实验4 继承

实验任务2

task2.cpp

#include <iostream>
#include <typeinfo>

// definitation of Graph
class Graph
{
public:
    void draw() { std::cout << "Graph::draw() : just as an interface\n"; }
};


// definition of Rectangle, derived from Graph
class Rectangle : public Graph
{
public:
    void draw() { std::cout << "Rectangle::draw(): programs of draw a rectangle\n"; }
};


// definition of Circle, derived from Graph
class Circle : public Graph
{
public:
    void draw() { std::cout << "Circle::draw(): programs of draw a circle\n"; }
};


// definitaion of fun(): as a call interface
void fun(Graph *ptr)
{
    std::cout << "pointer type: " << typeid(ptr).name() << "\n";
    std::cout << "RTTI type: " << typeid(*ptr).name() << "\n";
    ptr -> draw();
}

// test 
int main()
{
    Graph g1;
    Rectangle r1;
    Circle c1;

    // call by object name
    g1.draw();
    r1.draw();
    c1.draw();

    std::cout << "\n";

    // call by object name, and using the scope resolution operator::
    r1.Graph::draw();
    c1.Graph::draw();

    std::cout << "\n";

    // call by pointer to Base class
    fun(&g1);
    fun(&r1);
    fun(&c1);
}

运行截图

微调代码后的运行截图

归纳总结

同名覆盖原则:

派生类与基类中有相同成员时,若未强行指名,则通过派生类对象使用的是派生类的同名成员;

如果要通过派生类的对象访问基类被覆盖的同名成员,需要加 对象名.基类名::同名成员 来限定

 

二元作用域分辨符:

用法是:类名::成员

 

类型兼容原则:

一个公有派生类的对象在使用上可以被当作基类的对象,反之则禁止。
具体表现在:
1.派生类的对象可以被赋值给基类对象。
2.派生类的对象可以初始化基类的引用。
3.基类的对象指针也可以指向派生类。但是如果派生类的指针想要指向基类,则必须要将基类对象的地址强转为派生类类型的。

实验任务3

battery.hpp

#ifndef _BATTERY_HPP_
#define _BATTERY_HPP_

class Battery
{
public:
    Battery(int cap = 70) : capacity{cap} {}
    int get_capacity() {return capacity;}
private:
    int capacity;
};

#endif

car.hpp

#ifndef _CAR_HPP_
#define _CAR_HPP_

#include <iostream>
#include <string>

using namespace std;

class Car
{
public:
    Car() = default;
    Car(string m, string md, int y) : maker{m}, model{md}, year{y}, odometers{0} {}
    void info();
    void update_odometers(int x);
private:
    string maker, model;
    int year, odometers;
};
void Car::info()
{
    cout << "maker:              " << maker << endl;
    cout << "model:              " << model << endl;
    cout << "year:               " << year << endl;
    cout << "odometers:          " << odometers << endl;
}
void Car::update_odometers(int x)
{
    if(x > odometers)
      odometers = x;
    else
      cout << "new odometers is less than now! please check before input" << endl;
}

#endif

electricCar.hpp

#ifndef _ELECTRICCAR_HPP_
#define _ELECTRICCAR_HPP_

#include "car.hpp"
#include "battery.hpp"
#include <string>

class ElectricCar : public Car
{
public:
    ElectricCar(string m, string md, int y, int b = 70) : Car(m, md, y), battery(b) {}
    void info();
private:
    Battery battery;
};
void ElectricCar::info()
{
    Car::info();
    cout << "capacity:           " << battery.get_capacity() << "-kWh" << endl;
}

#endif

 task3.cpp

#include <iostream>
#include "electricCar.hpp"

int main()
{
    using namespace std;

    // test class of Car
    Car oldcar1("Audi", "a4", 2016);
    oldcar1.update_odometers(25000);
    oldcar1.update_odometers(10000);
    cout << "--------oldcar's info--------" << endl;
    oldcar1.info();

    Car oldcar2("Audi", "A6 allroad quattro", 2021);
    oldcar2.update_odometers(100);
    cout << "--------oldcar's info--------" << endl;
    oldcar2.info();

    cout << endl;

    // test class of ElectricCar
    ElectricCar newcar1("Tesla", "model s", 2016);
    newcar1.update_odometers(2500);
    newcar1.update_odometers(10);
    cout << "\n--------newcar's info--------\n";
    newcar1.info();

    ElectricCar newcar2("ZEEKR", "001", 2021, 100);
    newcar2.update_odometers(2500);
    cout << "\n--------newcar's info--------\n";
    newcar2.info();
}

运行截图

实验任务4

pets.hpp

#ifndef _PETS_HPP_
#define _PETS_HPP_

#include <string>

using namespace std;

class MachinePets
{
public:
    MachinePets(const string s) : nickname{s} {}
    string get_nickname() const;
    virtual string talk() {return "";}
private:
    string nickname;
};
string MachinePets::get_nickname() const {return nickname;}

class PetCats : public MachinePets
{
public:
    PetCats(const string s) : MachinePets(s) {}
    string talk();
};
string PetCats::talk() {return "miao wu~";}

class PetDogs : public MachinePets
{
public:
    PetDogs(const string s) : MachinePets(s) {}
    string talk();
};
string PetDogs::talk() {return "wang wang~";}

#endif

task4.cpp

#include <iostream>
#include "pets.hpp"

void play(MachinePets *ptr)
{
    std::cout << ptr->get_nickname() << " says " << ptr->talk() << std::endl;
}

int main()
{
    PetCats cat("miku");
    PetDogs dog("da huang");

    play(&cat);
    play(&dog);
}

运行截图

posted @ 2021-11-25 20:54  Pommissarzhu  阅读(5)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报