MySQL基于ROW格式的数据恢复

   大家都知道MySQL Binlog 有三种格式,分别是Statement、Row、Mixd。Statement记录了用户执行的原始SQL,而Row则是记录了行的修改情况,在MySQL 5.6以上的版本默认是Mixd格式,但为了保证复制数据的完整性,建议生产环境都使用Row格式,就前面所说的Row记录的是行数据的修改情况,而不是原始SQL。那么线上或者测试环境误操删除或者更新几条数据后,又想恢复,那怎么办呢?下面演示基于Binlog格式为Row的误操后数据恢复,那么怎么把Binlog解析出来生成反向的原始SQL呢?下面我们一起来学习。

 

下面我们使用 binlog-rollback.pl 对数据进行恢复演示。(这脚本的作者不知道是谁,Github上也没找到这个脚本,所以无法标明出处),脚本是用Perl语言写的,非常好用的一个脚本,当然你也可以用Shell或者Python脚本来实现,下面是脚本的代码:

#!/usr/lib/perl -w

use strict;
use warnings;

use Class::Struct;
use Getopt::Long qw(:config no_ignore_case);                    # GetOption
# register handler system signals
use sigtrap 'handler', \&sig_int, 'normal-signals';

# catch signal
sub sig_int(){
    my ($signals) = @_;
    print STDERR "# Caught SIG$signals.\n";
    exit 1;
}

my %opt;
my $srcfile;
my $host = '127.0.0.1';
my $port = 3306;
my ($user,$pwd);
my ($MYSQL, $MYSQLBINLOG, $ROLLBACK_DML);
my $outfile = '/dev/null';
my (%do_dbs,%do_tbs);

# tbname=>tbcol, tbcol: @n=>colname,type
my %tbcol_pos;

my $SPLITER_COL = ',';
my $SQLTYPE_IST = 'INSERT';
my $SQLTYPE_UPD = 'UPDATE';
my $SQLTYPE_DEL = 'DELETE';
my $SQLAREA_WHERE = 'WHERE';
my $SQLAREA_SET = 'SET';

my $PRE_FUNCT = '========================== ';

# =========================================================
# 基于row模式的binlog,生成DML(insert/update/delete)的rollback语句
# 通过mysqlbinlog -v 解析binlog生成可读的sql文件
# 提取需要处理的有效sql
#     "### "开头的行.如果输入的start-position位于某个event group中间,则会导致"无法识别event"错误
#
# 将INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE 的sql反转,并且1个完整sql只能占1行
#     INSERT: INSERT INTO => DELETE FROM, SET => WHERE
#     UPDATE: WHERE => SET, SET => WHERE
#     DELETE: DELETE FROM => INSERT INTO, WHERE => SET
# 用列名替换位置@{1,2,3}
#     通过desc table获得列顺序及对应的列名
#     特殊列类型value做特别处理
# 逆序
# 
# 注意:
#     表结构与现在的表结构必须相同[谨记]
#     由于row模式是幂等的,并且恢复是一次性,所以只提取sql,不提取BEGIN/COMMIT
#     只能对INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE进行处理
# ========================================================
sub main{

    # get input option
    &get_options();

    # 
    &init_tbcol();

    #
    &do_binlog_rollback();
}

&main();


# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Func : get options and set option flag 
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub get_options{
    #Get options info
    GetOptions(\%opt,
        'help',                    # OUT : print help info   
        'f|srcfile=s',            # IN  : binlog file
        'o|outfile=s',            # out : output sql file
        'h|host=s',                # IN  :  host
        'u|user=s',             # IN  :  user
        'p|password=s',         # IN  :  password
        'P|port=i',                # IN  :  port
        'start-datetime=s',        # IN  :  start datetime
        'stop-datetime=s',        # IN  :  stop datetime
        'start-position=i',        # IN  :  start position
        'stop-position=i',        # IN  :  stop position
        'd|database=s',            # IN  :  database, split comma
        'T|table=s',            # IN  :  table, split comma
        'i|ignore',                # IN  :  ignore binlog check ddl and so on
        'debug',                # IN  :  print debug information
      ) or print_usage();

    if (!scalar(%opt)) {
        &print_usage();
    }

    # Handle for options
    if ($opt{'f'}){
        $srcfile = $opt{'f'};
    }else{
        &merror("please input binlog file");
    }

    $opt{'h'} and $host = $opt{'h'};
    $opt{'u'} and $user = $opt{'u'};
    $opt{'p'} and $pwd = $opt{'p'};
    $opt{'P'} and $port = $opt{'P'};
    if ($opt{'o'}) {
        $outfile = $opt{'o'};
        # 清空 outfile
        `echo '' > $outfile`;
    }

    # 
    $MYSQL = qq{mysql -h$host -u$user -p'$pwd' -P$port};
    &mdebug("get_options::MYSQL\n\t$MYSQL");

    # 提取binlog,不需要显示列定义信息,用-v,而不用-vv
    $MYSQLBINLOG = qq{mysqlbinlog -v};
    $MYSQLBINLOG .= " --start-position=".$opt{'start-position'} if $opt{'start-position'};
    $MYSQLBINLOG .= " --stop-position=".$opt{'stop-position'} if $opt{'stop-postion'};
    $MYSQLBINLOG .= " --start-datetime='".$opt{'start-datetime'}."'" if $opt{'start-datetime'};
    $MYSQLBINLOG .= " --stop-datetime='$opt{'stop-datetime'}'" if $opt{'stop-datetime'};
    $MYSQLBINLOG .= " $srcfile";
    &mdebug("get_options::MYSQLBINLOG\n\t$MYSQLBINLOG");

    # 检查binlog中是否含有 ddl sql: CREATE|ALTER|DROP|RENAME
    &check_binlog() unless ($opt{'i'});

    # 不使用mysqlbinlog过滤,USE dbname;方式可能会漏掉某些sql,所以不在mysqlbinlog过滤
    # 指定数据库
    if ($opt{'d'}){
        my @dbs = split(/,/,$opt{'d'});
        foreach my $db (@dbs){
            $do_dbs{$db}=1;
        }
    }

    # 指定表
    if ($opt{'T'}){
        my @tbs = split(/,/,$opt{'T'});
        foreach my $tb (@tbs){
            $do_tbs{$tb}=1;
        }
    }

    # 提取有效DML SQL
    $ROLLBACK_DML = $MYSQLBINLOG." | grep '^### '";
    # 去掉注释: '### ' -> ''
    # 删除首尾空格
    $ROLLBACK_DML .= " | sed 's/###\\s*//g;s/\\s*\$//g'";
    &mdebug("rollback dml\n\t$ROLLBACK_DML");
    
    # 检查内容是否为空
    my $cmd = "$ROLLBACK_DML | wc -l";
    &mdebug("check contain dml sql\n\t$cmd");
    my $size = `$cmd`;
    chomp($size);
    unless ($size >0){
        &merror("binlog DML is empty:$ROLLBACK_DML");
    };

}    


# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Func :  check binlog contain DDL
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub check_binlog{
    &mdebug("$PRE_FUNCT check_binlog");
    my $cmd = "$MYSQLBINLOG ";
    $cmd .= " | grep -E -i '^(CREATE|ALTER|DROP|RENAME)' ";
    &mdebug("check binlog has DDL cmd\n\t$cmd");
    my $ddlcnt = `$cmd`;
    chomp($ddlcnt);

    my $ddlnum = `$cmd | wc -l`;
    chomp($ddlnum);
    my $res = 0;
    if ($ddlnum>0){
        # 在ddl sql前面加上前缀<DDL>
        $ddlcnt = `echo '$ddlcnt' | sed 's/^/<DDL>/g'`;
        &merror("binlog contain $ddlnum DDL:$MYSQLBINLOG. ddl sql:\n$ddlcnt");
    }

    return $res;
}


# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Func : init all table column order
#        if input --database --table params, only get set table column order
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub init_tbcol{
    &mdebug("$PRE_FUNCT init_tbcol");
    # 提取DML语句
    my $cmd .= "$ROLLBACK_DML | grep -E '^(INSERT|UPDATE|DELETE)'";
    # 提取表名,并去重
    #$cmd .= " | awk '{if (\$1 ~ \"^UPDATE\") {print \$2}else {print \$3}}' | uniq ";
    $cmd .= " | awk '{if (\$1 ~ \"^UPDATE\") {print \$2}else {print \$3}}' | sort | uniq ";
    &mdebug("get table name cmd\n\t$cmd");
    open ALLTABLE, "$cmd | " or die "can't open file:$cmd\n";

    while (my $tbname = <ALLTABLE>){
        chomp($tbname);
        #if (exists $tbcol_pos{$tbname}){
        #    next;
        #}
        &init_one_tbcol($tbname) unless (&ignore_tb($tbname));
        
    }
    close ALLTABLE or die "can't close file:$cmd\n";

    # init tb col
    foreach my $tb (keys %tbcol_pos){
        &mdebug("tbname->$tb");
        my %colpos = %{$tbcol_pos{$tb}};
        foreach my $pos (keys %colpos){
            my $col = $colpos{$pos};
            my ($cname,$ctype) = split(/$SPLITER_COL/, $col);
            &mdebug("\tpos->$pos,cname->$cname,ctype->$ctype");
        }
    }
};


# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Func : init one table column order
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub init_one_tbcol{
    my $tbname = shift;
    &mdebug("$PRE_FUNCT init_one_tbcol");
    # 获取表结构及列顺序
    my $cmd = $MYSQL." --skip-column-names --silent -e 'desc $tbname'";
    # 提取列名,并拼接
    $cmd .= " | awk -F\'\\t\' \'{print NR\"$SPLITER_COL`\"\$1\"`$SPLITER_COL\"\$2}'";
    &mdebug("get table column infor cmd\n\t$cmd");
    open TBCOL,"$cmd | " or die "can't open desc $tbname;";

    my %colpos;
    while (my $line = <TBCOL>){
        chomp($line);
        my ($pos,$col,$coltype) = split(/$SPLITER_COL/,$line);
        &mdebug("linesss=$line\n\t\tpos=$pos\n\t\tcol=$col\n\t\ttype=$coltype");
        $colpos{$pos} = $col.$SPLITER_COL.$coltype;
    }
    close TBCOL or die "can't colse desc $tbname";

    $tbcol_pos{$tbname} = \%colpos;
}


# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Func :  rollback sql:    INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub do_binlog_rollback{
    my $binlogfile = "$ROLLBACK_DML ";
    &mdebug("$PRE_FUNCT do_binlog_rollback");

    # INSERT|UPDATE|DELETE
    my $sqltype;
    # WHERE|SET
    my $sqlarea;
    
    my ($tbname, $sqlstr) = ('', '');
    my ($notignore, $isareabegin) = (0,0);

    # output sql file
    open SQLFILE, ">> $outfile" or die "Can't open sql file:$outfile";

    # binlog file
    open BINLOG, "$binlogfile |" or die "Can't open file: $binlogfile";
    while (my $line = <BINLOG>){
        chomp($line);
        if ($line =~ /^(INSERT|UPDATE|DELETE)/){
            # export sql
            if ($sqlstr ne ''){
                $sqlstr .= ";\n";
                print SQLFILE $sqlstr;
                &mdebug("export sql\n\t".$sqlstr);
                $sqlstr = '';
            }

            if ($line =~ /^INSERT/){
                $sqltype = $SQLTYPE_IST;
                $tbname = `echo '$line' | awk '{print \$3}'`;
                chomp($tbname);
                $sqlstr = qq{DELETE FROM $tbname};
            }elsif ($line =~ /^UPDATE/){
                $sqltype = $SQLTYPE_UPD;
                $tbname = `echo '$line' | awk '{print \$2}'`;
                chomp($tbname);
                $sqlstr = qq{UPDATE $tbname};
            }elsif ($line =~ /^DELETE/){
                $sqltype = $SQLTYPE_DEL;    
                $tbname = `echo '$line' | awk '{print \$3}'`;
                chomp($tbname);
                $sqlstr = qq{INSERT INTO $tbname};
            }

            # check ignore table
            if(&ignore_tb($tbname)){
                $notignore = 0;
                &mdebug("<BINLOG>#IGNORE#:line:".$line);
                $sqlstr = '';
            }else{
                $notignore = 1;
                &mdebug("<BINLOG>#DO#:line:".$line);
            }
        }else {
            if($notignore){
                &merror("can't get tbname") unless (defined($tbname));
                if ($line =~ /^WHERE/){
                    $sqlarea = $SQLAREA_WHERE;
                    $sqlstr .= qq{ SET};
                    $isareabegin = 1;
                }elsif ($line =~ /^SET/){
                    $sqlarea = $SQLAREA_SET;
                    $sqlstr .= qq{ WHERE};
                    $isareabegin = 1;
                }elsif ($line =~ /^\@/){
                    $sqlstr .= &deal_col_value($tbname, $sqltype, $sqlarea, $isareabegin, $line);
                    $isareabegin = 0;
                }else{
                    &mdebug("::unknown sql:".$line);
                }
            }
        }
    }
    # export last sql
    if ($sqlstr ne ''){
        $sqlstr .= ";\n";
        print SQLFILE $sqlstr;
        &mdebug("export sql\n\t".$sqlstr);
    }
    
    close BINLOG or die "Can't close binlog file: $binlogfile";

    close SQLFILE or die "Can't close out sql file: $outfile";

    # 逆序
    # 1!G: 只有第一行不执行G, 将hold space中的内容append回到pattern space
    # h: 将pattern space 拷贝到hold space
    # $!d: 除最后一行都删除
    my $invert = "sed -i '1!G;h;\$!d' $outfile";
    my $res = `$invert`;
    &mdebug("inverter order sqlfile :$invert");
}

# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Func :  transfer column pos to name
#    deal column value
#
#  &deal_col_value($tbname, $sqltype, $sqlarea, $isareabegin, $line);
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub deal_col_value($$$$$){
    my ($tbname, $sqltype, $sqlarea, $isareabegin, $line) = @_;
    &mdebug("$PRE_FUNCT deal_col_value");
    &mdebug("input:tbname->$tbname,type->$sqltype,area->$sqlarea,areabegin->$isareabegin,line->$line");
    my @vals = split(/=/, $line);
    my $pos = substr($vals[0],1);
    my $valstartpos = length($pos)+2;
    my $val = substr($line,$valstartpos);
    my %tbcol = %{$tbcol_pos{$tbname}};
    my ($cname,$ctype) = split(/$SPLITER_COL/,$tbcol{$pos});
    &merror("can't get $tbname column $cname type") unless (defined($cname) || defined($ctype));
    &mdebug("column infor:cname->$cname,type->$ctype");

    # join str
    my $joinstr;
    if ($isareabegin){
        $joinstr = ' ';
    }else{
        # WHERE 被替换为 SET, 使用 ,  连接
        if ($sqlarea eq $SQLAREA_WHERE){
            $joinstr = ', ';
        # SET 被替换为 WHERE 使用 AND 连接
        }elsif ($sqlarea eq $SQLAREA_SET){
            $joinstr = ' AND ';
        }else{
            &merror("!!!!!!The scripts error");
        }
    }
    
    # 
    my $newline = $joinstr;

    # NULL value
    if (($val eq 'NULL') && ($sqlarea eq $SQLAREA_SET)){
        $newline .= qq{ $cname IS NULL};
    }else{
        # timestamp: record seconds
        if ($ctype eq 'timestamp'){
            $newline .= qq{$cname=from_unixtime($val)};
        # datetime: @n=yyyy-mm-dd hh::ii::ss
        }elsif ($ctype eq 'datetime'){
            $newline .= qq{$cname='$val'};
        }else{
            $newline .= qq{$cname=$val};
        }
    }
    &mdebug("\told>$line\n\tnew>$newline");
    
    return $newline;
}

# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Func :  check is ignore table
# params: IN table full name #  format:`dbname`.`tbname`
# RETURN:
#        0 not ignore
#        1 ignore
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub ignore_tb($){
    my $fullname = shift;
    # 删除`
    $fullname =~ s/`//g;
    my ($dbname,$tbname) = split(/\./,$fullname);
    my $res = 0;
    
    # 指定了数据库
    if ($opt{'d'}){
        # 与指定库相同
        if ($do_dbs{$dbname}){
            # 指定表
            if ($opt{'T'}){
                # 与指定表不同
                unless ($do_tbs{$tbname}){
                    $res = 1;
                }
            }
        # 与指定库不同
        }else{
            $res = 1;
        }
    }
    #&mdebug("Table check ignore:$fullname->$res");
    return $res;
}


# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Func :  print debug msg
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub mdebug{
    my (@msg) = @_;
    print "<DEBUG>@msg\n" if ($opt{'debug'});
}


# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Func :  print error msg and exit
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub merror{
    my (@msg) = @_;
    print "<Error>:@msg\n";
    &print_usage();
    exit(1);
}

# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Func :  print usage
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sub print_usage{
    print <<EOF;
==========================================================================================
Command line options :
    --help                # OUT : print help info   
    -f, --srcfile            # IN  : binlog file. [required]
    -o, --outfile            # OUT : output sql file. [required]
    -h, --host            # IN  : host. default '127.0.0.1'
    -u, --user            # IN  : user. [required]
    -p, --password            # IN  : password. [required] 
    -P, --port            # IN  : port. default '3306'
    --start-datetime        # IN  : start datetime
    --stop-datetime            # IN  : stop datetime
    --start-position        # IN  : start position
    --stop-position            # IN  : stop position
    -d, --database            # IN  : database, split comma
    -T, --table            # IN  : table, split comma. [required] set -d
    -i, --ignore            # IN  : ignore binlog check contain DDL(CREATE|ALTER|DROP|RENAME)
    --debug                # IN  :  print debug information

Sample :
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' 
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -i
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' --debug
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -h '192.168.1.2' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -P 3307
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' --start-position=107
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' --start-position=107 --stop-position=10000
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -d 'db1,db2'
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.0000*' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -d 'db1,db2' -T 'tb1,tb2'
==========================================================================================
EOF
    exit;   
}


1;
View Code

这脚本含有注释以及使用说明,所以使用起来还是比较简单的,如果你会Perl语言,相信也很容易看懂代码。binlog-rollback.pl的使用参数如下:

[root@localhost mysql3306]# perl binlog-rollback.pl 
==========================================================================================
Command line options :
        --help                          # OUT : print help info   
        -f, --srcfile                   # IN  : binlog file. [required]
        -o, --outfile                   # OUT : output sql file. [required]
        -h, --host                      # IN  : host. default '127.0.0.1'
        -u, --user                      # IN  : user. [required]
        -p, --password                  # IN  : password. [required] 
        -P, --port                      # IN  : port. default '3306'
        --start-datetime                # IN  : start datetime
        --stop-datetime                 # IN  : stop datetime
        --start-position                # IN  : start position
        --stop-position                 # IN  : stop position
        -d, --database                  # IN  : database, split comma
        -T, --table                     # IN  : table, split comma. [required] set -d
        -i, --ignore                    # IN  : ignore binlog check contain DDL(CREATE|ALTER|DROP|RENAME)
        --debug                         # IN  :  print debug information

Sample :
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' 
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -i
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' --debug
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -h '192.168.1.2' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -P 3307
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' --start-position=107
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' --start-position=107 --stop-position=10000
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.000001' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -d 'db1,db2'
   shell> perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'mysql-bin.0000*' -o '/tmp/t.sql' -u 'user' -p 'pwd' -d 'db1,db2' -T 'tb1,tb2'
==========================================================================================
[root@localhost mysql3306]# 

 

下面主要演示对一个表的增、删、修(Insert/Delete/Update)操作,基于Binlog为Row格式的反向解析。

细心看脚本的朋友都能看到这个脚本需要提供一个连接MySQL的用户,主要是为了获取表结构。下面我们测试一个普通用户并给予SELECT权限即可,默认是host是127.0.0.1,这个可以修改脚本,我这里按脚本默认的:

<Test>[(none)]> GRANT SELECT ON *.* TO 'recovery'@'127.0.0.1' identified by '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.08 sec)

<Test>[(none)]> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)

<Test>[(none)]> 

往xuanzhi库的表tb1里插入2行数据,记得binlog格式要为ROW

<Test>[xuanzhi]> show global variables like 'binlog_format';
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| binlog_format | ROW   |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

<Test>[xuanzhi]> insert into xuanzhi.tb1 select 1,'aa';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 1  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

<Test>[xuanzhi]> insert into xuanzhi.tb1 select 2,'cc';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 1  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

<Test>[xuanzhi]> select * from xuanzhi.tb1;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | aa   |
|    2 | cc   |
+------+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

<Test>[xuanzhi]> 

为了看到运行脚本在不指定库看到的效果,我这里再往test库的user表插入两行数据:

<Test>[xuanzhi]> insert into test.user select 1,'user1',20; 
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.03 sec)
Records: 1  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

<Test>[xuanzhi]> insert into test.user select 2,'user2',30; 
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 1  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

<Test>[xuanzhi]> 

查看此时的此时处于那个binlog:

<Test>[xuanzhi]> show master status;
+----------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
| File                 | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB | Executed_Gtid_Set |
+----------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
| localhost-bin.000023 |      936 |              |                  |                   |
+----------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

<Test>[xuanzhi]> 

 

下面运行脚本 binlog-rollback.pl ,不指定任何库和表的情况下,这时表把binlog里所有DML操作都生成反向的SQL(最新的DML会生成在输入文件的最前面):

[root@localhost mysql3306]# perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'localhost-bin.000023'  -o '/data/t.sql' -u 'recovery' -p '123456'    
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
[root@localhost mysql3306]# 

我们查看输出的文件:/data/t.sql

[root@localhost mysql3306]# cat /data/t.sql 
DELETE FROM `test`.`user` WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='user2' AND `age`=30;
DELETE FROM `test`.`user` WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='user1' AND `age`=20;
DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb1` WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='bb';
DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb1` WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='aa';

可以看到,INSERT操作的反向操作就是DELETE,这里把所有库的DML操作都查出来了,在后面会演示找单个库或者表所产生的反向SQL。

 

下面模拟运维人员、开发人员或者DBA误操删除数据,分别在不同的库删除一条记录

<Test>[xuanzhi]> delete from xuanzhi.tb1 where id=2;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.06 sec)

<Test>[xuanzhi]> delete from test.user where id=1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

<Test>[xuanzhi]> 

这个时候发现自己删除错了,需要恢复,刚好这些数据不在最新的备份里,正常的恢复方法有两种:

一、是基于最新的完整备份+binlog进行数据恢复了,这时需要把备份导回去,还要找出Binlog DELETE前的pos位置,再进行binlog恢复,恢复完后再把记录恢复到误操的环境上。如果表很大,这时间要很久。
二、因为Binlog格式为ROW时,记录了行的修改,所以DELETE是可以看到所有列的值的,把binlog解析出来,找到被DELETE的记录,通过各种处理再恢复回去,但binlog不能基于一个库或表级别的解析,只能整个binlog解析再进行操作。

以上的方法都比较消耗时间,当然使用binlog-rollback.pl脚本有点类似第二种方法,但是binlog-rollback.pl可以指定库或表进行反向解析,还可以指定POS点,效率相当更高一些。

 

下面我们运行 binlog-rollback.pl 脚本,生成删除数据语句的反向SQL:

[root@localhost mysql3306]# perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'localhost-bin.000023'  -o '/data/t.sql' -u 'recovery' -p '123456'
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
[root@localhost mysql3306]#

再次查看输出文件:

[root@localhost mysql3306]# cat /data/t.sql
INSERT INTO `test`.`user` SET `id`=1, `name`='user1', `age`=20;
INSERT INTO `xuanzhi`.`tb1` SET `id`=2, `name`='bb';
DELETE FROM `test`.`user` WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='user2' AND `age`=30;
DELETE FROM `test`.`user` WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='user1' AND `age`=20;
DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb1` WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='bb';
DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb1` WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='aa';

[root@localhost mysql3306]# 

刚刚DELETE的2条记录已经生成了反向INSERT语句,这样恢复就简单多啦:

INSERT INTO `test`.`user` SET `id`=1, `name`='user1', `age`=20;
INSERT INTO `xuanzhi`.`tb1` SET `id`=2, `name`='bb';

 

下面我们模拟修改数据的时候,误修改了,如下:

<Test>[xuanzhi]> select * from xuanzhi.tb1;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | aa   |
+------+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

<Test>[xuanzhi]> select * from test.user;
+------+-------+------+
| id   | name  | age  |
+------+-------+------+
|    2 | user2 |   30 |
+------+-------+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

<Test>[xuanzhi]> update  xuanzhi.tb1 set name = 'MySQL' where id=1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0

<Test>[xuanzhi]> update test.user set age = 20 where id = 2;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0

<Test>[xuanzhi]> 

这个时候发现修改错数据了,需要还原,同样可以使用脚本binlog-rollback.pl 进行对所在Binlog的DML生成反向的SQL,进行恢复:

[root@localhost mysql3306]# perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'localhost-bin.000023'  -o '/data/t.sql' -u 'recovery' -p '123456'
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
[root@localhost mysql3306]# 

再查看输出文件:

[root@localhost mysql3306]# cat /data/t.sql 
UPDATE `test`.`user` SET `id`=2, `name`='user2', `age`=30 WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='user2' AND `age`=20;
UPDATE `xuanzhi`.`tb1` SET `id`=1, `name`='aa' WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='MySQL';
INSERT INTO `test`.`user` SET `id`=1, `name`='user1', `age`=20;
INSERT INTO `xuanzhi`.`tb1` SET `id`=2, `name`='bb';
DELETE FROM `test`.`user` WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='user2' AND `age`=30;
DELETE FROM `test`.`user` WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='user1' AND `age`=20;
DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb1` WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='bb';
DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb1` WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='aa';

[root@localhost mysql3306]# 

可以看到生成了反向的UPDATE语句:

UPDATE `test`.`user` SET `id`=2, `name`='user2', `age`=30 WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='user2' AND `age`=20;
UPDATE `xuanzhi`.`tb1` SET `id`=1, `name`='aa' WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='MySQL';

 

下面进行指定库的反向解析,参数为(-d)

[root@localhost mysql3306]# perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'localhost-bin.000023'  -o '/data/t.sql' -u 'recovery' -p '123456' -d 'xuanzhi'
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
[root@localhost mysql3306]# cat /data/t.sql
UPDATE `xuanzhi`.`tb1` SET `id`=1, `name`='aa' WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='MySQL';
INSERT INTO `xuanzhi`.`tb1` SET `id`=2, `name`='bb';
DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb1` WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='bb';
DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb1` WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='aa';

[root@localhost mysql3306]# 

可以看到输入的文件只含xuanzhi库的所有DML的反向SQL。

 

下面进行指定库下某个表的反向解析,参数为:-T (为了看到效果在xuanzhi库下的tb2表删除一些记录):

<Test>[xuanzhi]> select * from tb2;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | aa   |
|    2 | bb   |
|    3 | cc   |
+------+------+
3 rows in set (0.04 sec)

<Test>[xuanzhi]> delete from xuanzhi.tb2 where id <2;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

<Test>[xuanzhi]> 

这个时候应该如果只指定xuanzhi库,那么tb1和tb2的DML操作的反向操作都会记录下来:

[root@localhost mysql3306]# perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'localhost-bin.000023'  -o '/data/t.sql' -u 'recovery' -p '123456' -d 'xuanzhi'
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
[root@localhost mysql3306]# cat /data/t.sql
INSERT INTO `xuanzhi`.`tb2` SET `id`=1, `name`='aa';
UPDATE `xuanzhi`.`tb1` SET `id`=1, `name`='aa' WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='MySQL';
INSERT INTO `xuanzhi`.`tb1` SET `id`=2, `name`='bb';
DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb1` WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='bb';
DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb1` WHERE `id`=1 AND `name`='aa';

[root@localhost mysql3306]# 

指定单个表tb2:

[root@localhost mysql3306]# perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'localhost-bin.000023'  -o '/data/t.sql' -u 'recovery' -p '123456' -d 'xuanzhi' -T 'tb2'
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
[root@localhost mysql3306]# cat /data/t.sql
INSERT INTO `xuanzhi`.`tb2` SET `id`=1, `name`='aa';

[root@localhost mysql3306]# 

因为上面删除了一条tb2的数据,所有这个文件就对应生成一条tb2的INSERT记录


下面进行POS点生成反向SQL:(--start-position=  --stop-position=)

# at 1557
#160308  4:27:23 server id 1283306  end_log_pos 1632 CRC32 0xb67ef6ba   Query   thread_id=11    exec_time=0     error_code=0
SET TIMESTAMP=1457382443/*!*/;
BEGIN
/*!*/;
# at 1632
#160308  4:27:23 server id 1283306  end_log_pos 1683 CRC32 0x219a127c   Table_map: `test`.`user` mapped to number 74
# at 1683
#160308  4:27:23 server id 1283306  end_log_pos 1749 CRC32 0xf5e0d39e   Update_rows: table id 74 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
K+TdVhPqlBMAMwAAAJMGAAAAAEoAAAAAAAEABHRlc3QABHVzZXIAAwP+AwL+Hgd8Epoh
K+TdVh/qlBMAQgAAANUGAAAAAEoAAAAAAAEAAgAD///4AgAAAAV1c2VyMh4AAAD4AgAAAAV1c2Vy
MhQAAACe0+D1
'/*!*/;
### UPDATE `test`.`user`
### WHERE
###   @1=2
###   @2='user2'
###   @3=30
### SET
###   @1=2
###   @2='user2'
###   @3=20
# at 1749
#160308  4:27:23 server id 1283306  end_log_pos 1780 CRC32 0x1e62cb77   Xid = 101
COMMIT/*!*/;
# at 1780
#160308  4:40:32 server id 1283306  end_log_pos 1855 CRC32 0x04dfe1f0   Query   thread_id=11    exec_time=1     error_code=0
SET TIMESTAMP=1457383232/*!*/;
BEGIN
/*!*/;
# at 1855
#160308  4:40:32 server id 1283306  end_log_pos 1907 CRC32 0x897ae6bd   Table_map: `xuanzhi`.`tb2` mapped to number 70
# at 1907
#160308  4:40:32 server id 1283306  end_log_pos 1950 CRC32 0xea61aff0   Delete_rows: table id 70 flags: STMT_END_F

BINLOG '
QOfdVhPqlBMANAAAAHMHAAAAAEYAAAAAAAEAB3h1YW56aGkAA3RiMgACA/4C/goDveZ6iQ==
QOfdViDqlBMAKwAAAJ4HAAAAAEYAAAAAAAEAAgAC//wBAAAAAmFh8K9h6g==
'/*!*/;
### DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb2`
### WHERE
###   @1=1
###   @2='aa'
# at 1950
#160308  4:40:32 server id 1283306  end_log_pos 1981 CRC32 0x49e1ce9c   Xid = 113
COMMIT/*!*/;
View Code

从上面的binlog可以看到开始的--start-position=1557 结束的--stop-position=1981,这一段binlog里做了UPDATE `test`.`user` ... 和 DELETE FROM `xuanzhi`.`tb2` ... 的操作,那么用binlog-rollback.pl应该会生成一个UPDATE和一个INSERT语句

[root@localhost mysql3306]# perl binlog-rollback.pl -f 'localhost-bin.000023'  -o '/data/t.sql' -u 'recovery' -p '123456' --start-position=1557  --stop-position=1981
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
[root@localhost mysql3306]# cat /data/t.sql
INSERT INTO `xuanzhi`.`tb2` SET `id`=1, `name`='aa';
UPDATE `test`.`user` SET `id`=2, `name`='user2', `age`=30 WHERE `id`=2 AND `name`='user2' AND `age`=20;

[root@localhost mysql3306]# 

更多的测试,就看同学们了,有测试不当的地方请告诉我,大家一起学习。

 

 

总结: 一、感谢那些有分享精神的大神们,让我们学到了更多的东西,但开源的脚本需要多测试。

         二、误操的情况,时有发生,所以我们要做好备份,做好一些数据恢复的测试。

         三、该脚本在处理比较在的binlog时,会经常出现些小问题

 

 

 

作者:陆炫志

出处:xuanzhi的博客 http://www.cnblogs.com/xuanzhi201111

您的支持是对博主最大的鼓励,感谢您的认真阅读。本文版权归作者所有,欢迎转载,但请保留该声明。

 

posted @ 2016-03-16 16:58  GoogSQL  阅读(3957)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报