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桦山涧
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[STAThread]的含义

Posted on 2007-07-07 10:06 桦林 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

[STAThread]
STAThread:Single     Thread     Apartment Thread.(单一线程单元线程)
[]是用来表示Attributes;

[STAThread]
是一种线程模型,用在程序的入口方法上(在C#和VB.NET里是Main()方法),来指定当前线程的ApartmentState 是STA。用在其他方法上不产生影响。在aspx页面上可以使用AspCompat = "true" 来达到同样的效果。这个属性只在  Com  Interop  有用,如果全部是  managed  code  则无用。简单的说法:[STAThread]指示应用程序的默认线程模型是单线程单元 (STA)。启动线程模型可设置为单线程单元或多线程单元。如果未对其进行设置,则该线程不被初始化。也就是说如果你用的.NET Framework,并且没有使用COM Interop,一般不需要这个Attribute。其它的还有MTA(多线程套间)、Free  Thread(自由线程)。

[STAThread] attribute指示应用程序的 COM 线程模型是单线程单元。
而于此对应的多线程单元则是 [MTAThread] (多线程单元线程)

COM 线程模型只适用于使用 COM interop 的应用程序。如果将此属性应用到不使用 COM interop 的应用程序,将没有任何效果。

COM 线程模型可设置为单线程单元或多线程单元。如果应用程序线程实际调用了 COM 组件,则仅为 COM interop 初始化该线程。如果没有使用 COM interop,则不初始化该线程。

以下是找到的一个资料介绍:
Q. When I create a c# project from scratch in VS.NET, the generated code always have a [STAThread] attribute above the main routine. What does the STAThread attribute really do? Can I change it to MTAThread instead? I have searched website and books, no one seems to explain this well.

Asked by anon. Answered by the Wonk on February 17, 2003

A.

The STAThreadAttribute marks a thread to use the Single-Threaded COM Apartment if COM is needed. By default, .NET won't initialize COM at all. It's only when COM is needed, like when a COM object or COM Control is created or when drag 'n' drop is needed, that COM is initialized. When that happens, .NET calls the underlying CoInitializeEx function, which takes a flag indicating whether to join the thread to a multi-threaded or single-threaded apartment.

A multi-threaded apartment (MTA) in COM is more efficient, since any of a number of RPC threads from a pool can be used to handle a request. However, an object on the MTA thread needs to protect itself from multiple threads accessing it at the same time, so that efficiency comes at a cost.

The single-thread apartment (STA) in COM is inherently single-threaded and therefore no additional thread synchronization is needed. The STA is implemented using the thread's Windows message queue, which is how requests to objects on an STA are serialized. Because of how the STA thread is implemented, calls to objects on that thread are serialized with Windows message handling on that thread, making sure that everything, both the COM objects and the underlying windowing objects, e.g. HWNDs, are all synchronized. This is necessary for UI-oriented COM objects, like controls and drag 'n' drop, which must also be synchronized together with the UI.

When COM is needed .NET will call CoInitializeEx, picking the MTA by default because it's more efficient. However, to get the synchronization needed for controls, windows and drag 'n' drop, you need to mark a thread's entry point with the STAThreadAttribute to let .NET know to initialize the UI thread on the STA. All of the VS.NET project templates put that attribute in to make sure you don't forget:
大致意思是:由于很多COM在.NET环境下如果使用多线程的话,会导致引用的COM不能正常运行,而如果不声明程序为STAThread的话,.NET就会自动使用多线程来提高效率,这样就会导致不可预知的后果。




以下引用另一同辈的发言:http://blog.csdn.net/qilang/archive/2006/06/06/775605.aspx
STA不是单线程的意思.英文为single threaded apartment.是一种套间(或译为公寓)线程模式.

sta thread并不表明应用程式的类型,和应用程序不搭界,恰相反,一个应用程序可以有多个线程.每个线程也可以有多个组件或对象.以前win16位系统的组件线程模式才真正是单线程.这是一种被淘汰了的模式.
线程模式用于处理组件在多线程的环境里并行与并互的方式.比如套间线程(STAThread)模式中接口跨线程传递必须被调度(Marshal),不调度直传肯定会失败!而MTA或FreeThread模式中的接口可以不经调度直接传递.
这种调度在特定的环境中非常影响性能(可有几百倍之差).如VB里只支持STAThread模式.FreeThread模式的组件会在里面表现成和跨进程一样慢!
线程模式是微软的COM基础中的极其重要的概念.一定要吃透!
我对.net真是一窍不通(没空去弄,对不起微软去年的奖赏).但我可以肯定,C#中的[STAThread]属性是应用程序的套间初始化代码.可以直接理解成SDK里的
CoInitialize(NULL); 
初始一个STA套间实际上是相当于开了一个消息窗口,所有调用经此窗口过程调度到组件内.
同理[MTAThread](不知有没有这个属性,自已去查)
可以理解成
CoInitializeEx(NULL,COINIT_MULTITHREADED )
这经常是一个对初入com大门的人来说,有一定难度但必须过的一道关.