning_class()
    return (scheme.determine_version(request, *args, **kwargs), scheme)

determine_version方法的官方注释中可以知道,determine_version方法的主要作用是

如果url中有版本信息,就获取发送到服务端的版本,返回一个元组

执行完上面的方法,再执行perform_authentication方法来进行认证操作

来看下perform_authentication方法的源码

def perform_authentication(self, request):
    """
    Perform authentication on the incoming request.

    Note that if you override this and simply 'pass', then authentication
    will instead be performed lazily, the first time either
    `request.user` or `request.auth` is accessed.
    """
    request.user

从上面有代码及注释中可以看出,perform_authentication方法的作用就是

执行认证功能,确认进行后续操作的用户是被允许的.
perform_authentication方法返回经过认证的用户对象

执行完perform_authentication方法,就会执行check_permissions方法

def check_permissions(self, request):
    """
    Check if the request should be permitted.
    Raises an appropriate exception if the request is not permitted.
    """
    for permission in self.get_permissions():
        if not permission.has_permission(request, self):
            self.permission_denied(
                request, message=getattr(permission, 'message', None)
            )
            

check_permissions方法的作用是

如果用户通过认证,检查用户是否有权限访问url中所传的路径.
如用用户访问的是没有没有权限的路径,则会抛出异常.

check_permissions方法执行完成后,就会执行check_throttles方法

check_throttles方法的作用是检查用户是否被限制了访问主机的次数
如果用户访问服务器的次数超出设定值,则会抛出一个异常

例如,如果想限制一个ip地址每秒钟只能访问几次,一个小时之内最多可以访问多少次,就可以在settings.py文件中进行配置

def check_throttles(self, request):
    """
    Check if request should be throttled.
    Raises an appropriate exception if the request is throttled.
    """
    for throttle in self.get_throttles():
        if not throttle.allow_request(request, self):
            self.throttled(request, throttle.wait())

initial这个方法执行完成后,request.method.lower把请求的方法转换成小写

# Get the appropriate handler method
if request.method.lower() in self.http_method_names:
    handler = getattr(self, request.method.lower(),
                      self.http_method_not_allowed)
else:
    handler = self.http_method_not_allowed

response = handler(request, *args, **kwargs)

再通过通过反射的方式来执行UsersView类中的get或post等自定义方法

需要注意的是,在执行initial方法之前,使用了try/except方法来进行异常处理

如果执行initial方法的时候出现错误,就调用handle_exception来处理initial方法抛出的异常,返回正确的响应信息

def handle_exception(self, exc):
    """
    Handle any exception that occurs, by returning an appropriate response,
    or re-raising the error.
    """
    if isinstance(exc, (exceptions.NotAuthenticated,
                        exceptions.AuthenticationFailed)):
        # WWW-Authenticate header for 401 responses, else coerce to 403
        auth_header = self.get_authenticate_header(self.request)

        if auth_header:
            exc.auth_header = auth_header
        else:
            exc.status_code = status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN

    exception_handler = self.get_exception_handler()

    context = self.get_exception_handler_context()
    response = exception_handler(exc, context)

    if response is None:
        self.raise_uncaught_exception(exc)

    response.exception = True
    return response

在前面,如果initial方法执行完成没有抛出异常,则根据反射执行自定义的请求方法,然后返回响应信息

如果initial方法抛出异常则执行handle_exception方法处理抛出的异常,也返回响应信息

等到上面的过程执行完成后,再执行finalize_response方法把最终的响应信息返回给客户端的浏览器

def finalize_response(self, request, response, *args, **kwargs):
    """
    Returns the final response object.
    """
    # Make the error obvious if a proper response is not returned
    assert isinstance(response, HttpResponseBase), (
        'Expected a `Response`, `HttpResponse` or `HttpStreamingResponse` '
        'to be returned from the view, but received a `%s`'
        % type(response)
    )

    if isinstance(response, Response):
        if not getattr(request, 'accepted_renderer', None):
            neg = self.perform_content_negotiation(request, force=True)
            request.accepted_renderer, request.accepted_media_type = neg

        response.accepted_renderer = request.accepted_renderer
        response.accepted_media_type = request.accepted_media_type
        response.renderer_context = self.get_renderer_context()

    # Add new vary headers to the response instead of overwriting.
    vary_headers = self.headers.pop('Vary', None)
    if vary_headers is not None:
        patch_vary_headers(response, cc_delim_re.split(vary_headers))

    for key, value in self.headers.items():
        response[key] = value

    return response

所以总结:

REST framework请求的生命周期为:

1.请求到达服务端,经过WSGI和中间件到达路由系统
2.路由系统执行配置的CBV或者FBV中的dispatch方法
3.在dispatch方法中,request方法被封装添加了解析器,认证方法及选择器等方法
4.然后执行initial方法
5.再获取版本,进行认证操作,权限操作和节流操作
6.最后执行自定义的get,post,push,delete等自定义方法
7.在执行initial方法之前,通过try来捕获可能出现的异常
8.如果出现异常,就执行handle_exception方法来处理捕获到的异常
9.不管是否出现异常,最后的返回值都通过finalize_response方法来处理响应的内容
posted @ 2017-11-24 23:22 renpingsheng 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏