MVC5 + EF6 简单示例

  本文所使用的软件及环境:

  说明:

  1. EFEntity Framework,以下简称EF6)框架下,操作数据的方式有三种:Database First, Model First, 以及 Code First,本文基于Code First创建。更多关于EF6请参考 http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/data/ef.aspx;
  2. 本文是基于MVC5创建,更多关于其说明与使用请参考 http://www.asp.net/mvc;
  3. LocalDB:
    • LocalDBSQL Server Express数据库引擎的轻量级版本,其非常易于安装、配置、以命令行启动并运行在user model.
    • LocalDB以一种SQL Server Express特殊的执行模型运行,从而使得你能够以.mdf文件的方式来操作数据库。如果你想使得数据库具有随项目迁移的能力,你可以把LocalDB数据库文件放在web项目的App_Data文件夹下。
    • SQL Server Express中虽然你能够通过使用用户示例功能来达到操作.mdf文件的目的,但是这种做法是不推荐的,相反,LocalDB是被推荐的方式。在Visual Studio 2012及随后的版本中,LocalDBVisual Studio一起默认安装的。
    • 通常来说SQL Server Express并不会被用于Web应用程序的生产环境,同样地,LocalDB由于其并不是针对IIS而设计的也不被推荐使用于生产环境。

 

一、创建基于MVC Web Application

  在正式开始之前,先看一下VS 2013的启动界面,是不是有点冷酷的感觉

  好了,言归正传,首先按如下截图创建

   创建完成后,我们对网站的风格做些微调,以便能契合应用主题

  Views\Shared\_Layout.cshtml 做如下更改(请看黄色高亮部分)

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8" />
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
    <title>@ViewBag.Title - Contact</title>
    @Styles.Render("~/Content/css")
    @Scripts.Render("~/bundles/modernizr")
</head>
<body>
    <div class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-fixed-top">
        <div class="container">
            <div class="navbar-header">
                <button type="button" class="navbar-toggle" data-toggle="collapse" data-target=".navbar-collapse">
                    <span class="icon-bar"></span>
                    <span class="icon-bar"></span>
                    <span class="icon-bar"></span>
                </button>
                @Html.ActionLink("Contact", "Index", "Home", null, new { @class = "navbar-brand" })
            </div>
            <div class="navbar-collapse collapse">
                <ul class="nav navbar-nav">
                    <li>@Html.ActionLink("Home", "Index", "Home")</li>
                    <li>@Html.ActionLink("About", "About", "Home")</li>
                    <li>@Html.ActionLink("Contacts", "Index", "Contact")</li>
                    <li>@Html.ActionLink("Groups", "Index", "Group")</li>
                </ul>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="container body-content">
        @RenderBody()
        <hr />
        <footer>
            <p>&copy; @DateTime.Now.Year - Contact</p>
        </footer>
    </div>

    @Scripts.Render("~/bundles/jquery")
    @Scripts.Render("~/bundles/bootstrap")
    @RenderSection("scripts", required: false)
</body>
</html>

  Views\Home\Index.cshtml 替换成如下内容

@{
    ViewBag.Title = "Home Page";
}

<div class="jumbotron">
    <h1>Contact</h1>
</div>
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-md-4">
        <h2>Welcome to Contact</h2>
        <p>
            Contact is a sample application that
            demonstrates how to use Entity Framework 6 in an
            ASP.NET MVC 5 web application.
        </p>
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-4">
        <h2>Build it from scratch</h2>
        <p>You can build the application by following the steps in the tutorial series on the following site.</p>
        <p><a class="btn btn-default" href="http://www.cnblogs.com/panchunting/p/creating-an-entity-framework-data-model-for-an-asp-net-mvc-application.html">See the tutorial &raquo;</a></p>
    </div>
</div>

  运行看一下效果吧

安装EF6

创建数据模型

Models文件夹下,分别创建Contact.cs、Enrollment.cs、Group.cs三个类

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;

namespace PCT.Contact.Models
{
    public class Contact
    {
        public int ID { get; set; }
        public string Name { get; set; }
        public DateTime EnrollmentDate { get; set; }
        public virtual ICollection<Enrollment> Enrollments { get; set; }
    }
}
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;

namespace PCT.Contact.Models
{
    public class Enrollment
    {
        public int EnrollmentID { get; set; }
        public int ContactID { get; set; }
        public int GroupID { get; set; }
        public virtual Contact Contact { get; set; }
        public virtual Group Group { get; set; }
    }
}
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;

namespace PCT.Contact.Models
{
    public enum GroupName
    {
        Friend, Family, Colleague, Schoolmate, Stranger
    }

    public class Group
    {
        public int GroupID { get; set; }
        public GroupName? GroupName { get; set; }
        public virtual ICollection<Enrollment> Enrollments { get; set; }
    }
}

 

  PS:发现VS 2013有一个自动提示reference,是不是很方便啊

创建Database Context

  PCT.Contact项目下新建文件夹DAL(Data Access Layer,继而继续新建CommunicationContext.cs

 

  悲剧啊,由于类Contact和项目名称Contact重复,不得不写全称啊,以后注意。

  继续在DAL目录下创建CommunicationInitializer.cs

 

  为了通知EF使用你创建的initializer class,在项目的web.config中添加entityFramework节点 

  <entityFramework>
    <contexts>
      <context type="PCT.Contact.DAL.CommunicationContext, PCT.Contact">
        <databaseInitializer type="PCT.Contact.DAL.CommunicationInitializer, PCT.Contact" />
      </context>
    </contexts>
    <defaultConnectionFactory type="System.Data.Entity.Infrastructure.SqlConnectionFactory, EntityFramework" />
    <providers>
      <provider invariantName="System.Data.SqlClient" type="System.Data.Entity.SqlServer.SqlProviderServices, EntityFramework.SqlServer" />
    </providers>
  </entityFramework>

设置EF使用SQL Server Express LocalDB database

  在项目web.config中添加connectionstrings(在appSettings之上)

  <connectionStrings>
    <add name="CommunicationContext" connectionString="Data Source=(LocalDb)\v11.0;Initial Catalog=ContactCommunication;Integrated Security=SSPI;" providerName="System.Data.SqlClient"/>
  </connectionStrings>
  
  <appSettings>
    <add key="webpages:Version" value="3.0.0.0" />
    <add key="webpages:Enabled" value="false" />
    <add key="ClientValidationEnabled" value="true" />
    <add key="UnobtrusiveJavaScriptEnabled" value="true" />
  </appSettings>

创建Contact的控制器和视图

  

运行结果

查看LocalDB

posted @ 2013-12-12 18:05  舍长  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏