第二次作业:卷积神经网络 part 1

【第一部分】 视频学习心得及问题总结

【第二部分】 代码练习

2.1 MNIST 数据集分类

  1. 首先 先import~
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
import torch.optim as optim
from torchvision import datasets, transforms
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy

# 一个函数,用来计算模型中有多少参数
def get_n_params(model):
    np=0
    for p in list(model.parameters()):
        np += p.nelement()
    return np

# 使用GPU训练,可以在菜单 "代码执行工具" -> "更改运行时类型" 里进行设置
device = torch.device("cuda:0" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")
  1. 导入数据
    pytorch内置了MNIST数据集,通过torchvision.datasets 下载即可

torchvision.datasets.MNIST(root, train=True, transform=None, target_transform=None, download=False)

  root 为数据集下载到本地后的根目录,包括 training.pt 和 test.pt 文件
  train,如果设置为True,从training.pt创建数据集,否则从test.pt创建。
  download,如果设置为True, 从互联网下载数据并放到root文件夹下
  transform, 一种函数或变换,输入PIL图片,返回变换之后的数据。
  target_transform 一种函数或变换,输入目标,进行变换
input_size  = 28*28   # MNIST上的图像尺寸是 28x28
output_size = 10      # 类别为 0 到 9 的数字,因此为十类

train_loader = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(
    datasets.MNIST('./data', train=True, download=True,
        transform=transforms.Compose(
            [transforms.ToTensor(),
             transforms.Normalize((0.1307,), (0.3081,))])),
    batch_size=64, shuffle=True)

test_loader = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(
    datasets.MNIST('./data', train=False, transform=transforms.Compose([
             transforms.ToTensor(),
             transforms.Normalize((0.1307,), (0.3081,))])),
    batch_size=1000, shuffle=True)
  1. 创建网络
    这一部分之前有点迷 看了看别人的博客,感觉清晰了一点~ https://blog.csdn.net/alxe_made/article/details/84424577

主要是要继承nn.Moudle这个类,然后重写init和 forward方法;init定义了网络有那些层,forward()定义了网络是怎么连接的

nn.Linear部分的官方文档--》https://pytorch.org/docs/master/generated/torch.nn.Linear.html#torch.nn.Linear
nn.Sequential部分的官方文档--》 https://pytorch.org/docs/master/generated/torch.nn.Sequential.html#torch.nn.Sequential

class FC2Layer(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, input_size, n_hidden, output_size):
        # nn.Module子类的函数必须在构造函数中执行父类的构造函数
        # 下式等价于nn.Module.__init__(self)        
        super(FC2Layer, self).__init__()
        self.input_size = input_size
        # 这里直接用 Sequential 就定义了网络,注意要和下面 CNN 的代码区分开
        self.network = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Linear(input_size, n_hidden), 
            nn.ReLU(), 
            nn.Linear(n_hidden, n_hidden), 
            nn.ReLU(), 
            nn.Linear(n_hidden, output_size), 
            nn.LogSoftmax(dim=1)
        )
    def forward(self, x):
        # view一般出现在model类的forward函数中,用于改变输入或输出的形状
        # x.view(-1, self.input_size) 的意思是多维的数据展成二维
        # 代码指定二维数据的列数为 input_size=784,行数 -1 表示我们不想算,电脑会自己计算对应的数字
        # 在 DataLoader 部分,我们可以看到 batch_size 是64,所以得到 x 的行数是64
        # 大家可以加一行代码:print(x.cpu().numpy().shape)
        # 训练过程中,就会看到 (64, 784) 的输出,和我们的预期是一致的

        # forward 函数的作用是,指定网络的运行过程,这个全连接网络可能看不啥意义,
        # 下面的CNN网络可以看出 forward 的作用。
        x = x.view(-1, self.input_size)
        return self.network(x)
class CNN(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, input_size, n_feature, output_size):
        # 执行父类的构造函数,所有的网络都要这么写
        super(CNN, self).__init__()
        # 下面是网络里典型结构的一些定义,一般就是卷积和全连接
        # 池化、ReLU一类的不用在这里定义
        self.n_feature = n_feature
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(in_channels=1, out_channels=n_feature, kernel_size=5)
        self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(n_feature, n_feature, kernel_size=5)
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(n_feature*4*4, 50)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(50, 10)    
    
    # 下面的 forward 函数,定义了网络的结构,按照一定顺序,把上面构建的一些结构组织起来
    # 意思就是,conv1, conv2 等等的,可以多次重用
    def forward(self, x, verbose=False):
        x = self.conv1(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        x = F.max_pool2d(x, kernel_size=2)
        x = self.conv2(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        x = F.max_pool2d(x, kernel_size=2)
        x = x.view(-1, self.n_feature*4*4)
        x = self.fc1(x)
        x = F.relu(x)
        x = self.fc2(x)
        x = F.log_softmax(x, dim=1)
        return x
  1. 训练测试
    在全连接网络上训练

    卷积神经网络上训练

    可以看出 CNN的效果明显好于全连接网络~

  2. 打乱像素后测试


# 这里解释一下 torch.randperm 函数,给定参数n,返回一个从0到n-1的随机整数排列
perm = torch.randperm(784)
plt.figure(figsize=(8, 4))
for i in range(10):
    image, _ = train_loader.dataset.__getitem__(i)
    # permute pixels
    image_perm = image.view(-1, 28*28).clone()
    image_perm = image_perm[:, perm]
    image_perm = image_perm.view(-1, 1, 28, 28)
    plt.subplot(4, 5, i + 1)
    plt.imshow(image.squeeze().numpy(), 'gray')
    plt.axis('off')
    plt.subplot(4, 5, i + 11)
    plt.imshow(image_perm.squeeze().numpy(), 'gray')
    plt.axis('off')

再在全连接网络中测试~

CNN中测试

可以看出全连接网络的性能基本上没有发生变化,CNN下降明显
这是因为对于卷积神经网络,会利用像素的局部关系,但是打乱顺序以后,这些像素间的关系将无法得到利用。

2.2 CIFAR10

  1. 定义网络
class Net(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(Net, self).__init__()
        self.conv1 = nn.Conv2d(3, 6, 5)
        self.pool = nn.MaxPool2d(2, 2)
        self.conv2 = nn.Conv2d(6, 16, 5)
        self.fc1 = nn.Linear(16 * 5 * 5, 120)
        self.fc2 = nn.Linear(120, 84)
        self.fc3 = nn.Linear(84, 10)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.pool(F.relu(self.conv1(x)))
        x = self.pool(F.relu(self.conv2(x)))
        x = x.view(-1, 16 * 5 * 5)
        x = F.relu(self.fc1(x))
        x = F.relu(self.fc2(x))
        x = self.fc3(x)
        return x

# 网络放到GPU上
net = Net().to(device)
criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
optimizer = optim.Adam(net.parameters(), lr=0.001)

2.训练测试网络

for epoch in range(10):  # 重复多轮训练
    for i, (inputs, labels) in enumerate(trainloader):
        inputs = inputs.to(device)
        labels = labels.to(device)
        # 优化器梯度归零
        optimizer.zero_grad()
        # 正向传播 + 反向传播 + 优化 
        outputs = net(inputs)
        loss = criterion(outputs, labels)
        loss.backward()
        optimizer.step()
        # 输出统计信息
        if i % 100 == 0:   
            print('Epoch: %d Minibatch: %5d loss: %.3f' %(epoch + 1, i + 1, loss.item()))

print('Finished Training')

# 得到一组图像
images, labels = iter(testloader).next()
# 展示图像
imshow(torchvision.utils.make_grid(images))
# 展示图像的标签
for j in range(8):
    print(classes[labels[j]])


for data in testloader:
    images, labels = data
    images, labels = images.to(device), labels.to(device)
    outputs = net(images)
    _, predicted = torch.max(outputs.data, 1)
    total += labels.size(0)
    correct += (predicted == labels).sum().item()

print('Accuracy of the network on the 10000 test images: %d %%' % (
    100 * correct / total))

2.3 使用 VGG16 对 CIFAR10 分类

  1. 定义网络结构
class VGG(nn.Module):
    def __int__(self):
        super(VGG, self).__init__() 
        self.cfg = [64, 'M', 128, 'M', 256, 256, 'M', 512, 512, 'M', 512, 512, 'M']
        self.features = self.make_layers(self.cfg)
        self.classifier = nn.Linear(512, 10)

    def forward(self, x):
        out = self.features(x)
        out = out.view(out.size(0), -1)
        out = self.classifier(out)
        return out

    def make_layers(self, cfg):
        layers = []
        in_channels = 3
        for x in cfg:
            if x == 'M':
                layers += [nn.MaxPool2d(kernel_size=2, stride=2)]
            else:
                layers += [nn.Conv2d(in_channels, x, kernel_size=3, padding=1),
                           nn.BatchNorm2d(x),
                           nn.ReLU(inplace=True)]
                in_channels = x
        layers += [nn.AvgPool2d(kernel_size=1, stride=1)]
        return nn.Sequential(*layers)
# 网络放到GPU上
net = VGG().to(device)
criterion = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()
optimizer = optim.Adam(net.parameters(), lr=0.001)

这一步运行的时候报错了orz 有点迷惑 先记下来

correct = 0
total = 0

for data in testloader:
    images, labels = data
    images, labels = images.to(device), labels.to(device)
    outputs = net(images)
    _, predicted = torch.max(outputs.data, 1)
    total += labels.size(0)
    correct += (predicted == labels).sum().item()

print('Accuracy of the network on the 10000 test images: %.2f %%' % (
    100 * correct / total))

2.4 猫狗大战

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import os
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torchvision
from torchvision import models,transforms,datasets
import time
import json


# 判断是否存在GPU设备
device = torch.device("cuda:0" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")
print('Using gpu: %s ' % torch.cuda.is_available())

下载、处理数据

! wget http://fenggao-image.stor.sinaapp.com/dogscats.zip
! unzip dogscats.zip
normalize = transforms.Normalize(mean=[0.485, 0.456, 0.406], std=[0.229, 0.224, 0.225])

vgg_format = transforms.Compose([
                transforms.CenterCrop(224),
                transforms.ToTensor(),
                normalize,
            ])

data_dir = './dogscats'

dsets = {x: datasets.ImageFolder(os.path.join(data_dir, x), vgg_format)
         for x in ['train', 'valid']}

dset_sizes = {x: len(dsets[x]) for x in ['train', 'valid']}
dset_classes = dsets['train'].classes

loader_train = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(dsets['train'], batch_size=64, shuffle=True, num_workers=6)
loader_valid = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(dsets['valid'], batch_size=5, shuffle=False, num_workers=6)


'''
valid 数据一共有2000张图,每个batch是5张,因此,下面进行遍历一共会输出到 400
同时,把第一个 batch 保存到 inputs_try, labels_try,分别查看
'''
count = 1
for data in loader_valid:
    print(count, end='\n')
    if count == 1:
        inputs_try,labels_try = data
    count +=1

print(labels_try)
print(inputs_try.shape)

# 显示图片的小程序

def imshow(inp, title=None):
#   Imshow for Tensor.
    inp = inp.numpy().transpose((1, 2, 0))
    mean = np.array([0.485, 0.456, 0.406])
    std = np.array([0.229, 0.224, 0.225])
    inp = np.clip(std * inp + mean, 0,1)
    plt.imshow(inp)
    if title is not None:
        plt.title(title)
    plt.pause(0.001)  # pause a bit so that plots are updated

model_vgg = models.vgg16(pretrained=True)

with open('./imagenet_class_index.json') as f:
    class_dict = json.load(f)
dic_imagenet = [class_dict[str(i)][1] for i in range(len(class_dict))]

inputs_try , labels_try = inputs_try.to(device), labels_try.to(device)
model_vgg = model_vgg.to(device)

outputs_try = model_vgg(inputs_try)

print(outputs_try)
print(outputs_try.shape)

'''
可以看到结果为5行,1000列的数据,每一列代表对每一种目标识别的结果。
但是我也可以观察到,结果非常奇葩,有负数,有正数,
为了将VGG网络输出的结果转化为对每一类的预测概率,我们把结果输入到 Softmax 函数
'''
m_softm = nn.Softmax(dim=1)
probs = m_softm(outputs_try)
vals_try,pred_try = torch.max(probs,dim=1)

print( 'prob sum: ', torch.sum(probs,1))
print( 'vals_try: ', vals_try)
print( 'pred_try: ', pred_try)

print([dic_imagenet[i] for i in pred_try.data])
imshow(torchvision.utils.make_grid(inputs_try.data.cpu()), 
       title=[dset_classes[x] for x in labels_try.data.cpu()])

修改最后一层,冻结前面层的参数

print(model_vgg)

model_vgg_new = model_vgg;

for param in model_vgg_new.parameters():
    param.requires_grad = False
model_vgg_new.classifier._modules['6'] = nn.Linear(4096, 2)
model_vgg_new.classifier._modules['7'] = torch.nn.LogSoftmax(dim = 1)

model_vgg_new = model_vgg_new.to(device)

print(model_vgg_new.classifier)

训练并测试全连接层

'''
第一步:创建损失函数和优化器

损失函数 NLLLoss() 的 输入 是一个对数概率向量和一个目标标签. 
它不会为我们计算对数概率,适合最后一层是log_softmax()的网络. 
'''
criterion = nn.NLLLoss()

# 学习率
lr = 0.001

# 随机梯度下降
optimizer_vgg = torch.optim.SGD(model_vgg_new.classifier[6].parameters(),lr = lr)

'''
第二步:训练模型
'''

def train_model(model,dataloader,size,epochs=1,optimizer=None):
    model.train()
    
    for epoch in range(epochs):
        running_loss = 0.0
        running_corrects = 0
        count = 0
        for inputs,classes in dataloader:
            inputs = inputs.to(device)
            classes = classes.to(device)
            outputs = model(inputs)
            loss = criterion(outputs,classes)           
            optimizer = optimizer
            optimizer.zero_grad()
            loss.backward()
            optimizer.step()
            _,preds = torch.max(outputs.data,1)
            # statistics
            running_loss += loss.data.item()
            running_corrects += torch.sum(preds == classes.data)
            count += len(inputs)
            print('Training: No. ', count, ' process ... total: ', size)
        epoch_loss = running_loss / size
        epoch_acc = running_corrects.data.item() / size
        print('Loss: {:.4f} Acc: {:.4f}'.format(
                     epoch_loss, epoch_acc))
        
        
# 模型训练
train_model(model_vgg_new,loader_train,size=dset_sizes['train'], epochs=1, 


# 单次可视化显示的图片个数
n_view = 8
correct = np.where(predictions==all_classes)[0]
from numpy.random import random, permutation
idx = permutation(correct)[:n_view]
print('random correct idx: ', idx)
loader_correct = torch.utils.data.DataLoader([dsets['valid'][x] for x in idx],
                  batch_size = n_view,shuffle=True)
for data in loader_correct:
    inputs_cor,labels_cor = data
# Make a grid from batch
out = torchvision.utils.make_grid(inputs_cor)
imshow(out, title=[l.item() for l in labels_cor])

# 类似的思路,可以显示错误分类的图片,这里不再重复代码

这周学习效率一般,只完成了必做部分 希望接下来能赶上进度=-=

posted @ 2020-08-01 19:06  zhihaoli  阅读(22)  评论(0编辑  收藏