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重新想象 Windows 8 Store Apps (67) - 后台任务: 推送通知



作者:webabcd


介绍
重新想象 Windows 8 Store Apps 之 后台任务

  • 推送通知



示例
1、客户端
BackgroundTask/PushNotification.xaml

<Page
    x:Class="XamlDemo.BackgroundTask.PushNotification"
    xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
    xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
    xmlns:local="using:XamlDemo.BackgroundTask"
    xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
    xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
    mc:Ignorable="d">

    <Grid Background="Transparent">
        <StackPanel Margin="120 0 0 0">
            
            <TextBlock Name="lblMsg" FontSize="14.667" TextWrapping="Wrap" />
            
            <Button Name="btnCreateChannel" Content="create the channel" Margin="0 10 0 0" Click="btnCreateChannel_Click" />
            
            <TextBox Name="txtUri" Margin="0 10 10 0" />
            
            <Image Source="wns.png" Margin="0 10 0 0" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Width="800" />
            
        </StackPanel>
    </Grid>
</Page>

BackgroundTask/PushNotification.xaml.cs

/*
 * 演示如何接收推送通知
 * 
 * 注:
 * 需要在 Package.appxmanifest 中增加后台任务声明,并勾选“推送通知”
 * 在 win8 商店创建了应用后,需要将此 app 的商店中的 identity 复制到 Package.appxmanifest 的 identity 节点
 * 不能在模拟器中运行
 * 每次新建的 channel 有效期为 30 天
 * 
 * 另:
 * WNS - Windows Push Notification Service
 * 推送通知的服务端参见:WebServer/PushNotification 内的文件
 */

using System;
using Windows.ApplicationModel.Background;
using Windows.Networking.PushNotifications;
using Windows.UI.Notifications;
using Windows.UI.Popups;
using Windows.UI.Xaml;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Controls;

namespace XamlDemo.BackgroundTask
{
    public sealed partial class PushNotification : Page
    {
        public PushNotification()
        {
            this.InitializeComponent();
        }

        private async void btnCreateChannel_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            // 当收到推送的 raw 通知时,如果 app 在锁屏,则可以触发后台任务以执行相关的逻辑(PushNotificationTrigger)
            BackgroundAccessStatus status = BackgroundExecutionManager.GetAccessStatus();
            if (status == BackgroundAccessStatus.Unspecified)
            {
                status = await BackgroundExecutionManager.RequestAccessAsync();
            }
            if (status == BackgroundAccessStatus.Denied)
            {
                await new MessageDialog("请先将此 app 添加到锁屏").ShowAsync();
                return;
            }

            // 创建一个推送通知信道,每个新建的 channel 有效期为 30 天,所以建议每次进入 app 后都重新建一个 channel(但是需要注意间隔较短的话,则会复用之前的 channel)
            PushNotificationChannel channel = await PushNotificationChannelManager.CreatePushNotificationChannelForApplicationAsync();
            // 接收到通知后所触发的事件
            channel.PushNotificationReceived += channel_PushNotificationReceived;

            // channel.Close(); // 关闭 channel
            // channel.ExpirationTime; // channel 的过期时间,此时间过后 channel 则失效

            // channel 的 uri 地址,服务端通过此 uri 向此 app 推送通知
            txtUri.Text = channel.Uri.ToString();
        }

        void channel_PushNotificationReceived(PushNotificationChannel sender, PushNotificationReceivedEventArgs args)
        {
            switch (args.NotificationType)
            {
                case PushNotificationType.Badge: // badge 通知
                    BadgeUpdateManager.CreateBadgeUpdaterForApplication().Update(args.BadgeNotification);
                    break;
                case PushNotificationType.Raw: // raw 通知
                    // 当收到推送的 raw 通知时,如果 app 在锁屏,则可以触发后台任务以执行相关的逻辑(PushNotificationTrigger)
                    string msg = args.RawNotification.Content;
                    break;
                case PushNotificationType.Tile: // tile 通知
                    TileUpdateManager.CreateTileUpdaterForApplication().Update(args.TileNotification);
                    break;
                case PushNotificationType.Toast: // toast 通知
                    ToastNotificationManager.CreateToastNotifier().Show(args.ToastNotification);
                    break;
                default:
                    break;
            }

            args.Cancel = true;            
        }
    }
}

Package.appxmanifest

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Package xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/appx/2010/manifest">
  <!--以下借用“贪吃的蛇”的 Identity,以便演示推送通知-->
  <!--Identity Name="10437webabcd.173815756DD78" Publisher="CN=27514DEC-C708-4EDB-BFEA-F956384483D0" Version="1.0.0.0" /-->
  <Identity Name="webabcd.win8.XamlDemo" Publisher="CN=wanglei" Version="1.0.0.0" />
</Package>


2、服务端
WebServer/PushNotification/OAuthToken.cs

/*
 * 用于反序列化从 https://login.live.com/accesstoken.srf 获取到的结果
 */

using System.Runtime.Serialization;

namespace WebServer.PushNotification
{
    [DataContract]
    public class OAuthToken
    {
        [DataMember(Name = "access_token")]
        public string AccessToken { get; set; }
        [DataMember(Name = "token_type")]
        public string TokenType { get; set; }
    }
}

WebServer/PushNotification/OAuthHelper.cs

/*
 * https://login.live.com/accesstoken.srf 的 OAuth 验证的帮助类
 */

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Net;
using System.Runtime.Serialization.Json;
using System.Text;

namespace WebServer.PushNotification
{
    public class OAuthHelper
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 获取 https://login.live.com/accesstoken.srf 的 OAuth 验证的 access-token
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="secret">在 win8 商店创建 app 后获取到的 “客户端密钥”</param>
        /// <param name="sid">在 win8 商店创建 app 后获取到的 “程序包安全标识符(SID)”</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public OAuthToken GetAccessToken(string secret, string sid) 
        {
            var urlEncodedSecret = UrlEncode(secret);
            var urlEncodedSid = UrlEncode(sid);
            var body = String.Format("grant_type=client_credentials&client_id={0}&client_secret={1}&scope=notify.windows.com",
                                     urlEncodedSid,
                                     urlEncodedSecret);

            string response;
            using (WebClient client = new WebClient())
            {
                client.Headers.Add("Content-Type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
                response = client.UploadString("https://login.live.com/accesstoken.srf", body);
            }
            return GetOAuthTokenFromJson(response);
        }

        private OAuthToken GetOAuthTokenFromJson(string jsonString) 
        {
            using (var ms = new MemoryStream(Encoding.Unicode.GetBytes(jsonString)))
            {
                var ser = new DataContractJsonSerializer(typeof(OAuthToken));
                var oAuthToken = (OAuthToken)ser.ReadObject(ms);
                return oAuthToken;
            }
        }

        private static string UrlEncode(string str)
        {
            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
            byte[] byStr = System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(str);
            for (int i = 0; i < byStr.Length; i++)
            {
                sb.Append(@"%" + Convert.ToString(byStr[i], 16));
            }

            return (sb.ToString());
        }
    }
}

WebServer/PushNotification/Push.aspx.cs

/*
 * 演示如何向 app 推送通知
 * 
 * 注:
 * 关于推送通知服务请求和响应头的详细说明参见:http://msdn.microsoft.com/zh-cn/library/windows/apps/hh465435.aspx
 */

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Net;
using System.Text;

namespace WebServer.PushNotification
{
    public partial class Push : System.Web.UI.Page
    {
        protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            // 向某个 app 推送通知的 channel 地址
            string notifyUrl = "https://sin.notify.windows.com/?token=AgYAAABQnraWSMQXRveiofxSXGKMHaPB84FLMhFa3D6TQZRHzRSPeByl%2f1O%2frPAcc3ipjpT2cQXfivh589zEV8AOYkR%2fLwXoT2esZnC3hS%2fN7q94ZzJFLnpQsDsYNolFiEAhbHQ%3d";

            // 在 win8 商店创建 app 后获取到的 “程序包安全标识符(SID)”
            string sid = "ms-app://s-1-15-2-1530173461-470787880-3155417234-2904423500-2475821181-4070965884-3773336209";
            // 在 win8 商店创建 app 后获取到的 “客户端密钥”
            string secret = "bs08Acs1RG7jB7pkGVMh8EmGKCG3pH+3";

            OAuthHelper oAuth = new OAuthHelper();
            OAuthToken token = oAuth.GetAccessToken(secret, sid);

            try
            {
                HttpWebRequest myRequest = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(notifyUrl);

                // toast, tile, badge 为 text/xml; raw 为 application/octet-stream
                myRequest.ContentType = "text/xml";
                // 推送消息的类型:wns/toast | wns/badge | wns/tile | wns/raw
                myRequest.Headers.Add("X-WNS-Type", "wns/toast");
                // 设置 access-token
                myRequest.Headers.Add("Authorization", String.Format("Bearer {0}", token.AccessToken));

                // 注:app 通过 toast 激活后可以通过 OnLaunched() 中的 args.Arguments 来获取此处 launch 指定的值
                string toastMessage = "<toast launch='param'><visual version='1'><binding template='ToastText01'><text id='1'>推送通知:" + DateTime.Now.ToString("mm:ss") + "</text></binding></visual></toast>";
                byte[] buffer = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(toastMessage);

                myRequest.ContentLength = buffer.Length;
                myRequest.Method = "POST";

                using (Stream stream = myRequest.GetRequestStream())
                {
                    stream.Write(buffer, 0, buffer.Length);
                }

                using (HttpWebResponse webResponse = (HttpWebResponse)myRequest.GetResponse())
                {
                    /*
                     * 响应代码说明
                     *     200 - OK,WNS 已接收到通知
                     *     400 - 错误的请求
                     *     401 - 未授权,token 可能无效
                     *     403 - 已禁止,manifest 中的 identity 可能不对
                     *     404 - 未找到
                     *     405 - 方法不允许
                     *     406 - 无法接受
                     *     410 - 不存在,信道不存在或过期
                     *     413 - 请求实体太大,限制为 5000 字节
                     *     500 - 内部服务器错误
                     *     503 - 服务不可用
                     */
                    Response.Write(webResponse.StatusCode.ToString()); //如果成功应该是返回 200 ok
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Response.Write(ex.ToString());
            }
        }
    }
}



OK
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