「数据采集」实验四

作业①

  • 要求:熟练掌握 scrapyItemPipeline 数据的序列化输出方法,使用Scrapy+Xpath+MySQL数据库存储技术路线爬取当当网站图书数据
  • 候选网站:http://www.dangdang.com/
  • 关键词:学生自由选择
  • 输出信息:
id title author publisher date price detail
1 Python算法图解 何韬 清华大学出版社 2021-04-01 ¥34.50 用到算法。数据结构是算法的基础,数组、字典、堆、栈、链表...
.. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Gitee链接 : 作业4-1

1.网页解析

  • 找到信息所处位置
  • xpath获取信息
    lis=selector.xpath("//li['@ddt-pit'][starts-with(@class,'line')]")
  • 定位

  • xpath获取信息
    title=li.xpath("./a[position()=1]/@title").extract_first()
    price = li.xpath("./p[@class='price']/span[@class='search_now_price']/text()").extract_first()
    author = li.xpath("./p[@class='search_book_author']/span[position()=1]/a/@title").extract_first()
    date = li.xpath("./p[@class='search_book_author']/span[position()=last()-1]/text()").extract_first()
    publisher = li.xpath("./p[@class='search_book_author']/span[position()=last()]/a/@title").extract_first()
    detail = li.xpath("./p[@class='detail']/text()").extract_first()

2.编写items.py中的数据项目类

class BookItem(scrapy.Item):
    # define the fields for your item here like:
    title = scrapy.Field()
    author=scrapy.Field()
    date=scrapy.Field()
    publisher=scrapy.Field()
    detail=scrapy.Field()
    price=scrapy.Field()

3.编写pipelines.py中的数据处理类

class BookPipeline(object):
    def open_spider(self,spider):
        print("opend")
        self.con = sqlite3.connect("books.db")
        self.cursor = self.con.cursor()
        try:
            try:
                self.cursor.execute("create table books(bTitle varchar(512),bAuthor varchar(256),bPublisher varchar(256),"
                                    "bDate varchar(32),bPrice varchar(16),bDetail varchar(256),"
                                    "constraint pk_books primary key (bTitle,bAuthor));")
            except:
                self.cursor.execute("delete from books")
            self.opened = True
            self.count = 1
        except Exception as err:
            print(err)
            self.opened = False

    def close_spider(self, spider):
        if self.opened:
            self.con.commit()
            self.con.close()
            self.opened=False
        print("closed")
        print("总共爬取",self.count,"本书籍")

    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        try:
            print(item["title"])
            print(item["author"])
            print(item["publisher"])
            print(item["date"])
            print(item["price"])
            print(item["detail"])
            print()
            if self.opened:
                self.cursor.execute("insert into books (bTitle,bAuthor,bPublisher,bDate,bPrice,bDetail) values (?,?,?,?,?,?)",
                                    (item["title"],item["author"],item["publisher"],item["date"],item["price"],item["detail"]))
                self.count+=1
        except Exception as err:
            print(err)
        return item

4.编写setting.py

BOT_NAME = 'bank'

SPIDER_MODULES = ['bank.spiders']
NEWSPIDER_MODULE = 'bank.spiders'
ITEM_PIPELINES = {'bank.pipelines.BankPipeline': 300,}

# Crawl responsibly by identifying yourself (and your website) on the user-agent
#USER_AGENT = 'bank (+http://www.yourdomain.com)'

# Obey robots.txt rules
ROBOTSTXT_OBEY = False

5.编写MySpider.py爬虫程序

class MySpider(scrapy.Spider):
    name = "mySpider"
    key = 'python'
    source_url='http://search.dangdang.com/'

    def start_requests(self):
        url = MySpider.source_url+"?key="+MySpider.key
        yield scrapy.Request(url=url,callback=self.parse)

    def parse(self, response):
        try:
            dammit = UnicodeDammit(response.body, ["utf-8", "gbk"])
            data = dammit.unicode_markup
            selector=scrapy.Selector(text=data)
            lis=selector.xpath("//li['@ddt-pit'][starts-with(@class,'line')]")
            for li in lis:
                title=li.xpath("./a[position()=1]/@title").extract_first()
                price = li.xpath("./p[@class='price']/span[@class='search_now_price']/text()").extract_first()
                author = li.xpath("./p[@class='search_book_author']/span[position()=1]/a/@title").extract_first()
                date = li.xpath("./p[@class='search_book_author']/span[position()=last()-1]/text()").extract_first()
                publisher = li.xpath("./p[@class='search_book_author']/span[position()=last()]/a/@title").extract_first()
                detail = li.xpath("./p[@class='detail']/text()").extract_first()
                #detail有时没有,结果None

                item=BookItem()
                item["title"]=title.strip() if title else ""
                item["author"]=author.strip() if author else ""
                item["date"] = date.strip()[1:] if date else ""
                item["publisher"] = publisher.strip() if publisher else ""
                item["price"] = price.strip() if price else ""
                item["detail"] = detail.strip() if detail else ""
                yield item

            #最后一页时link为None

            link=selector.xpath("//div[@class='paging']/ul[@name='Fy']/li[@class='next']/a/@href").extract_first()
            if link:
                url=response.urljoin(link)
                yield scrapy.Request(url=url, callback=self.parse)

        except Exception as err:
            print(err)

6.运行结果

  • 控制台输出
  • 数据库截图

7.心得体会

  • 本题为复现课本中代码,未遇到困难。

作业②

  • 要求:熟练掌握 scrapyItemPipeline 数据的序列化输出方法;使用scrapy框架+Xpath+MySQL数据库存储技术路线爬取外汇网站数据。
  • 候选网站:招商银行网:http://fx.cmbchina.com/hq/
  • 输出信息:MYSQL数据库存储和输出格式
id currency tsp csp tbp cbp time
1 港币 82.23 82.23 81.91 81.33 10:22:05
.. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Gitee链接:作业4-2

1.网页解析

  • xpath 获取信息
    currency = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[1]/text()').extract()
    tsp = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[4]/text()').extract()
    csp = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[5]/text()').extract()
    tbp = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[6]/text()').extract()
    cbp = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[7]/text()').extract()
    time = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[8]/text()').extract()

2.编写items.py中的数据项目类

class BankItem(scrapy.Item):
    # define the fields for your item here like:
    # name = scrapy.Field()
    id = scrapy.Field()
    currency = scrapy.Field()
    tsp = scrapy.Field()
    csp = scrapy.Field()
    tbp = scrapy.Field()
    cbp = scrapy.Field()
    time = scrapy.Field()

3.编写pipelines.py中的数据处理类

class BankPipeline:
    def open_spider(self, spider):
        print("opend")
        self.con = sqlite3.connect("bank.db")
        self.cursor = self.con.cursor()
        try:
            try:
                self.cursor.execute("create table bank (bId varchar(4),bCurrency varchar(16),bTsp varchar(8),bCsp varchar(8),bTbp varchar(8),"
                                    "bCbp varchar(8),bTime varchar(32),"constraint pk_bank primary key (bId,bCurrency));")
            except:
                self.cursor.execute("delete from bank")
            self.opened = True
            self.count = 1
        except Exception as err:
            print(err)
            self.opened = False

    def close_spider(self, spider):
        try:
            if self.opened:
                self.con.commit()
                self.con.close()
                self.opened = False
        except Exception as err:
            print(err)
        print("closed")
        print("总共爬取", self.count - 1, "项信息")

    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        try:
            print(self.count,item['currency'],item['tsp'],item['csp'],item['tbp'],item['cbp'], item['time'])
            if self.opened:
                self.cursor.execute("insert into bank (bId,bCurrency,bTsp,bCsp,bTbp,bCbp,bTime) values(?,?,?,?,?,?,?)",
                                    (self.count,item['currency'],item['tsp'],item['csp'],item['tbp'],item['cbp'], item['time']))
                self.count += 1
        except Exception as err:
            print(err)
        return item

4.编写MySpider.py爬虫程序

class MySpider(scrapy.Spider):
    # 继承Scrapy.Spider类
    name = "bankSpider"
    source_url = "http://fx.cmbchina.com/hq/"
    page = 0
    count = 1

    def start_requests(self):
        url = MySpider.source_url
        yield scrapy.Request(url=url, callback=self.parse)

    def parse(self, response):
        try:
            try:
                dammit = UnicodeDammit(response.body, ["utf-8", "gbk"])
                data = dammit.unicode_markup
            except Exception as err:
                print(err)
            selector = scrapy.Selector(text=data)
            currency = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[1]/text()').extract()
            tsp = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[4]/text('
                                 ')').extract()
            csp = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[5]/text('
                                 ')').extract()
            tbp = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[6]/text('
                                 ')').extract()
            cbp = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[7]/text('
                                 ')').extract()
            time = selector.xpath('//div[@id="realRateInfo"]//td[8]/text('
                                 ')').extract()
            for i in range(1,len(currency)):
                item = BankItem()
                item["currency"] = currency[i].strip() if currency[i] else ""
                item["tsp"] = tsp[i].strip() if tsp[i] else ""
                item["csp"] = csp[i].strip() if csp[i] else ""
                item["tbp"] = tbp[i].strip() if tbp[i] else ""
                item["cbp"] = cbp[i].strip() if cbp[i] else ""
                item["time"] = time[i].strip() if time[i] else ""
                yield item

            MySpider.page += 1
            print("MySpider.page:", MySpider.page)

        except Exception as err:
            print(err)

5.运行结果

  • 控制台输出
  • 数据库截图

6.心得体会

  • 对于Scrapy爬虫程序的框架使用逐渐熟练;
  • 本题未进行翻页爬取,难度较低,未遇到困难。

作业③

  • 要求:熟练掌握 Selenium查找HTML元素、爬取Ajax网页数据、等待HTML元素等内容;使用Selenium框架+ MySQL数据库存储技术路线爬取“沪深A股”、“上证A股”、“深证A股”3个板块的股票数据信息。
  • 候选网站:东方财富网
  • 输出信息:MySQL数据库存储和输出格式如下
序号 股票代码 股票名称 最新报价 涨跌幅 涨跌额 成交量 成交额 振幅 最高 最低 今开 昨收
1 688093 N世华 28.47 62.22% 10.92 26.13万 7.6亿 22.3% 32.0 28.08 30.2 17.55
2 ... ... ... ...

Gitee链接:作业4-3

1.网页解析

  • 板块切换

    lis = driver.find_elements(By.XPATH, '//div[@id="tab"]/ul/li')
    tab = lis[i].find_element(By.XPATH,'.//a')
    driver.execute_script("arguments[0].click();", tab)
  • 翻页

    time.sleep(3)
    input = driver.find_element(By.XPATH,//div[@class="dataTables_wrapper"]//input')
    input.clear()
    input.send_keys(页码)
    go = driver.find_element(By.XPATH,'//div[@class="dataTables_wrapper"]//a[@class="paginte_go"]')
    go.click()
  • 信息定位

2.数据库操作

class StocksDB:
    def openDB(self):
        
    def closeDB(self):

    def insert(self, tab,id, num, name, new, up, upprice, com, comprice, f, max,min,today,yes):
        

3.获取网页login()

def login():
    # 请求网页
    driver.get('http://quote.eastmoney.com/center/gridlist.html#hs_a_board')

4.拉动侧边滑动条

def drop_scroll():
    for x in range(1, 11, 2):
        time.sleep(0.5)
        # 代表滑动条位置
        j = x/10
        js = 'document.documentElement.scrollTop = document.documentElement.scrollHeight * %f' % j
        # 运行上面的js代码
        driver.execute_script(js)

5.获取信息get_info()

def get_info(tab):
    # 分析页面后,获取tr里面的数据
    trs = driver.find_elements(By.XPATH,'//tbody/tr')
    # 遍历每个tr,获取详细信息
    for tr in trs:
        # 获取序号
        id = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[1]').text
        # 获取股票代码
        num = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[2]/a').text
        # 获取股票名称
        name = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[3]/a').text
        # 获取最新价
        new  = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[5]/span').text
        # 获取涨跌幅
        up = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[6]/span').text
        # 获取涨跌额
        upprice = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[7]/span').text
        # 获取成交量
        com = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[8]').text
        # 获取成交额
        comprice = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[9]').text
        # 获取振幅
        f = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[10]').text
        # 获取最高
        max  = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[11]/span').text
        # 获取最低
        min = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[12]/span').text
        # 获取今开
        today  = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[13]/span').text
        # 获取昨收
        yes = tr.find_element(By.XPATH,'.//td[14]').text
        # 向数据库添加一条数据
        print(tab,id,num, name, new, up, upprice, com, comprice, f,max,min,
              today,yes)
        db.insert(tab,id, num, name, new, up, upprice, com, comprice, f, max,
                  min,today,yes)
        print(str(id) + ' has been inserted')

6.切换页面

def to_searchs():
    lis = driver.find_elements(By.XPATH,'//div[@id="tab"]/ul/li')
    # 爬取三个板块
    for i in range(3):
        time.sleep(3)
        lis = driver.find_elements(By.XPATH, '//div[@id="tab"]/ul/li')
        tab = lis[i].find_element(By.XPATH,'.//a')
        print(tab.text)
        text = tab.text
        driver.execute_script("arguments[0].click();", tab)
        # 每个版块爬取三页
        for i in range(3):
            # element is not attached to the page document
            time.sleep(3)
            #找到输入框
            input = driver.find_element(By.XPATH,'//div[@class="dataTables_wrapper"]//input')
            # 清空输入框
            input.clear()
            input.send_keys(i+1)
            # 找到确定按钮
            go = driver.find_element(By.XPATH,'//div[@class="dataTables_wrapper"]//a[@class="paginte_go"]')
            go.click()
            # 拉动侧边滑动条,使页面数据加载完全
            drop_scroll()
            # 获取信息
            get_info(text)

7.运行结果

  • 控制台输出
  • 数据库截图

8.心得体会

  • 通过本题熟悉了selenium框架的使用;
  • 在切换页面时会出现element is not attached to the page document的错误,原因是在刚进入新的页面时页面数据未加载完全,time.sleep(3)即可解决问题;
  • 在切换板块时若使用tab.click()会报错element click intercepted,改为driver.execute_script("arguments[0].click();", tab)
posted @ 2021-11-10 12:55  Sevennnn  阅读(41)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报