[Database] MongoDB (2) 高级查询条件操作符

MongoDB 支持多种复杂的查询方式,能实现大多数 T-SQL 功能,远不是 Key-Value 之类的 NoSQL DB 所能比拟的。
Conditional Operators : $slice //切片
Conditional Operators : $lt <, $lte <=, $gt >, $gte >=
Conditional Operator : $ne //不等于
Conditional Operator : $in //属于
Conditional Operator : $nin //不属于
Conditional Operator : $mod //取模运算
Conditional Operator:   $all  //全部属于
Conditional Operator : $size //数量
Conditional Operator: $exists //字段存在
Conditional Operator: $type //字段类型
Conditional Operator: $or // 或
Regular Expressions //正则表达式
Value in an Array // 数组中的值
Conditional Operator: $elemMatch //要素符合
Value in an Embedded Object //内嵌对象中的值
Meta operator: $not //不是
Javascript Expressions and $where //
sort() //排序
limit() //限制取数据条数
skip() //跳过一定数值开始取
snapshot() //
count() // 数量
group() //分组

准备数据

In [9]: db
Out[
9]: Database(Connection('localhost', 27017), u'test')
In [
10]: table = db.table_abeen
In [
11]: table
Out[
11]: Collection(Database(Connection('localhost', 27017), u'test'), u'table_abeen')

In [
12]: table.insert({"name":"abeen", "age":27})
Sun Aug
8 23:14:20 connection accepted from 127.0.0.1:46143 #27
Out[12]: ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000')

In [14]: table.insert({"name":"shanshan", "age":22})
Out[
14]: ObjectId('4c5f9ccb421aa90fb9000001')

Conditional Operator: $ne (not equal)

//查找name不等于abeen的信息
In [
24]: list(table.find({"name":{"$ne":"abeen"}}))
Out[
24]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9ccb421aa90fb9000001'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d2d421aa90fb9000002'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan2'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d34421aa90fb9000003'),
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'}]

Conditional Operator: $gt $lt(gt= greater than, lt=less than)

//查找name不等于abeen,并且age大于22的
In [
29]: list(table.find({"name": {"$ne": "abeen"}, "age":{"$gt": 22}}))
Out[
29]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d34421aa90fb9000003'),
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'}]

获取子集 $ne  $slice 

//select "age" from table where name = "abeen"
In [
42]: list(table.find({"name": "abeen"}, {"age" : 1}))
Out[
42]: [{u'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000'), u'age': 27}]

//get all posts about mongodb without "age"
In [
43]: list(table.find({"name": "abeen"}, {"age" : 0}))
Out[
43]: [{u'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000'), u'name': u'abeen'}]

//name不等于abeen的"age"信息,取前5条
In [
48]: list(table.find({"name": {"$ne":"abeen"}}, {"age":{"$slice":5}}))
//取name信息,从第10条开始取20条
In [
54]: list(table.find({}, {"name": {"$slice": [10,20]}}))
//取name信息,从后20条开始取10条
In [
55]: list(table.find({}, {"name": {"$slice": [-20,10]}}))

取数值范围

//age大于23的
In [
56]: list(table.find({"age":{"$gt":23}}))
Out[
56]: [{u'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000'), u'age': 27, u'name': u'abeen'}]

//age小于23的
In [
57]: list(table.find({"age":{"$lt":23}}))
Out[
57]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9ccb421aa90fb9000001'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d2d421aa90fb9000002'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan2'}]

//age大于等于23的
In [
58]: list(table.find({"age":{"$gte":23}}))
Out[
58]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000'), u'age': 27, u'name': u'abeen'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d34421aa90fb9000003'),
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5fa2ab421aa90fb9000004'),
u
'address': u'da zhong si',
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'}]

//age小于等于23的
In [
59]: list(table.find({"age":{"$lte":23}}))
Out[
59]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9ccb421aa90fb9000001'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d2d421aa90fb9000002'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan2'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d34421aa90fb9000003'),
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5fa2ab421aa90fb9000004'),
u
'address': u'da zhong si',
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'}]

Conditional Operator: $gt

//22 < age < 25的
In [
63]: list(table.find({"age": {"$gt":22, "$lt":25}}))
Out[
63]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d34421aa90fb9000003'),
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5fa2ab421aa90fb9000004'),
u
'address': u'da zhong si',
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'}]

Conditional Operator : $in

//name在列表["abeen","ab","b"]里面的
In [
67]: list(table.find({"name":{"$in":["abeen","ab","b"]}}))
Out[
67]: [{u'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000'), u'age': 27, u'name': u'abeen'}]

//name在列表["abeen","ab","b"]里面的,限制取1条数据
In [
69]: list(table.find({"name":{"$in":["abeen","ab","b","shanshan"]}}).limit(1))
Out[
69]: [{u'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000'), u'age': 27, u'name': u'abeen'}]

Conditional Operator : $nin (not in)

//name不在列表["abeen","ab","b"]里面的
In [
70]: list(table.find({"name":{"$nin":["abeen","ab","b"]}}))
Out[
70]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9ccb421aa90fb9000001'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d2d421aa90fb9000002'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan2'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d34421aa90fb9000003'),
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5fa2ab421aa90fb9000004'),
u
'address': u'da zhong si',
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'}]

Conditional Operator: $mod

// 查找age除10模等于1的
In [
71]: list(table.find({"age":{"$mod":[10,1]}}))

Conditional Operator: $all

//取name包含所有["abeen","a","b"]的信息
In [
77]: list(table.find({"name":{"$all":["abeen","a","b"]}}))
Out[
77]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5facc6421aa90fb9000005'),
u
'name': [u'abeen', u'a', u'b', u'e', u'e', u'n']}]

Conditional Operator: $size

//取name元素数和$size数相同的信息
In [
81]: list(table.find({"name":{"$size": 6}}))
Out[
81]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5facc6421aa90fb9000005'),
u
'name': [u'abeen', u'a', u'b', u'e', u'e', u'n']}]

Conditional Operator: $exists

//取name存在的信息
In [
83]: list(table.find({"name":{"$exists": True}}))
Out[
83]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000'), u'age': 27, u'name': u'abeen'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9ccb421aa90fb9000001'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d2d421aa90fb9000002'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan2'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d34421aa90fb9000003'),
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5fa2ab421aa90fb9000004'),
u
'address': u'da zhong si',
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5facc6421aa90fb9000005'),
u
'name': [u'abeen', u'a', u'b', u'e', u'e', u'n']}]
//取name不存在信息
In [
84]: list(table.find({"name":{"$exists": False}}))
Out[
84]: []

Conditional Operator: $type

//name类型为字符串的
In [
88]: list(table.find({"name":{"$type": 2}}))

type对应该类型表如下:

Conditional Operator: $or

//查找name等于abeen或等于shanshan的信息
In [
95]: list(table.find({"$or" :[{"name": "abeen"}, {"name":"shanshan"}]}))
Out[
95]: []

//查找age等于22,或name等于abeen或等于shanshan的信息
In [
96]: list(table.find({"age":22, "$or" :[{"name": "abeen"}, {"name":"shanshan"}]}))
Out[
96]: []

Regular Expressions

//利用正则查询
In [
114]: list(table.find({"name": {"$regex": r".*ee.*"}}))
Out[
114]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000'), u'age': 27, u'name': u'abeen'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5facc6421aa90fb9000005'),
u
'name': [u'abeen', u'a', u'b', u'e', u'e', u'n']}]
正则表达式标记:
i: 忽略大小写。
m: 默认为单行处理,此标记表示多行。
x: 扩展。

 Conditional Operator: $elemMatch

In [135]: list(table.find( { "age" : {"$elemMatch": {"name": {"$regex": r".*ee.*"},
      "
age":{"$gt":22}}}}))

Value in an Embedded Object

//查找内部对象信息,
//查找内部对象info的name等于abeen的信息
In [
217]: list(table.find({"info.name": "abeen"}))
Out[
217]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5fcd7e421aa90fb9000007'),
u
'info': {u'address': u'beijing', u'age': 28, u'name': u'abeen'},
u
'name': u'abeen_object'}]

Meta operator: $not

//查询age不在大于23的范围内的信息
In [
160]: list(table.find({"age": {"$not":{"$gt": 23}}}))
Out[
160]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9ccb421aa90fb9000001'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d2d421aa90fb9000002'),
u
'age': 22,
u
'name': u'shanshan2'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d34421aa90fb9000003'),
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5fa2ab421aa90fb9000004'),
u
'address': u'da zhong si',
u
'age': 23,
u
'name': u'shanshan3'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5facc6421aa90fb9000005'),
u
'name': [u'abeen', u'a', u'b', u'e', u'e', u'n']}]

Javascript Expressions and $where

//age大于23的
In [
164]: list(table.find({"age": {"$gt":23}}))
Out[
164]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000'), u'age': 27, u'name': u'abeen'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5fae95421aa90fb9000006'), u'age': 25, u'name': u''}]
//age大于23的
In [
165]: list(table.find({"$where": "this.age > 23"}))
Out[
165]:
[{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9cbc421aa90fb9000000'), u'age': 27, u'name': u'abeen'},
{u
'_id': ObjectId('4c5fae95421aa90fb9000006'), u'age': 25, u'name': u''}]


//skip()  limit()

In [204]: result = table.find().skip(2).limit(3)

In [
205]: for r in result : print r
{u
'age': 22, u'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d2d421aa90fb9000002'), u'name': u'shanshan2'}
{u
'age': 23, u'_id': ObjectId('4c5f9d34421aa90fb9000003'), u'name': u'shanshan3'}
{u
'age': 23, u'_id': ObjectId('4c5fa2ab421aa90fb9000004'), u'name': u'shanshan3',
    u
'address': u'da zhong si'}

 

更多信息

http://www.mongodb.org/display/DOCS/Advanced+Queries#AdvancedQueries-Introduction

posted @ 2010-08-09 18:15 ABeen 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏