机器学习第4章训练模型

1. 生成图片并保存
from __future__ import division, print_function, unicode_literals
import numpy as np
import matplotlib as mpl
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import os
np.random.seed(42)

mpl.rc('axes', labelsize=14)
mpl.rc('xtick', labelsize=12)
mpl.rc('ytick', labelsize=12)

# Where to save the figures
PROJECT_ROOT_DIR = "images"
CHAPTER_ID = "traininglinearmodels"

def save_fig(fig_id, tight_layout=True):
path = os.path.join(PROJECT_ROOT_DIR, CHAPTER_ID, fig_id + ".png")
print("Saving figure", fig_id)
if tight_layout:
plt.tight_layout()
plt.savefig(path, format='png', dpi=600)


线性回归

1. 生成一些线性数据来测试这个公式（标准方程）

import numpy as np
X = 2 * np.random.rand(100, 1)
y = 4 + 3 * X + np.random.randn(100, 1)

plt.plot(X, y, "b.")
plt.xlabel("$x_1$", fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)
plt.axis([0, 2, 0, 15])
#save_fig("generated_data_plot")


2. 使用NumPy的线性代数模块（np.linalg）中的inv（）函数来对矩阵求逆，并用dot（）方法计算矩阵的内积：

X_b = np.c_[np.ones((100, 1)), X]  # add x0 = 1 to each instance
theta_best = np.linalg.inv(X_b.T.dot(X_b)).dot(X_b.T).dot(y)
#print(theta_best)

3. 可以用*做出预测：

X_new = np.array([[0], [2]])
X_new_b = np.c_[np.ones((2, 1)), X_new]  # add x0 = 1 to each instance
y_predict = X_new_b.dot(theta_best)
#print(y_predict)

#绘制模型的预测结果
plt.plot(X_new, y_predict, "r-")
plt.plot(X, y, "b.")
plt.axis([0, 2, 0, 15])
plt.plot(X_new, y_predict, "r-", linewidth=2, label="Predictions")
plt.plot(X, y, "b.")
plt.xlabel("$x_1$", fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)
plt.legend(loc="upper left", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([0, 2, 0, 15])
#save_fig("linear_model_predictions")
#plt.show()

4. Scikit-Learn的等效代码如下所示

from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
lin_reg = LinearRegression()
lin_reg.fit(X, y)
print(lin_reg.intercept_, lin_reg.coef_)
print(lin_reg.predict(X_new))
theta_best_svd, residuals, rank, s = np.linalg.lstsq(X_b, y, rcond=1e-6)
print(theta_best_svd)
print(np.linalg.pinv(X_b).dot(y))


梯度下降

1. 批量梯度下降:3个公式，这个算法的快速实现：

eta = 0.1
n_iterations = 1000
m = 100
theta = np.random.randn(2,1)

for iteration in range(n_iterations):
gradients = 2/m * X_b.T.dot(X_b.dot(theta) - y)
theta = theta - eta * gradients
#print(theta)
#print(X_new_b.dot(theta))

2. 分别使用三种不同的学习率时，梯度下降的前十步:

theta_path_bgd = []
m = len(X_b)
plt.plot(X, y, "b.")
n_iterations = 1000
for iteration in range(n_iterations):
if iteration < 10:
y_predict = X_new_b.dot(theta)
style = "b-" if iteration > 0 else "r--"
plt.plot(X_new, y_predict, style)
gradients = 2/m * X_b.T.dot(X_b.dot(theta) - y)
theta = theta - eta * gradients
if theta_path is not None:
theta_path.append(theta)
plt.xlabel("$x_1$", fontsize=18)
plt.axis([0, 2, 0, 15])
plt.title(r"$\eta = {}$".format(eta), fontsize=16)

np.random.seed(42)
theta = np.random.randn(2,1)  # random initialization
plt.figure(figsize=(10,4))
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)
#plt.show()

3. 下面这段代码使用了一个简单的学习计划实现随机梯度下降：

theta_path_sgd = []
m = len(X_b)
np.random.seed(42)

n_epochs = 50
t0, t1 = 5, 50  # learning schedule hyperparameters

def learning_schedule(t):
return t0 / (t + t1)

theta = np.random.randn(2,1)  # random initialization

for epoch in range(n_epochs):
for i in range(m):
if epoch == 0 and i < 20:                    # not shown in the book
y_predict = X_new_b.dot(theta)           # not shown
style = "b-" if i > 0 else "r--"         # not shown
plt.plot(X_new, y_predict, style)        # not shown
random_index = np.random.randint(m)
xi = X_b[random_index:random_index+1]
yi = y[random_index:random_index+1]
gradients = 2 * xi.T.dot(xi.dot(theta) - yi)
eta = learning_schedule(epoch * m + i)
theta = theta - eta * gradients
theta_path_sgd.append(theta)                 # not shown

plt.plot(X, y, "b.")                                 # not shown
plt.xlabel("$x_1$", fontsize=18)                     # not shown
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)           # not shown
plt.axis([0, 2, 0, 15])                              # not shown
#save_fig("sgd_plot")                                 # not shown
#plt.show()

from sklearn.linear_model import SGDRegressor
sgd_reg = SGDRegressor(n_iter=50, penalty=None, eta0=0.1)
sgd_reg.fit(X, y.ravel())
print(sgd_reg.intercept_, sgd_reg.coef_)

4. 小批量梯度下降

theta_path_bgd = []
theta_path_sgd = []
theta_path_mgd = []
m = 100
n_iterations = 50
minibatch_size = 20

np.random.seed(42)
theta = np.random.randn(2,1)  # random initialization

t0, t1 = 200, 1000
def learning_schedule(t):
return t0 / (t + t1)

t = 0
for epoch in range(n_iterations):
shuffled_indices = np.random.permutation(m)
X_b_shuffled = X_b[shuffled_indices]
y_shuffled = y[shuffled_indices]
for i in range(0, m, minibatch_size):
t += 1
xi = X_b_shuffled[i:i+minibatch_size]
yi = y_shuffled[i:i+minibatch_size]
gradients = 2/minibatch_size * xi.T.dot(xi.dot(theta) - yi)
eta = learning_schedule(t)
theta = theta - eta * gradients
theta_path_mgd.append(theta)

theta_path_bgd = np.array(theta_path_bgd)
theta_path_sgd = np.array(theta_path_sgd)
theta_path_mgd = np.array(theta_path_mgd)

plt.figure(figsize=(7,4))
plt.plot(theta_path_sgd[:, 0], theta_path_sgd[:, 1], "r-s", linewidth=1, label="Stochastic")
plt.plot(theta_path_mgd[:, 0], theta_path_mgd[:, 1], "g-+", linewidth=2, label="Mini-batch")
plt.plot(theta_path_bgd[:, 0], theta_path_bgd[:, 1], "b-o", linewidth=3, label="Batch")
plt.legend(loc="upper left", fontsize=16)
plt.xlabel(r"$\theta_0$", fontsize=20)
plt.ylabel(r"$\theta_1$   ", fontsize=20, rotation=0)
plt.axis([2.5, 4.5, 2.3, 3.9])
plt.show()


多项式回归

1. 基于简单的二次方程（注：二次方程的形式为y=ax2+bx+c）制造一些非线性数据（添加随机噪声)

import numpy as np
import numpy.random as rnd
np.random.seed(42)

m = 100
X = 6 * np.random.rand(m, 1) - 3
y = 0.5 * X**2 + X + 2 + np.random.randn(m, 1)

plt.plot(X, y, "b.")
plt.xlabel("$x_1$", fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)
plt.axis([-3, 3, 0, 10])
plt.show()

2. 使用Scikit-Learn的PolynomialFeatures类来对训练数据进行转换

from sklearn.preprocessing import PolynomialFeatures
poly_features = PolynomialFeatures(degree=2, include_bias=False)
X_poly = poly_features.fit_transform(X)
#print(X[0])
#print(X_poly[0])

3. 对这个扩展后的训练集匹配一个LinearRegression模型

from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
lin_reg = LinearRegression()
lin_reg.fit(X_poly, y)
#print(lin_reg.intercept_, lin_reg.coef_)

X_new=np.linspace(-3, 3, 100).reshape(100, 1)
X_new_poly = poly_features.transform(X_new)
y_new = lin_reg.predict(X_new_poly)
plt.plot(X, y, "b.")
plt.plot(X_new, y_new, "r-", linewidth=2, label="Predictions")
plt.xlabel("$x_1$", fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)
plt.legend(loc="upper left", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([-3, 3, 0, 10])
#plt.show()


学习曲线

1. 高阶多项式回归

from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from sklearn.pipeline import Pipeline

for style, width, degree in (("g-", 1, 300), ("b--", 2, 2), ("r-+", 2, 1)):
polybig_features = PolynomialFeatures(degree=degree, include_bias=False)
std_scaler = StandardScaler()
lin_reg = LinearRegression()
polynomial_regression = Pipeline([
("poly_features", polybig_features),
("std_scaler", std_scaler),
("lin_reg", lin_reg),
])
polynomial_regression.fit(X, y)
y_newbig = polynomial_regression.predict(X_new)
plt.plot(X_new, y_newbig, style, label=str(degree), linewidth=width)

plt.plot(X, y, "b.", linewidth=3)
plt.legend(loc="upper left")
plt.xlabel("$x_1$", fontsize=18)
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)
plt.axis([-3, 3, 0, 10])
#save_fig("high_degree_polynomials_plot(高阶多项式回归)")
#plt.show()

2. 纯线性回归模型学习曲线

from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

def plot_learning_curves(model, X, y):
X_train, X_val, y_train, y_val = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=10)
train_errors, val_errors = [], []
for m in range(1, len(X_train)):
model.fit(X_train[:m], y_train[:m])
y_train_predict = model.predict(X_train[:m])
y_val_predict = model.predict(X_val)
train_errors.append(mean_squared_error(y_train[:m], y_train_predict))
val_errors.append(mean_squared_error(y_val, y_val_predict))

plt.plot(np.sqrt(train_errors), "r-+", linewidth=2, label="train")
plt.plot(np.sqrt(val_errors), "b-", linewidth=3, label="val")
plt.legend(loc="upper right", fontsize=14)   # not shown in the book
plt.xlabel("Training set size", fontsize=14) # not shown
plt.ylabel("RMSE", fontsize=14)              # not shown
'''
'''
lin_reg = LinearRegression()
plot_learning_curves(lin_reg, X, y)
plt.axis([0, 80, 0, 3])                         # not shown in the book
#save_fig("underfitting_learning_curves_plot(学习曲线)")   # not shown
#plt.show()                                      # not shown

3. 多项式回归模型的学习曲线 10阶

polynomial_regression = Pipeline([
("poly_features", PolynomialFeatures(degree=10, include_bias=False)),
("lin_reg", LinearRegression()),
])

plot_learning_curves(polynomial_regression, X, y)
plt.axis([0, 80, 0, 3])           # not shown
save_fig("learning_curves_plot(多项式回归模型的学习曲线)")  # not shown
plt.show()


正则线性模型

1. 岭回归（也叫作吉洪诺夫正则化）是线性回归的正则化版

from sklearn.linear_model import Ridge

np.random.seed(42)
m = 20
X = 3 * np.random.rand(m, 1)
y = 1 + 0.5 * X + np.random.randn(m, 1) / 1.5
X_new = np.linspace(0, 3, 100).reshape(100, 1)

def plot_model(model_class, polynomial, alphas, **model_kargs):
for alpha, style in zip(alphas, ("b-", "g--", "r:")):
model = model_class(alpha, **model_kargs) if alpha > 0 else LinearRegression()
if polynomial:
model = Pipeline([
("poly_features", PolynomialFeatures(degree=10, include_bias=False)),
("std_scaler", StandardScaler()),
("regul_reg", model),
])
model.fit(X, y)
y_new_regul = model.predict(X_new)
lw = 2 if alpha > 0 else 1
plt.plot(X_new, y_new_regul, style, linewidth=lw, label=r"$\alpha = {}$".format(alpha))
plt.plot(X, y, "b.", linewidth=3)
plt.legend(loc="upper left", fontsize=15)
plt.xlabel("$x_1$", fontsize=18)
plt.axis([0, 3, 0, 4])

plt.figure(figsize=(8,4))
plt.subplot(121)
plot_model(Ridge, polynomial=False, alphas=(0, 10, 100), random_state=42)
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)
plt.subplot(122)
plot_model(Ridge, polynomial=True, alphas=(0, 10**-5, 1), random_state=42)

save_fig("ridge_regression_plot(岭回归)")
plt.show()

2. 使用Scikit-Learn执行闭式解的岭回归

from sklearn.linear_model import Ridge
ridge_reg = Ridge(alpha=1, solver="cholesky", random_state=42)
ridge_reg.fit(X, y)
ridge_reg.predict([[1.5]])

ridge_reg = Ridge(alpha=1, solver="sag", random_state=42)
ridge_reg.fit(X, y)
ridge_reg.predict([[1.5]])

#使用随机梯度下降
from sklearn.linear_model import SGDRegressor
sgd_reg = SGDRegressor(max_iter=50, tol=-np.infty, penalty="l2", random_state=42)
sgd_reg.fit(X, y.ravel())
sgd_reg.predict([[1.5]])

3. 套索回归、Lasso回归.线性回归的另一种正则化，叫作最小绝对收缩和选择算子回归（Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator Regression，简称Lasso回归，或套索回归）。

from sklearn.linear_model import Lasso

plt.figure(figsize=(8,4))
plt.subplot(121)
plot_model(Lasso, polynomial=False, alphas=(0, 0.1, 1), random_state=42)
plt.ylabel("$y$", rotation=0, fontsize=18)
plt.subplot(122)
plot_model(Lasso, polynomial=True, alphas=(0, 10**-7, 1), tol=1, random_state=42)
#save_fig("lasso_regression_plot(套索回归Lasso回归)")
#plt.show()

4. 使用Scikit-Learn的Lasso类的小例子。

from sklearn.linear_model import ElasticNet
elastic_net = ElasticNet(alpha=0.1, l1_ratio=0.5, random_state=42)
elastic_net.fit(X, y)
#print(elastic_net.predict([[1.5]]))

5. 弹性网络，使用Scikit-Learn的ElasticNet的小例子

from sklearn.linear_model import ElasticNet
elastic_net = ElasticNet(alpha=0.1, l1_ratio=0.5, random_state=42)
elastic_net.fit(X, y)
#print(elastic_net.predict([[1.5]]))

6. 早期停止法

from sklearn.linear_model import SGDRegressor
np.random.seed(42)
m = 100
X = 6 * np.random.rand(m, 1) - 3
y = 2 + X + 0.5 * X**2 + np.random.randn(m, 1)

X_train, X_val, y_train, y_val = train_test_split(X[:50], y[:50].ravel(), test_size=0.5, random_state=10)

poly_scaler = Pipeline([
("poly_features", PolynomialFeatures(degree=90, include_bias=False)),
("std_scaler", StandardScaler()),
])

X_train_poly_scaled = poly_scaler.fit_transform(X_train)
X_val_poly_scaled = poly_scaler.transform(X_val)

sgd_reg = SGDRegressor(max_iter=1,
tol=-np.infty,
penalty=None,
eta0=0.0005,
warm_start=True,
learning_rate="constant",
random_state=42)

n_epochs = 500
train_errors, val_errors = [], []
for epoch in range(n_epochs):
sgd_reg.fit(X_train_poly_scaled, y_train)
y_train_predict = sgd_reg.predict(X_train_poly_scaled)
y_val_predict = sgd_reg.predict(X_val_poly_scaled)
train_errors.append(mean_squared_error(y_train, y_train_predict))
val_errors.append(mean_squared_error(y_val, y_val_predict))

best_epoch = np.argmin(val_errors)
best_val_rmse = np.sqrt(val_errors[best_epoch])

plt.annotate('Best model',
xy=(best_epoch, best_val_rmse),
xytext=(best_epoch, best_val_rmse + 1),
ha="center",
arrowprops=dict(facecolor='black', shrink=0.05),
fontsize=16,
)

best_val_rmse -= 0.03  # just to make the graph look better
plt.plot([0, n_epochs], [best_val_rmse, best_val_rmse], "k:", linewidth=2)
plt.plot(np.sqrt(val_errors), "b-", linewidth=3, label="Validation set")
plt.plot(np.sqrt(train_errors), "r--", linewidth=2, label="Training set")
plt.legend(loc="upper right", fontsize=14)
plt.xlabel("Epoch", fontsize=14)
plt.ylabel("RMSE", fontsize=14)
save_fig("early_stopping_plot(早期停止法)")
plt.show()

7. Lasso回归与岭回归

t1a, t1b, t2a, t2b = -1, 3, -1.5, 1.5

# ignoring bias term
t1s = np.linspace(t1a, t1b, 500)
t2s = np.linspace(t2a, t2b, 500)
t1, t2 = np.meshgrid(t1s, t2s)
T = np.c_[t1.ravel(), t2.ravel()]
Xr = np.array([[-1, 1], [-0.3, -1], [1, 0.1]])
yr = 2 * Xr[:, :1] + 0.5 * Xr[:, 1:]

J = (1/len(Xr) * np.sum((T.dot(Xr.T) - yr.T)**2, axis=1)).reshape(t1.shape)

N1 = np.linalg.norm(T, ord=1, axis=1).reshape(t1.shape)
N2 = np.linalg.norm(T, ord=2, axis=1).reshape(t1.shape)

t_min_idx = np.unravel_index(np.argmin(J), J.shape)
t1_min, t2_min = t1[t_min_idx], t2[t_min_idx]

t_init = np.array([[0.25], [-1]])

def bgd_path(theta, X, y, l1, l2, core = 1, eta = 0.1, n_iterations = 50):
path = [theta]
for iteration in range(n_iterations):
gradients = core * 2/len(X) * X.T.dot(X.dot(theta) - y) + l1 * np.sign(theta) + 2 * l2 * theta

theta = theta - eta * gradients
path.append(theta)
return np.array(path)

plt.figure(figsize=(12, 8))
for i, N, l1, l2, title in ((0, N1, 0.5, 0, "Lasso"), (1, N2, 0,  0.1, "Ridge")):
JR = J + l1 * N1 + l2 * N2**2

tr_min_idx = np.unravel_index(np.argmin(JR), JR.shape)
t1r_min, t2r_min = t1[tr_min_idx], t2[tr_min_idx]

levelsJ=(np.exp(np.linspace(0, 1, 20)) - 1) * (np.max(J) - np.min(J)) + np.min(J)
levelsJR=(np.exp(np.linspace(0, 1, 20)) - 1) * (np.max(JR) - np.min(JR)) + np.min(JR)
levelsN=np.linspace(0, np.max(N), 10)

path_J = bgd_path(t_init, Xr, yr, l1=0, l2=0)
path_JR = bgd_path(t_init, Xr, yr, l1, l2)
path_N = bgd_path(t_init, Xr, yr, np.sign(l1)/3, np.sign(l2), core=0)

plt.subplot(221 + i * 2)
plt.grid(True)
plt.axhline(y=0, color='k')
plt.axvline(x=0, color='k')
plt.contourf(t1, t2, J, levels=levelsJ, alpha=0.9)
plt.contour(t1, t2, N, levels=levelsN)
plt.plot(path_J[:, 0], path_J[:, 1], "w-o")
plt.plot(path_N[:, 0], path_N[:, 1], "y-^")
plt.plot(t1_min, t2_min, "rs")
plt.title(r"$\ell_{}$ penalty".format(i + 1), fontsize=16)
plt.axis([t1a, t1b, t2a, t2b])
if i == 1:
plt.xlabel(r"$\theta_1$", fontsize=20)
plt.ylabel(r"$\theta_2$", fontsize=20, rotation=0)

plt.subplot(222 + i * 2)
plt.grid(True)
plt.axhline(y=0, color='k')
plt.axvline(x=0, color='k')
plt.contourf(t1, t2, JR, levels=levelsJR, alpha=0.9)
plt.plot(path_JR[:, 0], path_JR[:, 1], "w-o")
plt.plot(t1r_min, t2r_min, "rs")
plt.title(title, fontsize=16)
plt.axis([t1a, t1b, t2a, t2b])
if i == 1:
plt.xlabel(r"$\theta_1$", fontsize=20)

save_fig("lasso_vs_ridge_plot")
plt.show()

8. 逻辑回归

#逻辑函数
t = np.linspace(-10, 10, 100)
sig = 1 / (1 + np.exp(-t))
plt.figure(figsize=(9, 3))
plt.plot([-10, 10], [0, 0], "k-")
plt.plot([-10, 10], [0.5, 0.5], "k:")
plt.plot([-10, 10], [1, 1], "k:")
plt.plot([0, 0], [-1.1, 1.1], "k-")
plt.plot(t, sig, "b-", linewidth=2, label=r"$\sigma(t) = \frac{1}{1 + e^{-t}}$")
plt.xlabel("t")
plt.legend(loc="upper left", fontsize=20)
plt.axis([-10, 10, -0.1, 1.1])
save_fig("logistic_function_plot")
plt.show()

9. 决策边界

#创建一个分类器来检测Virginica鸢尾花。
from sklearn import datasets
list(iris.keys())
#print(list(iris.keys()))
#print(iris.DESCR)

X = iris["data"][:, 3:]  # petal width
y = (iris["target"] == 2).astype(np.int)  # 1 if Iris-Virginica, else 0

10. 训练逻辑回归模型

from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression
log_reg = LogisticRegression(solver="liblinear", random_state=42)
log_reg.fit(X, y)

#精简版
X_new = np.linspace(0, 3, 1000).reshape(-1, 1)
y_proba = log_reg.predict_proba(X_new)

plt.plot(X_new, y_proba[:, 1], "g-", linewidth=2, label="Iris-Virginica")
plt.plot(X_new, y_proba[:, 0], "b--", linewidth=2, label="Not Iris-Virginica")
plt.show()

#完整版
X_new = np.linspace(0, 3, 1000).reshape(-1, 1)
y_proba = log_reg.predict_proba(X_new)
decision_boundary = X_new[y_proba[:, 1] >= 0.5][0]

plt.figure(figsize=(8, 3))
plt.plot(X[y==0], y[y==0], "bs")
plt.plot(X[y==1], y[y==1], "g^")
plt.plot([decision_boundary, decision_boundary], [-1, 2], "k:", linewidth=2)
plt.plot(X_new, y_proba[:, 1], "g-", linewidth=2, label="Iris-Virginica")
plt.plot(X_new, y_proba[:, 0], "b--", linewidth=2, label="Not Iris-Virginica")
plt.text(decision_boundary+0.02, 0.15, "Decision  boundary", fontsize=14, color="k", ha="center")
plt.xlabel("Petal width (cm)", fontsize=14)
plt.ylabel("Probability", fontsize=14)
plt.legend(loc="center left", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([0, 3, -0.02, 1.02])
#save_fig("logistic_regression_plot(估算概率和决策边界)")
#plt.show()
print(decision_boundary)
print(log_reg.predict([[1.7], [1.5]]))

11. Softmax回归 多元逻辑回归

from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression

X = iris["data"][:, (2, 3)]  # petal length, petal width
y = (iris["target"] == 2).astype(np.int)

log_reg = LogisticRegression(solver="liblinear", C=10**10, random_state=42)
log_reg.fit(X, y)

x0, x1 = np.meshgrid(
np.linspace(2.9, 7, 500).reshape(-1, 1),
np.linspace(0.8, 2.7, 200).reshape(-1, 1),
)
X_new = np.c_[x0.ravel(), x1.ravel()]

y_proba = log_reg.predict_proba(X_new)

plt.figure(figsize=(10, 4))
plt.plot(X[y==0, 0], X[y==0, 1], "bs")
plt.plot(X[y==1, 0], X[y==1, 1], "g^")

zz = y_proba[:, 1].reshape(x0.shape)
contour = plt.contour(x0, x1, zz, cmap=plt.cm.brg)

left_right = np.array([2.9, 7])
boundary = -(log_reg.coef_[0][0] * left_right + log_reg.intercept_[0]) / log_reg.coef_[0][1]

plt.clabel(contour, inline=1, fontsize=12)
plt.plot(left_right, boundary, "k--", linewidth=3)
plt.text(3.5, 1.5, "Not Iris-Virginica", fontsize=14, color="b", ha="center")
plt.text(6.5, 2.3, "Iris-Virginica", fontsize=14, color="g", ha="center")
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.ylabel("Petal width", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([2.9, 7, 0.8, 2.7])
save_fig("logistic_regression_contour_plot")
plt.show()

X = iris["data"][:, (2, 3)]  # petal length, petal width
y = iris["target"]

softmax_reg = LogisticRegression(multi_class="multinomial",solver="lbfgs", C=10, random_state=42)
softmax_reg.fit(X, y)

x0, x1 = np.meshgrid(
np.linspace(0, 8, 500).reshape(-1, 1),
np.linspace(0, 3.5, 200).reshape(-1, 1),
)
X_new = np.c_[x0.ravel(), x1.ravel()]

y_proba = softmax_reg.predict_proba(X_new)
y_predict = softmax_reg.predict(X_new)

zz1 = y_proba[:, 1].reshape(x0.shape)
zz = y_predict.reshape(x0.shape)

plt.figure(figsize=(10, 4))
plt.plot(X[y==2, 0], X[y==2, 1], "g^", label="Iris-Virginica")
plt.plot(X[y==1, 0], X[y==1, 1], "bs", label="Iris-Versicolor")
plt.plot(X[y==0, 0], X[y==0, 1], "yo", label="Iris-Setosa")

from matplotlib.colors import ListedColormap
custom_cmap = ListedColormap(['#fafab0','#9898ff','#a0faa0'])

plt.contourf(x0, x1, zz, cmap=custom_cmap)
contour = plt.contour(x0, x1, zz1, cmap=plt.cm.brg)
plt.clabel(contour, inline=1, fontsize=12)
plt.xlabel("Petal length", fontsize=14)
plt.ylabel("Petal width", fontsize=14)
plt.legend(loc="center left", fontsize=14)
plt.axis([0, 7, 0, 3.5])
save_fig("softmax_regression_contour_plot")
plt.show()

print(softmax_reg.predict([[5, 2]]))
print(softmax_reg.predict_proba([[5, 2]]))

posted @ 2020-03-27 16:59  吻雪  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏