Qt 学习笔记 - 第三章 - Qt的三驾马车之一 - 串口编程 + 程序打包成Windows软件

Qt 学习笔记全系列传送门:

1、创建项目

实现串口助手

  • 创建 Qt Widgets Application 项目 seial

  • 基类选择 Widget

2、UI

  • UI设计

    1. 接收框组件,在分类 Input Widgets 中,Plain Text Edit 组件(QPlainTextEdit),双击可以编辑选项,置顶项为默认选择属性,勾选组件的只读属性 readOnly
    2. 属性选择,在分类 Input Widgets 中,Combo Box 组件(QComboBox)
    3. 发送框,在分类在 Input Widgets 中,Line Edit 组件(QLineEdit)
    4. 信息框,写个广告之类的可以使用,在分类 中,Group Box 组件(QGroupBox)
    5. 控件改名
  • UI代码展示

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <ui version="4.0">
     <class>Widget</class>
     <widget class="QWidget" name="Widget">
      <property name="geometry">
       <rect>
        <x>0</x>
        <y>0</y>
        <width>800</width>
        <height>480</height>
       </rect>
      </property>
      <property name="windowTitle">
       <string>Widget</string>
      </property>
      <widget class="QWidget" name="layoutWidget">
       <property name="geometry">
        <rect>
         <x>31</x>
         <y>31</y>
         <width>737</width>
         <height>385</height>
        </rect>
       </property>
       <layout class="QGridLayout" name="gridLayout_3">
        <item row="0" column="0">
         <widget class="QPlainTextEdit" name="recvEdit">
          <property name="readOnly">
           <bool>true</bool>
          </property>
         </widget>
        </item>
        <item row="1" column="0">
         <spacer name="verticalSpacer">
          <property name="orientation">
           <enum>Qt::Vertical</enum>
          </property>
          <property name="sizeHint" stdset="0">
           <size>
            <width>20</width>
            <height>40</height>
           </size>
          </property>
         </spacer>
        </item>
        <item row="2" column="0">
         <layout class="QGridLayout" name="gridLayout_2">
          <item row="0" column="0">
           <layout class="QGridLayout" name="gridLayout">
            <item row="0" column="0">
             <widget class="QLabel" name="label_2">
              <property name="text">
               <string>波特率</string>
              </property>
             </widget>
            </item>
            <item row="0" column="1">
             <widget class="QComboBox" name="baundrateCb">
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>4800</string>
               </property>
              </item>
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>9600</string>
               </property>
              </item>
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>115200</string>
               </property>
              </item>
             </widget>
            </item>
            <item row="1" column="0">
             <widget class="QLabel" name="label">
              <property name="text">
               <string>串口号</string>
              </property>
             </widget>
            </item>
            <item row="1" column="1">
             <widget class="QComboBox" name="serialCb"/>
            </item>
            <item row="2" column="0">
             <widget class="QLabel" name="label_5">
              <property name="text">
               <string>数据位</string>
              </property>
             </widget>
            </item>
            <item row="2" column="1">
             <widget class="QComboBox" name="dataCb">
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>5</string>
               </property>
              </item>
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>6</string>
               </property>
              </item>
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>7</string>
               </property>
              </item>
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>8</string>
               </property>
              </item>
             </widget>
            </item>
            <item row="3" column="0">
             <widget class="QLabel" name="label_4">
              <property name="text">
               <string>停止位</string>
              </property>
             </widget>
            </item>
            <item row="3" column="1">
             <widget class="QComboBox" name="stopCb">
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>1</string>
               </property>
              </item>
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>1.5</string>
               </property>
              </item>
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>2</string>
               </property>
              </item>
             </widget>
            </item>
            <item row="4" column="0">
             <widget class="QLabel" name="label_3">
              <property name="text">
               <string>校验位</string>
              </property>
             </widget>
            </item>
            <item row="4" column="1">
             <widget class="QComboBox" name="checkCb">
              <item>
               <property name="text">
                <string>none</string>
               </property>
              </item>
             </widget>
            </item>
           </layout>
          </item>
          <item row="0" column="1">
           <spacer name="horizontalSpacer_4">
            <property name="orientation">
             <enum>Qt::Horizontal</enum>
            </property>
            <property name="sizeHint" stdset="0">
             <size>
              <width>40</width>
              <height>20</height>
             </size>
            </property>
           </spacer>
          </item>
          <item row="0" column="2">
           <layout class="QVBoxLayout" name="verticalLayout_2">
            <item>
             <widget class="QGroupBox" name="groupBox">
              <property name="title">
               <string>欢迎使用,这是一个信息框</string>
              </property>
              <widget class="QLabel" name="label_6">
               <property name="geometry">
                <rect>
                 <x>120</x>
                 <y>30</y>
                 <width>161</width>
                 <height>21</height>
                </rect>
               </property>
               <property name="text">
                <string>demo info...</string>
               </property>
              </widget>
             </widget>
            </item>
            <item>
             <widget class="QLineEdit" name="sendEdit"/>
            </item>
            <item>
             <layout class="QHBoxLayout" name="horizontalLayout_6">
              <item>
               <widget class="QPushButton" name="openBt">
                <property name="text">
                 <string>打开串口</string>
                </property>
               </widget>
              </item>
              <item>
               <spacer name="horizontalSpacer">
                <property name="orientation">
                 <enum>Qt::Horizontal</enum>
                </property>
                <property name="sizeHint" stdset="0">
                 <size>
                  <width>40</width>
                  <height>20</height>
                 </size>
                </property>
               </spacer>
              </item>
              <item>
               <widget class="QPushButton" name="closeBt">
                <property name="text">
                 <string>关闭串口</string>
                </property>
               </widget>
              </item>
              <item>
               <spacer name="horizontalSpacer_2">
                <property name="orientation">
                 <enum>Qt::Horizontal</enum>
                </property>
                <property name="sizeHint" stdset="0">
                 <size>
                  <width>40</width>
                  <height>20</height>
                 </size>
                </property>
               </spacer>
              </item>
              <item>
               <widget class="QPushButton" name="sendBt">
                <property name="text">
                 <string>发送</string>
                </property>
               </widget>
              </item>
              <item>
               <spacer name="horizontalSpacer_3">
                <property name="orientation">
                 <enum>Qt::Horizontal</enum>
                </property>
                <property name="sizeHint" stdset="0">
                 <size>
                  <width>40</width>
                  <height>20</height>
                 </size>
                </property>
               </spacer>
              </item>
              <item>
               <widget class="QPushButton" name="clearBt">
                <property name="text">
                 <string>清空</string>
                </property>
               </widget>
              </item>
             </layout>
            </item>
           </layout>
          </item>
         </layout>
        </item>
       </layout>
      </widget>
     </widget>
     <layoutdefault spacing="6" margin="11"/>
     <resources/>
     <connections/>
    </ui>
    

3、逻辑功能

  1. 在工程文件中引入serialport

    QT       += core gui serialport
    
  2. 获取串口信息并展示到页面上,在目前 UI 对应的 cpp 的构造中进行

    说明:需要连接单片机才能显示串口号

    Widget::Widget(QWidget *parent) :
        QWidget(parent),
        ui(new Ui::Widget)
    {
        ui->setupUi(this);
        QStringList serialNamePorts;
    
        // QSerialPort 是串口信息类,用于存放串口信息
        // QSerialPortInfo::availablePorts() 自动搜索可用串口,返回串口信息类对象的数组
        foreach (const QSerialPortInfo &info, QSerialPortInfo::availablePorts()) {
    
            // 将得到的串口信息的串口号加入到 QStringList 中
            serialNamePorts<<info.portName();
        }
    
        // 将可用串口的列表显示到页面的下拉框中
        ui->serialCb->addItems(serialNamePorts);
    }
    
  3. 其他控件的逻辑功能

    • 点击打开串口时对串口进行初始化

      • 对串口的声明和创建

        • 头文件

          #ifndef WIDGET_H
          #define WIDGET_H
          
          #include <QWidget>
          #include <QSerialPort>
          
          namespace Ui {
          class Widget;
          }
          
          class Widget : public QWidget
          {
              Q_OBJECT
          
          public:
              explicit Widget(QWidget *parent = 0);
              ~Widget();
              // 声明QSerialPort *serialPort
              QSerialPort *serialPort;
          
          private slots:
              void on_openBt_clicked();
          
              void on_closeBt_clicked();
          
              void on_sendBt_clicked();
              
              void on_clearBt_clicked();
              
          private:
              Ui::Widget *ui;
          };
          
          #endif // WIDGET_H
          
          
        • Cpp文件

          #include "widget.h"
          #include "ui_widget.h"
          #include <QSerialPortInfo>
          #include <QMessageBox>
          
          Widget::Widget(QWidget *parent) :
              QWidget(parent),
              ui(new Ui::Widget)
          {
              ui->setupUi(this);
              // ...
          
              serialPort = new QSerialPort(this);
          
              // ... 
          }
          
          Widget::~Widget()
          {
              delete serialPort;
              delete ui;
          }
          
      • 打开按钮单击信号的槽函数

        // 点击打开串口时将数据设置进串口并打开串口
        void Widget::on_openBt_clicked()
        {
            QSerialPort::BaudRate baudReat;
            QSerialPort::DataBits dataBits;
            QSerialPort::StopBits stopBits;
            QSerialPort::Parity checkBits;
        
            // 获取界面上的值
            switch(ui->baundrateCb->currentText().toInt()) {
            case QSerialPort::Baud4800:
                baudReat = QSerialPort::Baud4800;
                break;
            case QSerialPort::Baud9600:
                baudReat = QSerialPort::Baud9600;
                break;
            case QSerialPort::Baud115200:
                baudReat = QSerialPort::Baud115200;
                break;
            }
        
            switch(ui->dataCb->currentText().toInt()) {
            case QSerialPort::Data5:
                dataBits = QSerialPort::Data5;
                break;
            case QSerialPort::Data6:
                dataBits = QSerialPort::Data6;
                break;
            case QSerialPort::Data7:
                dataBits = QSerialPort::Data7;
                break;
            case QSerialPort::Data8:
                dataBits = QSerialPort::Data8;
                break;
            }
        
            int stopTmp = ui->stopCb->currentText().toInt();
            if (stopTmp == QSerialPort::OneStop) {
                stopBits = QSerialPort::OneStop;
            } else if (stopTmp == QSerialPort::OneAndHalfStop) {
                stopBits = QSerialPort::OneAndHalfStop;
            } else if (stopTmp == QSerialPort::TwoStop) {
                stopBits = QSerialPort::TwoStop;
            }
        
            if (ui->checkCb->currentText() == "none") {
                checkBits = QSerialPort::NoParity;
            }
        
            // 使用获取到的数据设置串口
            serialPort->setPortName(ui->serialCb->currentText());
            serialPort->setBaudRate(baudReat);
            serialPort->setDataBits(dataBits);
            serialPort->setStopBits(stopBits);
            serialPort->setParity(checkBits);
        
            // 打开串口,需要先判断串口是否打开成功
            if (serialPort->open(QIODevice::ReadWrite) == true) {
                QMessageBox::information(this, "提示", "success!");
            } else {
                QMessageBox::critical(this, "提示", "failed!");
            }
        }
        
      • 关闭按钮单击信号槽函数

        void Widget::on_closeBt_clicked()
        {
            serialPort->close();
        }
        
      • 发送按钮单击信号槽函数

        void Widget::on_sendBt_clicked()
        {
            // 将UI发送的QString转换为char* 类型,写入到serialPort
            serialPort->write(ui->sendEdit->text().toLocal8Bit().data());
        }
        
      • 串口有东西可读时,在接收框中进行展示

        • 定义槽函数,在头文件中

          #ifndef WIDGET_H
          #define WIDGET_H
          
          #include <QWidget>
          #include <QSerialPort>
          
          namespace Ui {
          class Widget;
          }
          
          class Widget : public QWidget
          {
              Q_OBJECT
          
          // ...
          
          private slots:
          	// ...
              // 定义串口有东西可读时触发的槽函数
              void serialPortReadyRead_Slot();
          
          // ...
          };
          
          #endif // WIDGET_H
          
        • 手动绑定可读信号与槽函数,在构造中

          Widget::Widget(QWidget *parent) :
              QWidget(parent),
              ui(new Ui::Widget)
          {
              ui->setupUi(this);
              QStringList serialNamePorts;
          
              serialPort = new QSerialPort(this);
          
              // 手动关联读信号与自定义槽函数serialPortReadyRead_Slot(),串口有东西可读时触发槽函数
              connect(serialPort, SIGNAL(readyRead()), this, SLOT(serialPortReadyRead_Slot()));
          
          	// ...
          }
          
        • 实现槽函数

          // 串口有东西可读时产生信号,触发槽函数
          void Widget::serialPortReadyRead_Slot()
          {
              // 接收UI中输入框的数据
              QString buffer = QString(serialPort->readAll());
              // 将接收到的数据显示到UI的recvEdit中
              ui->recvEdit->appendPlainText(buffer);
          
          }
          
      • 清除按钮单击信号槽函数

        void Widget::on_clearBt_clicked()
        {
            ui->recvEdit->clear();
        }
        

4、程序打包和部署

  1. 切换到 Release 模式进行编译

    由于缺少动态库,打包好的程序暂时还无法运行

    • 导出文件位置:位于项目目录所在路径下,文件名以 Release 结尾,如:build-seial-Desktop_Qt_5_11_1_MinGW_32bit-Release

    • 图示:

      打包

  2. 为打包好的程序更换图标

    需要使用.ico格式的图片

    • 将图标拷贝到工程目录下

    • 在工程文件中添加如下代码,再重新编译即可

      RC_ICONS = serial_icon.ico
      
  3. 封包操作,需要用到 Qt 的控制台

    • 创建一个新的目录,用于存放封包好的文件,不能包含中文路径

    • 将打包好的.exe文件拷贝到新的目录下

    • 从控制台进入新目录中cd /d C:\xxx\xxx

      D:\Tools\Qt\Qt5.11.1\5.11.1\mingw53_32>cd /d C:\Users\Dandelion\Desktop\SerialTools
      
      C:\Users\Dandelion\Desktop\SerialTools>dir
       驱动器 C 中的卷是 OS
       卷的序列号是 EAE6-1E0A
      
       C:\Users\Dandelion\Desktop\SerialTools 的目录
      
      2023/03/10  02:22    <DIR>          .
      2023/03/10  02:20    <DIR>          ..
      2023/03/10  02:17            48,640 seial.exe
                     1 个文件         48,640 字节
                     2 个目录 63,272,501,248 可用字节
      
      C:\Users\Dandelion\Desktop\SerialTools>
      
    • 使用windeployqt工具将动态库加到当前目录下:windeployqt seial.exe

      C:\Users\Dandelion\Desktop\SerialTools>windeployqt seial.exe
      C:\Users\Dandelion\Desktop\SerialTools\seial.exe 32 bit, release executable
      Adding Qt5Svg for qsvgicon.dll
      Skipping plugin qtvirtualkeyboardplugin.dll due to disabled dependencies (Qt5Qml Qt5Quick).
      Direct dependencies: Qt5Core Qt5Gui Qt5SerialPort Qt5Widgets
      All dependencies   : Qt5Core Qt5Gui Qt5SerialPort Qt5Widgets
      To be deployed     : Qt5Core Qt5Gui Qt5SerialPort Qt5Svg Qt5Widgets
      Updating Qt5Core.dll.
      Updating Qt5Gui.dll.
      Updating Qt5SerialPort.dll.
      Updating Qt5Svg.dll.
      Updating Qt5Widgets.dll.
      Updating libGLESV2.dll.
      Updating libEGL.dll.
      Updating D3Dcompiler_47.dll.
      Updating opengl32sw.dll.
      Updating libgcc_s_dw2-1.dll.
      Updating libstdc++-6.dll.
      Updating libwinpthread-1.dll.
      Patching Qt5Core.dll...
      Creating directory C:/Users/Dandelion/Desktop/SerialTools/iconengines.
      Updating qsvgicon.dll.
      Creating directory C:/Users/Dandelion/Desktop/SerialTools/imageformats.
      Updating qgif.dll.
      Updating qicns.dll.
      Updating qico.dll.
      Updating qjpeg.dll.
      Updating qsvg.dll.
      Updating qtga.dll.
      Updating qtiff.dll.
      Updating qwbmp.dll.
      Updating qwebp.dll.
      Creating directory C:/Users/Dandelion/Desktop/SerialTools/platforms.
      Updating qwindows.dll.
      Creating directory C:/Users/Dandelion/Desktop/SerialTools/styles.
      Updating qwindowsvistastyle.dll.
      Creating C:\Users\Dandelion\Desktop\SerialTools\translations...
      Creating qt_ar.qm...
      Creating qt_bg.qm...
      Creating qt_ca.qm...
      Creating qt_cs.qm...
      Creating qt_da.qm...
      Creating qt_de.qm...
      Creating qt_en.qm...
      Creating qt_es.qm...
      Creating qt_fi.qm...
      Creating qt_fr.qm...
      Creating qt_gd.qm...
      Creating qt_he.qm...
      Creating qt_hu.qm...
      Creating qt_it.qm...
      Creating qt_ja.qm...
      Creating qt_ko.qm...
      Creating qt_lv.qm...
      Creating qt_pl.qm...
      Creating qt_ru.qm...
      Creating qt_sk.qm...
      Creating qt_uk.qm...
      
      C:\Users\Dandelion\Desktop\SerialTools>
      
posted @ 2023-03-10 02:37  Dandelion_000  阅读(271)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报